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Acts xxiv. 14 : After the way which they call lieresy, so worship I the God of my fathers. 
believing all things wliich are written in tlie law and the prophets. 

Titus ii. 11, 12, 13, 14 : For the grace of God, that hringeth salvation, hath appeared to 
all men, teaching us, that denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, 
righteously, and godly, in this present world : looking for that blessed hope, and tlie 
glorious appearing of the gi-eat God and our Saviour Jesus Christ ; who gave himself 
for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar 
people, zealous of good works. 

I Thes. T. 21 : Prove all things, hold fast that wliich is good. 


No. 304 M U L B E R R Y STREET. 

Stereotyped by John Fagan. 







Robert Barclay, a servant of Jesus Christ, called of God to tne Dis- 
pensation of the Gospel, now again revealed, and, after a long and dark 
night of apostasy, commanded to be preached to all nations, wisheth 
health and salvation. 

As the condition of kings and princes puts them in a station more obvious 
to the view and observation of the world, than that of other men, of whom, 
as Cicero observes, neither any word or action can be obscure ; so are 
those kings, during whose appearance upon the stage of tliis world it 
pleaseth the Great King of kings singularly to make known unto men 
the wonderful steps of his unsearchable providence, more signally observed, 
and their lives and actions more diligently remarked, and enquired into by 
posterity ; especially if those things be such as not only relate to the out- 
ward transactions of this world, but also are signalized by the manifestation 
or revelation of the knowledge of God in matters spiritual and religious. 
These are the things that rendered the lives of Cyrus, Augustus Csssar, 
and Constantine the Great in former times, and of Charles the Fifth, and 
some other modern princes in these last ages, so considerable. 

But among all the transactions which it hath pleased God to permit, for 
the glory of his power, and the manifestation of his wisdom and provi- 
dence, no age furnisheth us with things so strange and marvellous, whether 
with respect to matters civil or religious, as these that have fallen on» 
within the compass of thy time ; who, thougli thou be not yet arrived at 
the fiftieth year of thy age, hast yet been a witness of stranger things than 
many ages before produced. So that whether we respect those various 
troubles wherein thou foundest thyself engaged while scarce got out of thy 



infancy ; the many dilTerenl alllictions wherewith men of thy circumstances 
are often unaci|naintc(l ; the strange and unparalleled fortune that befel thy 
father; thy own narrow escape, and banishment following thereupon, with 
the great improbability of thy ever returning, at least without very much 
pains and tedious combatings; or finally, tiie incapacity thou wert under to 
accomplish such a design ; considering the strength of those that had pos- 
sessed themselves of thy throne, and the terror they had inflicted upon 
foreign states; and yet that, after all this, thou shouldest be restored with- 
out stroke of sword, the help or assistance of foreign states, or the con- 
trivance and work of human policy ; all these do sufficiently declare that 
it is tlie Lord's doing; which, as it is marvellous in our eyes, so it will 
be justly a matter of wonder and astonishment to generations to come ; 
and may sufliciently serve, if rightly observed, to confute and confound that 
atheism wherewith this age doth so much abound. 

As the vindication of the liberty of conscience (which thy father, by 
triving way to the importunate clamours of the clergy, the answering and 
fullilling of whose unrighteous wills has often proved hurtful and pernicious 
to princes, sought in some part to restrain) was a great occasion of those 
troul)les and revolutions ; so the pretence of conscience was that which 
carricfl it on, and brouglit it to that pitch it came to. And though no doubt 
some tliat were engaged in tliat work designed good things, at least in the 
beginning, albeit always wrong in the manner they took to accomplish it, 
viz. by carnal weapons ; yet so soon as they had tasted the sweets of the 
possessions of them they had turned out, they quickly began to do those 
thinjjs themselves for which they had accused others. For their hands 
were found full of oppression, and " thev hated the reproofs of instruction, 
whicharc the May of life;" and they evilly intreated the messengers of the 
Lord, and caused his prophets to be beaten and imprisoned, and persecuted 
his people, whom he had called and gathered out from among them, M'hom 
he had ma<lc to beat their " swords into plough-shares, and their spears 
into pruning-hooks," and not to learn carnal war any more : but he 
raised them up, and armed them with spiritual weapons, even with his o^n 
Spirit and jiower, whercliy they tcstillcd in the streets and highways, and 
public markets and synagogues, against the pride, vanity, lusts, and hypo- 
crisy of that genenition, who were righteous in their own eyes; though 
often cruelly intreated therefor: and they faithfully prophesied and fore- 
told tliem of their judgment and downfall, MJiich came upon them, as bv 
several warnings and epistles delivered to Oliver and Richard Cromwell, 
the parliament, and other then powers, yet upon record, doth appear. 


And after it pleased God to restore thee, what oppressions, what banish- 
ments, and evil intreatings they have met with, by men pretending thy 
autliority, and cloaking their mischief with thy name, is known to most 
men in this island ; especially in England, where there is scarce a prison 
that hath not been filled with them, nor a judge before whom they have 
not been haled ; though they could never yet be found guilty of any thing 
that might deserve that usage. Therefore the sense of their innocency did 
no doubt greatly contribute to move thee, three years ago, to cause some 
hundreds of them to be set at liberty : for indeed their sufferings are singu- 
lar, and obviously distinguishable from all the rest of such as live under 
thee in these two respects. 

First : .In that among all the plots contrived by others against thee since 
thy return into Britain, there was never any, owned of that people, found 
or known to be guilty, though many of them have been taken and im- 
prisoned upon such kind of jealousies, but were always found innocent and 
harmless, as became the followers of Christ ; not coveting after, nor con- 
tending for, the kingdoms of this world, but " subject to every ordinance 
of man, for conscience sake." 

Secondly : In that in the hottest times of persecution, and the most 
violent prosecution of those laws made against meetings, being clothed 
with innocency, they have boldly stood to their testimony for God, with- 
out creeping into holes or corners, or once hiding themselves, as all other 
Dissenters have done ; but daily met, according to their custom, in the 
public places appointed for that end ; so that none of thy officers can say 
of them, that they have surprised them in a corner, overtaken them in a 
private conventicle, or catched them lurking in their secret chambers ; nor 
needed they to send out spies to get them, whom they were sure daily to 
find in their open assemblies, testifying for God and his truth. 

By which those who have an eye to see, may observe their Christian 
patience and courage, constancy and suffering joined in one, more than in 
any other people that differ from them, or oppose them. And yet, in the 
midst of those troubles, thou canst bear witness, that as on the one part, 
they never sought to detract from thee, or to render thee and thy govern- 
ment odious to the people, by nameless and scandalous pamphlets and 
libels ; so on the other hand, they have not spared to admonish, exhort, 
and reprove thee 5 and have faithfully discharged their consciences towards 
thee, without flattering words, as ever the true prophets in ancient times 
used to do to those kings and princes, under whose power, violence and 
oppression was acted. 

\I Tu Tin: KING. 

And althouffli it is evident by experience, to be most a^eeable both to 
divine trntli and human policy, to allow every one to serve God according 
to their consciences, nevertheless those other sects, who for tlie most part 
durst not peep out in the times of persecution, while these innocent people 
stood bold and faitiifid, do now combine in a joint confederacy, notwith- 
standing all the former janglings and contentions among themselves, to 
render us odious ; seeking unjustly to wrest our doctrine and words, as 
if tiuiy were inconsistent both witli Christianity and civil society : so that 
to ed'ectuate this their work of malice against us, they have not been 
ashamed to take the help, and commend the labours, of some invidious 
Socinians against us. So do Herod and Pontius Pilate agree to crucify 

But our practice, known to thee by good experience to be more con- 
sistent with Christianity and civil society, and the peace and welfare of 
this island, than that of those who thus accuse us, doth sufficiently guard 
us against this calumny ; and we may indeed appeal to the testimony of 
thy conscience, as a witness for us in the face of the nations. 

These things moved me to present the world with a brief, but true 
account of this people's principles, in some short theological propositions; 
which, according to the will of God, pro\ing successful beyond my ex- 
pectation, to the satisfaction of several, and to the exciting in many a desire 
of being farther informed concerning us, as being every where evil spoken 
of 5 and likewise meeting witli public opposition by some, as such will 
always do, so long as the devil rules in the children of disobedience; I 
was thereby farther engaged, in the lil)erty of the Lord, to present to the 
world this apology of the trutli held by those people : which, because of 
thy inter(!st in them, and theirs in thee, as having first appeared, and mostly 
increased, in these nations under thy rule, I make bold to present unto 

Tliou knowost, and hast experienced their faithfulness towards their 
God, their patience in sulfering, their peaccableness towards the king, their 
honesty, phiiniirss and integrity in their faithful warnings and testimonies 
to thee; and it' thou wilt allow thyself so much tune as to read this, thou 
niayest find how consonant their principles are both to scripture, truth, and 
right reason. The simplicity of their behaviour, the generality of their 
condition, as being poor men and illiterate ; the manner of their procedure, 
being without the wisdom and policy of this world; hath made many con- 
clude tluMu fools and madmen, and neglect them, as not bcinu ca])abje of 
reason. Hut though it be to them as their crown, thus to be esteemed of 


the wise, the great, and learned of this world, and though they rejoice to 
be accounted fools for Christ's sake ; yet of late some, even such who in 
the world's account are esteemed both wise and learned, begin to judge 
otherwise of them, and find that they hold forth things very agreeable both 
to scripture, reason, and true learning. 

As it is inconsistent with the truth I bear, so it is far from me to use this 
epistle as an engine to flatter thee, the usual design of such works ; and 
therefore I can neither dedicate it to thee, nor crave thy patronage, as if 
thereby I might have more confidence to present it to the world, or be 
more hopeful of its success. To God alone I owe what I have, and that 
more immediately in matters spiritual ; and therefore to him alone, and to 
the service of his truth, I dedicate whatever work he brings forth in me ; 
to whom only the praise and honour appertain, whose truth needs not the 
patronage of worldly princes ; his arm and power being that alone by 
which it is propagated, established, and confirmed. But I found it upon 
. my spirit to take occasion to present this book unto thee ; that as thou 
hast been often warned by several of that people, who are inhabitants of 
England ; so thou may'st not want a seasonable advertisement from a 
member of thy ancient kingdom of Scotland ; and that thou may'st know 
which I hope' thou wilt have no reason to be troubled at, that God is rais- 
ing up and increasing that people in this nation. And the nations shall 
also hereby know, that the truth we profess is not a work of darkness, 
nor propagated by stealth ; and that we are not ashamed of the " gospel 
of Christ," because we know it to be " the power of God unto salvation •," 
and that we are no ways so inconsistent with government, nor such dis- 
turbers of the peace, as our enemies, by traducing us, have sought to make 
the world believe we are : for which to thee I dare appeal, as a witness of 
our peaceableness and Christian patience. 

Generations to come shall not more admire that singular step of Divine 
Providence, in restoring thee to thy throne, without outward bloodshed, 
than they shall admire the increase and progress of this truth, without all 
outward help, and against so great opposition ; which shall be none of the 
least things rendering thy memory remarkable. God hath done great 
things for thee ; he hath sufliciently shown thee, that it is by him princes 
rule, and that he can pull down and set up at his pleasure. He hath often 
faithfully warned thee by his servants, since he restored thee to thy royal 
dignity, that thy heart might not wax wanton against him, to forget his 
mercies and providences towards thee ; whereby he might permit thee to 
be soothed up, and lulled asleep in thy sins, by the flattering of court- 
parasites, who, by their fawning, are the ruin of many princes. 


There is no king in the world, who can so experimentally testify of 
God's providence and goodness; neither is there any who rules so many 
free people, so many true Christians : which thing renders thy government 
more honourahle, thyself more considerable, than the accession of many 
nations, filled with slavish and superstitious souls. 

Thou liast tasted of prosperity and adversity ; thou knowest what it is 
to he banished thy native country, to be over-ruled, as well as to rule, and 
sit upon the throne ; and being oppressed, thou hast reason to know how 
hateful the oppressor is both to God and man : if after all these warnings 
and advertisements, ihou dost not turn unto the Lord with all thy heart, 
but forget him, who remembered thee in thy distress, and give up thvself 
to follow lust and vanity ; surely great will be thy condemnation. 

Against which snare, as well as the temptation of those that may or do 
feed thee, and prompt thee to evil, the most excellent and prevalent remedy 
will be, to apply thyself to that Light of Clirist, which shineth in thy con- 
science, which neither can, nor will flatter thee, nor suffer thee to be at 
ease in thy sins ; but doth and will deal plainly and faithfully with thee, 
as those that are followers thereof have also done. 

God Almighty, who hath so signally hitherto visited thee with his love, so 
touch and reach thy heart, ere the day of thy visitation be expired, that 
thou mayest eflectually turn to him, so as to improve thy place and 
station for his name. So wisheth, so prayeth, 

Thy feithM friend and subject, 


From Ury, the place of my pil- 
gnmaii^f, in my native country 
of Scotland, ilie 'J.itli of the 
month called November, in the 
year MDCLXXV. 

R. B. Unto the Friendly Reader rvishetli Salvation. 

Forasmuch as that, which above all things I propose to myself, is 
to declare and defend the truth, for the service whereof I have given 
up and devoted myself, and all that is mine ; therefore there is no- 
thing which for its sake, by the help and assistance of God, I may 
not attempt. And in this confidence, I did some time ago publish 
certain propositions of divinity, comprehending briefly the chief prin- 
ciples and doctrines of truth ; which appearing not unprofitable to 
some, and being beyond my expectation well received by many, 
though also opposed by some envious ones, did so far prevail, as in 
some part to remove that false and monstrous opinion, which lying 
fame, and the malice of our adversaries, had implanted in the minds 
of some, concerning us and our doctrines. 

In this respect it seemed to me not fit to spare my pains and 
labour ; and, therefore, being actuated by the same Divine Spirit, and 
the like intention of propagating the truth, by which I published the 
propositions themselves, I judged it meet to explain them somewhat 
more largely at this time, and defend them by certain arguments. 

Perhaps ray method of writing may seem not only different, but 
even contrary, to that which is commonly used by the men called 
divines, with which I am not concerned : inasmuch as I confess ray- 
self to be not only no imitator and admirer of the schoolmen, but an 
opposer and despiser of them as such, by whose labour I judge the 
Christian religion to be so far from being bettered, that it is rather 
destroyed. Neither have I sought to accommodate this my work to 
itching ears, who desire rather to comprehend in their heads the 
sublime notions of truth, than to embrace it in their hearts : for what 
I have written comes more from ray heart than frora my head ; what 
I have heard with the ears of my soul, and seen with my inward eyes, 

B (9) 


and my hands have haiulled of the Word of Life, and what hath been 
inwardly manifested to me of the things of God, that do I declare ; 
not so much regarding the eloquence and excellency of speech, as 
desiring to demonstrate the efficacy and operation of truth ; and if I 
err sometimes in the former, it is no great matter ; for I act not here 
the grammarian, or the orator, but the Christian ; and therefore in 
this I have followed the certain rule of the Divine Light, and of the 
Holy Scriptures. 

And, to make an end ; what I have written, is written not to feed 
the wisdom and knowledge, or rather, vain pride of this world, but to 
starve and oppose it, as the little preface prefixed to the propositions 
doth show ; which, with the title of them, is as followeth. 







To the Doctors, Professors, and Students of Divinity in the Uni- 
versities and Schools of Great Britain, whether Prelatical, Pres- 
byterian, or any other ; 

Robert Barclay, a Servant of the Lord God, and one of those 
who in derision are called Quakers, wisheth unfeigned repentance, 
unto the acknowledgment of the Truth. 


Unto you these following propositions are offered ; in which, they 
being read and considered in the fear of the Lord, you may perceive 
that simple, naked truth, which man by his wisdom hath rendered so 
obscure and mysterious, that the world is even burthened with the 
great and voluminous tractates which are made about it, and by their 
vain jangling and commentaries, by which it is rendered a hundred- 
fold more dark and intricate than of itself it is: which great learning, 
so accounted of — to wit, your school divinity, which taketh up almost 
a man's whole life-time to learn, brings not a whit nearer to God, 
neither makes any man less wicked, or more righteous than he was. 
Therefore hath God laid aside the wise and learned, and the disputers 
of this world ; and hath chosen a few despicable and unlearned in- 


strurnents, as to letter-learning, as he did fishermen of old, to pub- 
lish his pure and naked truth, and to free it of ^hose mists and fogs 
wlierewith the clergy iiath clouded it, that the people might admire 
and maintain them. And among several others, whom God hath 
chosen to make known these things — seeing I also have received, in 
measure, grace to be a dispenser of the same Gospel — it seemed good 
unto me, according to my duty, to offer unto you these propositions ; 
whicii, though short, yet are weighty, comprcliL-nding much, and de- 
claring what the true ground of knowledge is, even of that know- 
ledge which leads to Life Eternal ; which is here witnessed of, and 
the testimony thereof left unto the Light of Christ in all your con- 
sciences. ' Farewell, 

R. B. 




Concerning the true Foundation of Knowledge. 

Seeing the height of all happiness is placed in the true 
knowledge of God, ("This is life eternal, to know thee John xvii 
the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent,") 
the true and right understanding of this foundation and 
ground of knowledge, is that w^hich is most necessary to be 
known and believed in the first place. 


Concerning Immediate Revelation. 

Seeing "no man knoweth the Father but the Son, and Mat. xi. 27, 
ne to whom the Son revealeth him ;" and seeing the reve- 
lation of the Son is in and by the Spirit; therefore the tes- 
timony of the Spirit is that alone by which the true know- 
ledge of God hath been, is, and can be only revealed ; 
who as, by the moving of his own Spirit, he converted the 
chaos of this world into that wonderful order wherein it 
was in the beginning, and created man a living soul, to 
rule and govern it, so by the revelation of the same Spirit 
he hath manifested himself all along unto the sons of men, 
both patriarchs, prophets, and apostles ; w^hich revelations 
of God by the Spirit, whether by outward voices and ap- 
pearances, dreams, or inward objective manifestations in 
the heart, were of old the formal object of their faith, and 
remain yet so to be ; since the object of the saints' faith is 
the same in all ages, though set forth under divers admi- 
nistrations. Moreover, these divine inward revelations, 
which we make absolutely necessary for the building up 
of true faith, neither do nor can ever contradict the outward 
testimony of the scriptures, or right and sound reason. 
Yet from hence it will not follow, that these divine revela- 
tions are to be subjected to the examination, either of the 
outward testimony of the scriptures, or of the natural reason 
of man, as to a more noble or certain rule or touchstone : 


for this divine revelation and inward illumination, is that 
which is evident and clear of itself, forcing, by its own 
evidence and clearness, the well-disposed understanding 
to assent, irresistibly moving the same thereunto; even as 
the common ^Mincijiles of natural truths move and incline 
the mind to a natural assent : as, that the whole is greater 
than its part ; that two contradictory sayings cannot be 
both true, nor both false : which is also manifest, according 
to our adversaries' principle, who — supposing the possibility 
of inward divine revelations — will nevertheless confess 
with us, that neither scripture nor sound reason will con- 
tradict it: and yet it will not follow, -according to them 
that the scripture, or sound reason, should be subjected to 
the examination of the divine revelations in the heart. 

Concerning the Scriptures. 

From these revelations of the Spirit of God to the saints, 
have proceeded the scriptures of truth, which contain, 
1, A faithful historical account of the actings of God's 
people in divers ages, with many singular and remarkable 
providences attending them. 2. A prophetical account of 
several things, whereof some are already past, and some 
yet to come. 3. A full and ample account of all the chief 
principles of the doctrine of Christ, held forth in divers 
precious declarations, exhortations, and sentences, which, 
by the moving of God's spirit, were at several times, and 
upon sundry occasions, spoken and written unto some 
churches and their pastors : nevertheless, because they are 
only a declaration of the fountain, and not the fountain 
itself, therefore they are not to be esteemed the principal 
ground of all truth and knowledge, nor yet the adequate 
primary rule of faith and manners. Nevertheless, as that 
which giveth a true and faithful testimony of the first founda- 
tion, they are and may be esteemed a secondary rule, sub- 
ordinate to the Spirit, from which they have all their ex 

om. vui. 


cellency and certainty ; for as by the inward testimony of 
the Spirit we do alone truly know them, so they testify, 
that the Spirit is that guide by which the saints are led into John xvi. 
all truth : therefore, according to the scriptures, the Spirit |^ 
is the first and principal leader. And seeing we do there- ^^^ 
fore receive and believe the scriptures, because they pro- 
ceeded from the Spirit ; therefore also the Spirit is more 
originally and principally the rule, according to that re- 
ceived maxim in the schools. Propter quod unumquodque 
est tale, illud ipsum est magis tale. Englished thus : ' That 
for which a thing is such, that thing itself is more such.' 


Concerning the Condition of Man in the Fall. 

All Adam's posterity, or mankind, both Jews and Gen- Rom. v. 12, 
tiles, as to the first Adam, or earthly man, is fallen, dege- 
nerated, and dead, deprived of the sensation or feeling of 
this inward testimony or seed of God, and is subject unto 
the power, nature, and seed of the serpent, which he sows 
in men's hearts, while they abide in this natural and cor- 
rupted state ; from whence it comes, that not their words 
and deeds only, but all their imaginations are evil perpetu- 
ally in the sight of God, as proceeding from this depraved 
and wicked seed. Man, therefore, as he is in this state, 
can know nothing aright ; yea, his thoughts and concep- 
tions concerning God and things spiritual, until he be dis- 
joined from this evil seed, and united to the divine light, 
are unprofitable both to himself and others : hence are re- 
jected the Socinian and Pelagian errors, in exalting a na- 
tural light ; as also of the Papists, and most Protestants, 
who affirm. That man, without the true grace of God, may 
be a true minister of the gospel. Nevertheless, this seed 
is not imputed to infants, until by transgression they actu- 
ally join themselves therewith ; for they are by nature the Eph. ii. 2. 
children of wrath, who walk according to the power of the 
prince of the air. 



Concerning the Universal Redemption by Christ, and also 
the Saving and Spintual Light, wherewith every man is 


Ezok. xviii. God, out of his infinite love, who delighteth not in the 
Isa xlix C ^^^th of a sinner, but that all should li\ e and be saved, 
John lii. 16. jjgth SO loved the world, that he hath eiven his only Son a 

& i. 9. ... 

Tit. ii. 11. light, that whosoever believeth in him should be saved; 

Heb Ti 9 ^^^^*^ enlighteneth every man that cometh into the world, 
and maketh manifest all things that are reproveable, and 
teacheth all temi)erance, righteousness, and godliness : 
and this light enlighteneth the hearts of all in a day,* in 
order to salvation, if not resisted : nor is it less universal 
than the seed of sin, being the purchase of his death, who 

I Cor. XV. tasted death for every man ; " for as in Adam all die, even 
so in Christ shall all be made alive." 


According to which principle (or hypothesis), all the 
objections against the universality of Christ's death are 
easily solved ; neither is it needful to recur to the ministry 
of angels, and those other miraculous means, which, they 
say, God makes use of, to manifest the doctrine and history 
of Christ's passion unto such, who, living in those places 
of the world where the outward preaching of the gosj)el is 
unknown, have well improved the first and common grace ; 
for hence it w'ell follows, that as some of the old philoso- 
phers might have been saved, so also may now some — who 
by providence are cast into those remote parts of the world, 
where the knowledge of the history is wanting — be made 
partakers of the divine mystery, if they receive and resist 

* Pro tempore : for a time. 


not that grace, " a manifestation whereof is given to every iCor. xii.7. 
man to profit withal." This certain doctrine then being 
received, to wit : that there is an evangelical and saving 
light and grace in all, the universality of the love and 
mercy of God towards mankind — both in the death of his 
beloved Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, and in the manifesta- 
tion of the light in the heart — is established and confirmed 
against all the objections of such as deny it. Therefore 
" Christ hath tasted death for every man :" not only for all Heb. ii. 9. 
kinds of men, as some vainly talk, but for every one, of 
all kinds ; the benefit of whose oflfering is not only ex- 
tended to such, who have the distinct outward knowledge 
of his death and sufferings, as the same is declared in the 
scriptures, but even unto those who are necessarily ex- 
cluded from the benefit of this knowledge by some inevi- 
table accident; which knowledge we willingly confess to 
be very profitable and comfortable, but not absolutely 
needful unto such, from whom God himself hath withheld 
it ; yet they may be made partakers of the mystery of his 
death — though ignorant of the history — if they sufTer his 
seed and light — enlightening their hearts — to take place ; 
in which light, communion with the Father and Son is en- 
joyed, so as of wicked men to become holy, and lovers 
of that power, by whose inward and secret touches they 
feel themselves turned from the evil to the good, and learn 
to do to others as they would be done by ; in which Christ 
himself affirms all to be included. As they then have 
falsely and erroneously taught, who have denied Christ to 
have died for all men ; so neither have they sufficiently 
taught the truth, who affirming him to' have died for all, 
have added the absolute necessity of the outward know- 
ledge thereof, in order to the obtaining its saving effect ; 
among whom the Remonstrants of Holland have been 
chiefly wanting, and many other asserters of Universal 
Redemption, in that they have not placed the extent of this 
salvation in that divine and evangelical principle of light 
and life, wherewith Christ hath enlightened every man that 
comes into the world, which is excellently and evidently 
2* G 


held forth in these scriptures, Gen. vi. 3. Deut. xxx, 14. 
John i. 7, 8, 9. Rom. x. 8. Tit. ii. 11. 


Concerning Justification. 

As many as resist not this light, but receive the same, in 
them is produced an holy, pure, and spiritual birth, bring- 
ing forth lioliness, righteousness, purity, and all those other 
blessed fruits which are acceptable to God ; by which holy 
birth, to wit, Jesus Christ, formed within us, and working 
his works in us — as we are sauctiiied, so we are justified 
in the sight of God, according to the apostle's words, 

1 Cor. vi. " But ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are jus- 
^^' tified, in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of 

our God." Therefore it is not by our works wrought in 
our will, nor yet by good works, considered as of them- 
selves, but by Christ, who is both the gift and the giver, 
and the cause producing the effects in us ; who, as he hath 
reconciled us while we were enemies, doth also in his 
wisdom save us, and justify us after this manner, as sahh 

Tit. iii. 5. the same apostle elsewhere, " According to his mercy he 
saved us, by the washing 'of regerteration, and the renew- 
ing of the Holy Ghost." 


Concerning Perfection. 

Rom.yi. 14. In w'hom this holy and })ure birth is fully brought forth. 
Id. vi. 2, 18. the body of death and sin comes to be crucified and re- 
iJoiiniii.6. fnoved, and their hearts united and subjected unto the 
truth, so as not to obey any suggestion or temptation of 
the evil one, but to be free from actual sinning, and trans- 
gressing of the law^ of God, and in that respect perfect. 
Yet doth this perfection still admit of a growth ; and there 
remaineth a possibility of sinning, where the mind doth 
not most diligently and watchfully attend unto the Lord. 



Concerning Perseverance, and the Possibility of Falling 
from Grace. 

Although this gift, and inward grace of God, be suffi- 
cient to work out salvation, yet in those in whom it is re- 
sisted it both may and doth become their condemnation. 
Moreover, in whom it hath wrought in part, to purify and 
sanctify them, in order to their further perfection, by dis- 
obedience such may fall from it, and turn it to wantonness, 
making shipwreck of faith; and "after having tasted of i Tim. i 6, 
the heavenly gift, and been made partakers of the Holy 5^ g_' " ' 
Ghost, again fall away." Yet such an increase and stabi- 
lity in the truth may in this life be attained, from which 
there cannot be a total apostasy. 


Concerning the Ministry. 

As by this gift, or light of God, all true knowledge in 
things spiritual is received and revealed ; so by the same, 
as it is manifested and received in the heart, by the strength 
and power thereof, every true minister of the gospel is or- 
dained, prepared and supplied in the work of the ministry: 
and by the leading, moving, and drawing hereof, ought 
every evangelist and Christian pastor to be led and ordered 
in his labour and work of the gospel, both as to the place 
where, as to the persons to whom, and as to the times when 
he is to minister. Moreover, those who have this authority 
may and ought to preach the gospel, though without human 
commission or literature; as on the other hand, those who 
want the authority of this divine gift, however learned or 
authorized by the commissions of men and churches, are 
to be esteemed but as deceivers, and not true ministers of 
the gospel. Also, who have received this holy and un- 
spotted gift, "as they have freely received, so are theyMat. x. 8. 


freely to give," without hire or bargaining, far less to use 
it as a trade to get money by it : yet if God hath called any 
from their employments, or trades, by which they acquire 
their livelihood, it may be lawful for such, according to the 
liberty which they feel given them in the Lord, to receive 
such temporals — to wit, what may be needful to them for 
meat and clothing — as are freely given ihera by those to 
whom they have communicated spirituals. 


Concerning Worship. 

All true and acceptable worship to God is offered in the 
inward and immediate moving and drawing of his own 
Spirit, which is neither limited to places, times, or persons ; 
for though we be to worship him always, in that we are to 
fear before him, yet as to the outward signification thereof 
in prayers, praises, or preachings, we ought not to do it 
where and when we will, but where and when we are 
moved tiiereunto by the secret inspirations of his Spirit in 
our hearts, which God heareth and accepteth of, and is 
never wanting to move us thereunto, when need is, of 
which he himself is the alone proper judge. All other 
worship then, both praises, prayers and preachings, which 
man sets about in his own will, and at his own appoint- 
ment, which he can both begin and end at his pleasure, do 
or leave undone, as himself sees meet, whether they be a 
prescribed ibrm, as a liturgy, or prayers conceived extem- 
Ezek. xiii. porarily, by the natural strength and faculty of the mind. 
Acts ii. 4, they are all but superstitions, will-worship, and abomina- 

^^1''- ?.-. - ble idolatry in the siyht of God ; which are to be denied, 
John in. 6. . •' ^ . . ... 

and iv. 21. rejected, and separatetl from, in this day of his spiritual 

Acts xvii. arising : however it might have pleased him — who winked 

^^- at the times of ignorance, with respect to the simplicity 

and integrity of some, and of liis own innocent seed, which 

lay as it were buried in the hearts of men, under the mass 

of superstition — to blow upon the dead and dry bones, 



and to raise some breathings, and answer them, and that 
until the day should more clearly dawn and break forth. 


Concerning Baptism. 

As there is one Lord and one faith, so there is "one Eph. iv. 5. 
baptism ; which is not the putting away the filth of the 21 f^' "^' 
flesh, but the answer of a OTod conscience before God, by 4. 
the resurrection of Jesus Christ." And this baptism is a Col. ii. 12." 
pure and spiritual thing, to wit, the baptism of the spirit •'°"^"'- • 
and fire, by which we are buried with him, that being 
washed and purged from our sins, we may " walk in new- 1 Cor. i. 17. 
ness of life ;" of which the baptism of John was a figure, 
which was commanded for a time, and not to continue for 
ever. As to the baptism of infants, it is a mere human 
tradition, for which neither precept nor practice is to be 
found in all the scripture. 


Concerning the Communion, or Participation of the Body 
and Blood of Christ. 

The communion of the body and blood of Christ is m- 1 Cor. x. 

ward and spiritual, which is the participation of his flesh joh'nvi. 32 

and blood, by which the inward man is daily nourished in ,^,^,' ^'^^ „ 
•' . . •' 1 Cor. V. 8. 

the hearts of those m whom Christ dwells ; of which thinss 

the breaking of bread by Christ with his disciples was a 

figure, which they even used in the church for a time, who 

had received the substance, for the cause of the weak ; 

even as "abstaining from things strangled, and from Acts xv. 20. 

blood ;" the washing one another's feet, and the anointing •'°^"^'"' 

of the sick with oil ; all which are commanded with no less James v.u. 

authority and solemnity than the former ; yet seeing they 

are but the shadows of better things, they cease in such as 

have obtained the substance. 



Concerning the power of the Civil Magistrate, in matters 
purely religious, and pertaining to the conscience. 

Since God hath assumed to himself the power and do- 
minion of the conscience, who alone can rightly instruct 
jukt! IX. and govern it, therefore it is not lawful for any whatsoever, 
Mat ^vii ^) .virtue of any authority or princi})ality they bear in the 
12, 29. ofovernment of this world, to force the consciences of 
others ; and therefore all kilhng, banishing, fining, im- 
prisoning, and other such things, which men are alilicted 
with, for the alone exercise of their conscience, or ditler- 
ence in worship or opinion, proceedeth from the spirit of 
Cain, the murderer, and is contrary to the truth ; provided 
always, that no man, under the pretence of conscience, 
prejudice his neighbour in his life or estate; or do any 
thing destructive to, or inconsistent with human society ; 
in which case the law is for the transgressor, and justice to 
be administered upon all, without respect of persons. 

Til. iii. 10 ^ 


Concerning Salutatiojis and Recreations, SfC. 

Sph. ▼. 11. Seeing the chief end of all religion is to redeem man 
John* v' 44 from the spirit and vain conversation of this world, and to 

Jer. X. 3. lead into inward communion with God, before whom, if 
Act? X. 26. ^ , , , 1 r 11 , 

Mat. XV. 13. we fear always, we are accounted happy ; therefore all the 

Col. 11. 8. ^.^^^ customs and habits thereof, both in word and deed, 
are to be rejected and forsaken by those who come to this 
fear ; such as the taking off the hat to a man, the bowings 
and cringings of the body, and such other salutations of 
that kind, with all the foolish and superstitious formalities 
attending them ; all which man has invented in his dege- 
nerate state, to feed his pride in the vain pomp and glory 
of this world; as also the unprofitable plays, frivolous 


recreations, sportings and gainings, which are invented to 
pass away the precious time, and divert the mind from the 
witness of God in the heart, and from the living sense of 
his fear, and from that evangelical Spirit wherewith Chris- 
tians ought to be leavened, and which leads into sobriety, 
gravity, and godly fear ; in which, as we abide, the bless- 
ing of the Lord is felt to attend us in those actions in 
which we are necessarily engaged, in order to the taking 
care for the sustenance of the outward man. 






Concerning the true Foundation of Knowledge. 

Seeing the height of all happiness is placed in the true 

knowledge of God ; " This is life eternal, to know thee Johnxvii. 
the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast 
sent ;" the true and right understanding of this founda- 
tion and ground of knowledge is that which is most ne- 
cessary to be known and believed in the first place. 

He that desireth to acquire any art or science, seeketh 
first those means by which that art or science is obtained. 
If we ought to do so in things natural and e-arthly, how 
much more then in spiritual ? In this affair then should 
our enquiry be the more diligent, because he that errs in 
the entrance is not so easily brought back again into the 
right way ; he that misseth his road from the beginning of 
his journey, and is deceived in his first marks, at his first 
setting forth, the greater his mistake is, the more difficult 
will be his entrance into the right way. 

Thus when a man first proposeth to himself the know- The way to 
ledge of God, from a sense of his own unworthiness, and |^'|°o^™ed 
from the great weariness of his mind, occasioned by the of God. 
secret checks of his conscience, and the tender, yet real 

3 D ^25) 


glances of God's light upon his heart ; the earnest desires he 
has to be redeemed from his present trouble, and the fervent 
breathings he has to be eased of his disordered passions 
and lusts, and to find quietness and peace in the certain 
knowledge of God, and in the assurance of his love and 
good-will towards him, make his heart tender, and ready 
to receive any impression ; and so — not having then a dis- 
tinct discerning — through forwardness embraceth any thing 
that brings present ease. If, either through the reverence 
he bears to certain persons, or from the secret inclination 
to what doth comply with his natural disposition, he fall 
upon any principles or means, by which he apprehends he 
may come to know God, and so doth centre himself, it 
will be hard to remove him thence again, how wrong so- 
ever they may be : for the first anguish being over, he 
becomes more hardy ; and the enemy being near, creates 
a false peace, and a certain confidence, which is strength- 
ened by the mind's unwillingness to enter as^ain into new 
doubtfulness, or the former anxiety of a search. 

This is sufliciently verified in the example of the Phari- 
Ic^iahdoc- sees and Jewish doctors, who most of all resisted Christ, 

tors and ,. , . . , . „ , . . 

Pharisees (lisdauiing to be esteemed ignorant ; lor this vain opinion 

Chdst ^'^'-'y ^^^^ ^^ their knowledge hindered them from the true 

knowledge ; and the mean people, who were not so much 

pre-occupied with former principles, nor conceited of their 

own knowledge, did easily believe. Wherefore the Phari- 

John vii. sees upbraid them, sayinsj, "Have any of the rulers or 
48, 49. . ' J &' J 

Pharisees believed on him ? But this people, which know 

not the law, are accursed." This is also abundantly proved 
by the experience of all such, as being secretly touched 
with the call of God's grace unto them, do apply them- 
selves to false teachers, where the remedy proves worse 
than the disease ; because instead of knowing God, or the 
things relating to their salvation aright, they drink in wrong 
opinions of him ; from which it is harder to be disentangled, 
than while the soul remains a blank, or Tabula rasa. For 
they that conceit themselves wise, are worse to deal with 
than they that are sensible of their ignorance. Nor hath 


it been less the device of the devil, the great enemy of 
mankind, to persuade men into wrong notions of God, 
than to keep them altogether from acknowledging him ; 
the latter taking with few, because odious ; but the other 
having been the constant ruin of the world : for there hath 
scarce been a nation found, but hath had some notions or 
other of religion ; so that not from their denying any Deity, 
but from their mistakes and misapprehensions of it, hath 
proceeded all the idolatry and superstition of the world ; 
yea, hence even atheism itself hath proceeded : for these 
many and various opinions of God and religion, being so 
much mixed with the guessings and uncertain judgments 
of men, have begotten in many the opinion. That there is 
no God at all. This, and much more that might be said, 
may show how dangerous it is to miss in this first step : 
" All that come not in by the door, are accounted as 
thieves and robbers." 

Again, how needful and desirable that knowledge is, 
which brings life eternal, Epictetus showeth, saying excel- Epictetas. 
lently well, cap. 38, (Sri oti to Ku^iuTarov, &c. Know, that 
the main foundation of piety is this, To have o^^as viroXrj-^sis, 
right opinions and apprehensions of God. 

This therefore I judged necessary, as a first principle, in 
the first place to affirm ; and I suppose will not need much 
farther explanation or defence, as being generally acknow- 
ledged by all — and in these things that are without contro- 
versy I love to be brief — as that which will easily commend 
itself to every man's reason and conscience ; and therefore 
T shall proceed to the next proposition ; which, though it 
be nothing less certain, yet by the malice of Satan, and the 
ignorance of many, comes far more under debate. 


Of Immediate Revelation. 

Mat. xi. 27. Seeing " no man knoweth the Father but the Son, and he 
to whom the Son revealeth him ;" and seeing the " reve- 
lation of the Son is in and by the Spirit ;" therefore the 
testimony of the Spirit is tiiat alone by which the true 
knowledge of God hath been, is, and can be only re- 
vealed ; who as, by the moving of his own Spirit, he 
disposed the chaos of this world into that wonderful 
order in which it was in the beginning, and created man 
a living soul, to rule and govern it, so by the revelation 
of the same Spirit he hath manifested himself all along 
unto the sons of men, both patriarchs, prophets, and 
apostles ; which revelations of God by the Spirit, whe- 
ther by outward voices and appearances, dreams, or in- 
w^ard objective manifestations in the heart, were of old 
the formal object of their faith, and remain yet so to be ; 
since the object of the saints' faith is the same in all 
ages, though held forth under divers administrations. 
Moreover, these divine inward revelations, which we 
make absolutely necessary for the building up of true 
faith, neither do nor can ever contradict the outward tes- 
timony of the scriptures, or right and sound reason. 
Yet from hence it will not follow, that these divine reve- 
lations are to be subjected to the test, either of the 
outward testimony of the scriptures, or of the natural 
reason of man, as to a more noble or certain rule and 
touchstone ; for this divine revelation and inward illu- 
mination, is that which is evident and clear of itself, 
forcing, by its own evidence and clearness, the well-dis- 
posed understanding to assent, irresistibly moving the 
same thereunto, even as the common principles of na- 
tural truths do move and incline the mind to a natural 


assent : as, that the whole is greater than its part ; 
that two contradictories can neither be both true, nor 
both false. 

§ I. It is very probable, that many carnal and natural Revelation 
Christians will oppose this proposition ; who being wholly apostate 
unacquainted with the movings and actings of God's Spirit Christians, 
upon their hearts, judge the same nothing necessary ; and 
some are apt to flout at it as ridiculous ; yea, to that lieight 
are the generality of Christians apostatized and degenerated, 
that though there be not any thing more plainly asserted, 
more seriously recommended, or more certainly attested, in 
all the writings of the holy scriptures, yet nothing is less 
minded and more rejected by all sorts of Christians, than 
immediate and divine revelation ; insomuch that once to 
lay claim to it is matter of reproach. Whereas of old none 
were ever judged Christians, but such as had the Spirit of 
Christ, Rom. viii. 9. But now many do boldly call them- 
selves Christians, who make no difficulty of confessing they 
are without it, and laugh at such as say they have it. Of 
old they were accounted " the sons of God, who were led 
by the Spirit of God," ibid. ver. 14. But now many aver 
themselves sons of God, who know nothing of this leader ; 
and he that affirms himself so led, is, by the pretended 
orthodox of this age, presently proclaimed an heretic. The 
reason hereof is very manifest, viz. : Because many in 
these days, under the name of Christians, do experiment- 
ally find, that they are not actuated nor led by God's Spirit ; 
yea, many great doctors, divines, teachers, and bishops of 
Christianity, (commonly so called,) have wholly shut their 
ears from hearing and their eyes from seeing this inward 
guide, and so are become strangers unto it ; whence they 
are, by their own experience, brought to this strait, either 
to confess that they are as yet ignorant of God, and have 
only the shadow of knowledge, and not the true knowledge 
of him, or that this knowledge is acquired without imme- 
diate revelation. 


Knowledge For the better understanding then of this proposition, we 
and' literal ^^ distinguish betwixt the certain knowledge of God, and 
'^'^.""•, the uiicLTlain ; betwixt the suiriluai knowledge, and the 

guished. . ' . . 

literal ; the saving heart-knowledge, and the soaring airy 
head knowledge. The last, we confess, may be divers 
ways oljtained ; but the first, by no other way than the in- 
ward immediate manifestation and revelation of God's 
Spirit, shining in and upon the heart, enlightening and 
opening the understanding. 

§ II. Having then proposed to myself, in these proposi- 
tions, to affirm those things which relate to the true and 
effectual knowledge which brings life eternal with it ; there- 
fore I have truly affirmed, that this knowledge is no other- 
ways attained, and that none have any true ground to be- 
lieve they have attained it, who have it not by this revela- 
tion of God's Spirit. 

The certainty of which truth is such, that it hath been 
acknowledged by some of the most refined and famous of 
all sorts of professors of Christianity in all ages ; who being 
truly upright-hearted, and earnest seekers of the Lord — 
however stated under the disadvantages and epidemical 
errors of their several sects or ages — the true seed in them 
hath been answered by God's love, who hath had regard 
to the good, and hath had of his elect ones among all ; who 
finding a distaste and disgust in all other outward means, 
even in the very principles and precepts more particularly 
relative to ihfir own ibrms and societies, have at last con- 
cluded, with one voice, that there was no true knowledge of 
God but that which is revealed inwardly by his own Spirit. 
Whereof take these following testimonies of the ancients: 
Aug. ex. 1. "It is the inward master (saith Augustine) that 

Joirlii. ^' teacheth, it is Christ that teacheth, it is inspiration that 
teacheth : where this inspiration and unction is wanting, it 
is in vain that words from without are beaten in." And 
thereafter : " For he that created us, and redeemed us, and 
called us by faith, and dwelleth in us by his Sjiirit, unless 
he speaketh unto us inwardly, it is needless for us to cry 


2. " There is a difference," saith Clemens Alexandrinus, Clem. 
" betwixt that which any one saith of" the truth, and that strom. 
which the truth itself, interpreting itself, saith. A conjec- 
ture of truth differeth from the truth itself; a similitude, of 

a thing differeth from the thing itself; it is one thing that 
is acquired by exercise and discipline ; and another thing, 
which by power and faith." Lastly, the same Clemens 
saith, " Truth is neither hard to be arrived at, nor is it im- Pcedag. 
possible to apprehend it ; for it is most nigh unto us, even 
in our houses, as the most wise Moses hath insinuated." 

3. "How is it," saith Tertullian, "that since the devil TertuUia- 
always worketh, and stirreth up the mind to iniquity, that de^eland. 
the work of God should either cease, or desist to act } Vugmibus, 
Since for this end the Lord did send the Comforter, that 
because human weakness could not at once bear all things, 
knowledge might be by little and little directed, formed, 

and brought to perfection, by the holy Spirit, that vicar of 
the Lord. 'I have many things yet,' saith he, <to speak 
unto you, but ye cannot as yet bear them; but when that 
Spirit of truth shall come, he shall lead you into all truth, 
and shall teach you these things that are to come.' But 
of this his work we have spoken above. "What is then the 
administration of the Comforter, but that discipline be 
directed, and the scriptures revealed, &c." 

4. " The law," saith Hierom, " is spiritual, and there is Hieron. Ep. 
need of a revelation to understand it." And in his Epistle P^^l'"-103. 
150, to Hedibia, Quest. H, he saith, "The whole Epistle 

to the Romans needs an interpretation, it being involved 
in so great obscurities, that for the understanding thereof 
we need the help of the holy Spirit, who through the apos- 
tle dictated it." 

5. " So great things," saith Athanasius, " doth our Athanasius 
Saviour daily : he draws unto piety, persuades unto virtue, Ve^M d"' 
teaches immortality, excites to the desire of heavenly 

things, reveals the knowledge of the Father, inspires power 
against death, and shows himself unto every one." q ^ 

6. Gregory the Great, upon these words [He shall teach Hom. 30. 

11 I ■ n -1 mi 1 1 c^ • • • UpOIl the 

you all thingsj saith, " ihat unless the same Spirit is pre- Gospel. 



Cyril. A lex 
in The- 
sauro, lib. 
xiii. c. 3. 

in Psal. 

torn. V. 
p. 7^. 

sent in the heart of the hearer, in vain is the discourse of 
the doctor. Let no man then ascribe unto the man that 
teacheth, what he understands from the mouth of him that 
speaketh ; for unless he that teacheth be within, the tongue 
of the doctor, that is without, laboureth in vain." 

7. Cyrillus Alexandrinus plainly affirmeth, <' That men 
know that Jesus is the Lord by the Holy Ghost, no other- 
wise, than they who taste honey know that it is sweet, even 
by its proper quality." 

8. " Therefore," saith Bernard, " we daily exhort you, 
brethren, that ye walk the ways of the heart, and that your 
souls be always in your hands, that ye may hear what the 
Lord saith in you." And again, upon these words of the 
apostle [Let him that glorieth, glory in the Lord], " With 
which threefold vice," saith he, " all sorts of religious men 
are less or more dangerously affected, because they do not 
so diligently attend, with the ears of the heart, to what the 
Spirit of truth, which flatters none, inwardly speaks." 

This was the very basis, and main foundation, upon 
which the primitive reformers built. 

Luther, in his book to the nobility of Germany, saith, 
" This is certain, that no man can make himself a teacher 
of the holy scriptures, but the holy Spirit alone." And 
upon the Magnificat he saith, "No man can rightly know 
God, or understand the word of God, unless he imme- 
diately receive it from the Holy Spirit ; neither can any one 
receive it from the Holy Spirit, except he find it by expe- 
rience in himself; and in this experience the Holy Ghost 
teacheth, as in his proper school ; out of which school no- 
thing is taught but mere talk." 

Philip Melancthon, in his annotations upon John vi. : 
"Those who hear only an outward and bodily voice, hear 
the creature ; but God is a Spirit, and is neither discerned, 
nor known, nor heard, but by the Spirit ; and therefore to 
hear the voice of God, to see God, is to know and hear the 
.Spirit. By the Spirit alone God is known and perceived. 
Which also the more serious to this day do acknowledge, 
even all such who satisfy themselves not with the superfi- 


cies of religion, and use it not as a cover or art. Yea, all 

those who apply themselves effectually to Christianity, and 

are not satisfied until they have found its effectual work 

upon their hearts, redeeming them from sin, do feel that 

no knowledge effectually prevails to the producing of this, 

but that which proceeds from the warm influence of God's 

Spirit upon the heart, and from the comfortable shining of 

his light upon their understanding." 

And therefore to this purpose a modern author, viz. Dr. Dr. Smith 

Smith of Cambridge, in his select discourses, saith well ; bridge, 

" To seek our divinity merely in books and writino-s, is to concern- 
J J o 7 ing book- 

seek the living among the dead ; we do but in vain many divinity. 

times seek God in these, where his truth is too often not so 

much enshrined as entombed. Intra te qucBre Deum, Seek 

God within thine own soul. He is best discerned, ws^u bVaqjvj, 

as Plotinus phraseth it, by an intellectual touch of him. 

We must see with our eyes, and hear with our ears, and 

our hands must handle the word of life — to express it in 

St. John's words. — sg"' ''ai 4''^X^s ajffS-iKrig ti?, &c., the soul 

itself hath its sense, as well as the body. And therefore 

David, when he would teach us to know what the divine 

goodness is, calls not for speculation, but sensation : 

' Taste, and see that the Lord is good.' That is not the Psal.xxxiv. 

best and truest knowledge of God which is wrought out 

by the labour and sweat of the brain, but that which is 

kindled within us, by an heavenly warmth in our hearts." 

And again : " There is a knowing of the truth as it is in 

Jesus, as it is in a Christ-like nature ; as it is in that sweet, 

mild, humble, and loving Spirit of Jesus, which spreads 

itself, like a morning sun, upon the souls of good men, full 

of light and life. It profits little to know Christ himself 

after the flesh ; but he gives his Spirit to good men, that 

searcheth the deep things of God." And again : " It is 

but a thin airy knowledge that is got by mere speculation, 

which is ushered in by syllogisms and demonstrations ; 

but that which springs forth from true goodness, is 

.^aioTs^ov Ti zsad-fis wo^s'i^sws, as Origen speaks : ' It brings 



siirli a tliviiu' light into (lu* soul, as is more clear and "on- 

viiuini;' llian any ilenionstration.' " 
Viiostasy §111. TliiU lliis Certain and undoubted method of the 

aiul uinlso tpi,,. knowledire of God hath been brousrht out of use, hath 

knowloiiue . , , , . ,-11" -i 

mtroaiuoil. been none ol tiie least ileviees ot the tlevil, to secure man- 
kinil to his kingdom. For after the light and glory of the 
Christian religion had prevailed over a good part of the 
world, anil dispelleil the thick mists of the heathenish doc- 
trine of the plurality of gods, he that knew there was no 
probability of deluding the world any longer that way, did 
then pull' man up with a false knowledge of the true God ; 
setting him on work to seek God the wrong way, and per- 
suadinsi him to be content with such a knowledge as w*as 
of his own acquiring, and not of God's teaching. And this 
ilevice hath proved the more successful, because accommo- 
dated to the natural and corrupt spirit and temper of man, 
who above all things aflects to exalt himself; in which 
self-exaltation, as God is greatly dishonoured, so therein the 
devil hath his end ; who is not anxious how much God is 
acknowledged in words, provided himself be but always 
served ; he matters not how great anil high speculations 
the natural man entertains of God, so long as he serves his 
own lusts and passions, and is obedient to his evil sugges- 
Christinn- tions and temptations. Thus Christianity is become as it 
com'o an '^^"*''"*^ ^'^ •^''^ ii^'quired by human science and industry, like 
"f'- '^'"" ^'^V other art or science ; and men have not onlv assumed 
liumuii ' the name ot Christians, but even have procured themselves 
aiurmdus- ^^ ^""^ esteemed as masters of Christianity, by certain artifi- 
'ry- cial tricks, though altogether strangers to the spirit and life 

of Jesus. But if we make a right definition of a Christian, 
according to the scriptures. That he is one that hath the 
spirit of Christ, and is led by it, how many Christians, yea, 
and of these great masters and doctors of Christianity, so 
accounted, shall we justly divest of that noble title? 

If those therefore who have all the other means of know- 
ledge, and are sutTiciently learned therein, whether it be 
the letter of the scripture, the traditions of churches, or the 
works of creation and providence, whence they are able to 


deduce strong and undeniable arguments — which rnay be 
true in themselves — are not yet to be esteemed Christians 
accorfiing to the certain and infallible definition above 
mentioned ; and if the inward and immediate revelation of 
God's Spirit in the heart, in such as have been altogether 
ignorant of some, and but very litth; skilled in others, of 
these means of attaining knowledge, hath brought them to 
salvation ; then it will necessarily and evidently follow, that tiorMs^the 
invvarfl and immediate revelation is the only sure and cer- 'raoknow- 

. If.'l'^fi of 

tain way to attain the true and saving knowledge of CJod. Ood. 

But the first is true : therefore the last. 

Now as this argument doth very strongly conclude for 
this way of knowledge and against such as deny it, so in 
this respect it is the more to be regarded, as the proposi- 
tions from which it is deduced are so clear, that our very 
adversaries cannot deny them. For as to the first it is 
acknowledged, that many learned rnen rnay be, and have 
been, damned. And as to the second, who will deny but 
many illiterate rnen may be, and are, saved? Nor dare any 
affirm, that none come to the knowledge of God and salva- 
tion by the inward revelation of the Spirit, without these 
other outward means, unless they be also so bold as to ex- AS':l,Seth 
elude Abel, Seth, Noah, Abraham, Job, and all the holy ;)^;ij^^ 
patriarchs from true knowledge and salvation. 

§ IV. I would however not be understood, as if hereby 
I excluded those other means of knowledge from any use 
or service to rnan ; it is far from me so to judge, as con- 
cerning the scriptures, in the next proposition, will more 
plainly appear. The question is not, what rnay be profit- 
able or helpful, but what is absolutely necessary. Many 
things may contribute to further a work, which yet are not 
the main thing that makes the work go on. 

The surn then of what is said amounts to this : That 
where the true inward knowledge of God is, through the 
revelation of his Spirit, there is all ; neither is there an ab- 
solute necessity of any other. But where the best, highest, 
and most profound knowledge is, without this there is 
nothing, as to the obtaining the great end of salvation. 


This truth is very effectually confirmed by the first part of 
the proposition itself, which in few words comprehendeth 
divers unquestionable arguments, which I shall in brief 

First, That there is no knowledge of the Father but 

by the Son. 
Secondly, That there is no knowledge of the Son but 

by the Spirit. 
Thirdly, That by the Spirit God hath always revealed 

himself to his children. 
Fourthly, That these revelations were the formal ob- 
ject of the saints' faith. 
And Lastly, That the same continueth to be the ob- 
ject of the saints' faith to this day. 
Of each of these I shall speak a little particularly, and 
then proceed to the latter part. 
Assert, i. § V. As to the first, viz. That there i& no knowledge 
proved. Qf jj^g Father but by the Son, it will easily be proved, be- 
ing founded upon the plain words of scripture, and is 
therefore a fit medium from whence to deduce the rest of 
our assertions. 

For the infinite and most wise God, who is the founda- 
tion, root and spring of all operation, hath wrought all 

Johni. 1, thin«;s bv his eternal Word and Son. " This is that Word 
2 3 . 

' ■ that was in the beginning with God, and was God, by 

whom all things were made, and without whom was not 

any thing made that was made." This is that "Jesus 

Eph. iii. 9. Christ, by whom God created all things, by whom, and 

for whom, all things were created, that are in heaven and 

in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or 

dominions, or principalities, or powers," Col. i. 16. who 

therefore is called, " The first-born of every creature," 

Col. i. 15. As then that infinite and incomprehensible 

fountain of life and motion operateth in the creatures by 

his own eternal word and power, so no creature has access 

again unto him but in and by the Son, according to his 

own express words, " No man knoweth the Father, but 

the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal him," Mat. 


xi. 27. Luke x. 22. And again, he himself saith, "I am 
the way, the truth, and the life : no man cometh unto the 
Father but by me," John xiv. 6. 

Hence he is fitly called, The mediator betwixt God and 
man : for having been with God from all eternity, being 
himself God, and also in time partaking of the nature of 
man, through him is the goodness and love of God con- 
veyed to mankind, and by him again man receiveth and 
partaketh of these mercies. 

Hence is easily deduced the proof of this first assertion, 
thus : 

If no man knoweth the Father but the Son, and he to 
whom the Son will reveal him, then there is no knowledge 
of the Father but by the Son. 

But, no man knoweth the Father but the Son : 

Therefore, there is no knowledge of the Father but by 
the Son. 

The first part of the antecedent are the plain words of 
scripture : the consequence thereof is undeniable ; except 
one would say, that he hath the knowledge of the Father, 
while yet he knows him not; which were an absurd re- 

Again, If the Son be the way, the truth, and the life, 
and that no man cometh unto the Father, but by him ; 
then there is no knowledge of the Father but by the Son. 

But the first is true : therefore the last. 

Tke antecedent are the very scripture words : the con- 
sequence is very evident: for how can any know a thing, 
who useth not the way, without which it is not knowable? 
But it is already proved, that there is no other way but by 
the Son ; so that whoso uses not that way, cannot know 
him, neither come unto him. 

§ VI. Having then laid down this first principle, I come Assert, ii 
to the second, viz. : That there is no knowledge of the P^'-^^e'i- 
Son but by the Spirit ; or. That the revelation of the Son 
of God is by the Spirit. 

Where it is to be noted, that I always speak of the saving, 
certain, and necessary knowledge of God ; which that it 


cannot be acquired otherways than by the Spirit, doth also 
appear from many clear scriptures. For Jesus Christ, in 
and by whom the Father is revealed, doth also reveal him- 
self to his disciples and friends in and by his Spirit. As 
his manifestation was outward, when he testified and wit- 
nessed for the truth in this world, and approved himself 
faithful throughout, so being now withdrawn, as to the out- 
ward man, he doth teach and instruct mankind inwardly 
by his own Spirit ; " He standeth at the door, and knock- 
eth, and whoso heareth his voice and openeth, he comes 
in" to such. Rev. iii. 20. Of this revelation of Christ in 
him Paul speaketh. Gal. i. 16, in which he placeth the ex- 
cellency of his ministry, and the certainty of his calling. 
And the promise of Christ to his disciples, " Lo, I am 
with you to the end of the world," confirmeth the same 
thing ; for this is an inward and spiritual presence, as all 
acknowledofe : but what relates hereto will again occur. I 
shall deduce the proof of this proposition from two mani- 
Proof 1. fest places of scripture: the first is, 1 Cor. ii. 11, 12. 
" What man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit 
The things of a man which is in him ? Even so the things of God 
known by kuoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. Now we have 
o'^ff'^'"'"^ received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is 
of God, that we might know the things which are freely 
given us of God." The apostle, in the verses before, 
speaking of the wonderful things which are prepared for 
the saints, after he hath declared, that "the natural man 
cannot reach them," adds, that " they are revealed by the 
Spirit of God," ver. 9, 10, giving this reason, "For the 
Spirit searcheth all things, even the deep things of God." 
And then he bringeth in the comparison, in the verses above- 
mentioned, very apt, and answerable to our purpose and 
doctrine, that " as the things of a man are only known by 
the spirit of man, so the things of God are only known by 
the Spirit of God ;" that is, that as nothing below- the spirit 
of man (as the spirit of brutes, or any other creatures,) 
can properly reach unto or comprehend the things of a 
man, as being of a nobler and higher nature, so neither 


can the spirit of man, or the natural man, as the apostle 
in the fourteenth verse subsumes, receive nor discern the 
things of God, or the things that are spiritual, as being also 
of an higher nature ; which the apostle himself gives for 
the reason, saying, "Neither can he know them, because 
^hey are spiritually discerned." So that the apostle's words 
being reduced to an argument, do very well prove the 
matter under debate, thus : 

If that which appertaineth properly to man, cannot be 
discerned by any lower or baser principle than the spirit of 
man ; then cannot those things, that properly relate unto 
God and Christ, be known or discerned by any lower or 
baser thing than the Spirit of God and Christ. 

But the first is true : therefore also the second. 

The whole strength of the argument is contained in the 
apostle's words before-mentioned ; which, therefore, being 
granted, I shall proceed to deduce a second argument, 
thus : 

That which is spiritual can only be known and discerned 
by the Spirit of God. 

But the revelation of Jesus Christ, and the true and 
saving knowledge of him, is spiritual : 

Therefore the revelation of Jesus Christ, and the true 
and saving knowledge of him, can only be known and dis- 
cerned by the Spirit of God. 

The other scripture is also a saying of the same apostle. Proof 2. 
1 Cor. xii. 3. "No man can say that Jesus is the Lord, Nomancan 
but by the Holy Ghost." This scripture, which is full of Lord°&c. 
truth, and answereth full well to the enlightened under- 
standing of the spiritual and real Christian, may perhaps 
prove very strange to the carnal and pretended follower of 
Christ, by whom perhaps it hath not been so diligently re- 
marked. Here the apostle doth so much require the Holy 
Spirit in the things that relate to a Christian, that he posi- 
tively avers, we cannot so much as affirm Jesus to be the 
Lord without it ; which insinuates no less, than that the trmhs^ar 

s are 

spiritual truths of the gospel are as lies in the mouths of j'^s spoken 
'^ . . . by carnal 

carnal and unspiritual men ; for though in themselves they men. 

a parrot. 


be true, yet are they not true as to them, because not 
known, nor uttered forth in and by that principle and spirit 
that ought to direct the mind and actuate it in such things : 
they are no better than the counterfeit representations of 
things in a comedy; neither can it be more truly and pro- 
perly called a real and true knowledge of God and Christ, 
than the actions of Alexander the Great, and Julius Cffisar, 
&,c., if now transacted upon a stage, might be called truly 
and really their doings ; or the persons representmg them 
might be said truly and really to have conquered Asia, 
overcome Pompey, &c. 

This knowledge then of Christ, which is not by the re- 
velation of his own Spirit in the heart, is no more properly 
Like the the knowledge of Christ, than the prattling of a parrot, 
roarrot^ " which has been taught a few words, may be said to be the 
voice of a man ; for as that, or some other bird, may be 
taught to sound or utter forth a rational sentence, as it hath 
learned it by the outward ear, and not from any living prin- 
ciple of reason actuating it ; so just such is that knowledge 
of the things of God, which the natural and carnal man 
hath gathered from the words or writings of spiritual men, 
which are not true to him, because conceived in the natural 
spirit, and so brought forth by the wrong organ, and not 
proceeding from the spiritual principle ; no more than the 
words of a man acquired by art, and brought forth by the 
mouth of a bird, not proceeding from a rational principle, 
are true with respect to the bird which utters them. Where- 
fore from this scripture I shall further add this argument: 

If no man can say Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy 
Ghost ; then no man can know Jesus to be the Lord, but 
by the Holy Ghost. 

But the first is true : therefore the second. 

From this argument there may be another deduced, con- 
cluding in the very terms of this assertion : thus. 

If no man can know Jesus to be the Lord, but by the 
Holy Ghost, then there can be no certain knowledge or re- 
velation of him but by the Spirit. 

But the first is true : therefore the second. 


§ VII. The third thing affirmed is, That by the Spirit Assert, iii. 
God always revealed himself to his children. 

For making the truth of" this assertion appear, it will be 
but n'eedful to consider God's manifesting himself towards 
and in relation to his creatures from the beginning, which 
resolves itself always herein. The first step of all is ascribed 
hereunto by Moses, Gen. i. 2. "And the Spirit of God moved 
upon the face of the waters." I think it will not be denied, 
that God's converse with man, all along from Adam to 
Moses, was by the immediate manifestation of his Spirit : That reve- 
and afterwards, through the whole tract of the law, he the'spirit ' 
spake to his children no otherways ; which, as it naturally of God. 
followeth from the principles above proved, so it cannot 
be denied by such as acknowledge the scriptures of truth 
to have been written by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost : 
for these writings, from Moses to Malachi, do declare, that 
during all that time God revealed himself to his children 
by his Spirit. 

But if any will object. That after the dispensation of the Object. 
law God's method of speaking was altered ; 

I answer : First, That God spake always immediately Answ. 
to the Jews, in that he spake always immediately to the 
High-Priest from betwixt the Cherubims ; who, when he Sanctum 
entered into the Holy of Holies, returning, did relate to the Sanctorum, 
whole people the voice and will of God, there immediately 
revealed. So that this immediate speaking never ceased in 
any age. 

Secondly, From this immediate fellow'ship were none 
shut out, who earnestly sought after and waited for it ; in 
that many, besides the High-Priest, who were not so much 
as of the kindred of Levi, nor of the prophets, did receive 
it and speak from it ; as it is written. Numb. xi. 25, where 
the Spirit is said to have rested on the seventy elders ; None shut 
which Spirit also reached unto two that were not in the °".^ *.''°'^ 

'■ . this imme- 

tabernacle, but in the camp ; whom when some would diate fel- 
have forbidden, Moses would not, but rejoiced, wishing °^^ '^' 
that all the Lord's people were prophets, and that he would 
put his Spirit upon them, ver. 29. 
4* F 


This is also confirmed, Neh. ix., where the elders of the 
people, after their return from captivity, when they began 
to sanctify tliemselves by fasting and prayer, numbering 
up the many mercies of God towards their fathers, say, 
verse -20, " Thou gavest also thy good Spirit to instruct 
them ;" and verse 30, " Yet many years didst thou for- 
bear, and testify against them by thy Spirit in thy pro- 
phets." Many are tlie sayings of spiritual David to this 
purpose, as Psalm li. 11, 12, " Take not thy holy Spirit 
from me : uiihold me with thy free Spirit." Psal. cxxxix. 
7, " Whither shall I go from thy Spirit ?" Hereunto doth 
the prophet Isaiah ascribe the credit of his testimony, say- 
ing, chap, xlviii. 16, '< And now the Lord God and his 
Spirit hath sent me." And that God revealed himself to 
his children under the New Testament, to wit, to the 
apostles, evangelists, and primitive disciples, is confessed 
by all. How far now this yet continueth, and is to be 
expected, comes hereafter to be spoken to. 
Assert, iv. § VHI. The fourth thing affirmed is, That these revela- 
tions were the object of the saints' faith of old. 
Proved. This will easily appear by the definition of faith, and 

considering what its object is : for which we shall not dive 
into the curious and various notions of the school-men, but 
stay in the plain and positive words of the apostle Paul, 
What faith who, Heb. xi. describes it two ways. "Faith," saith he, 
'< is the substance of things hoped for, and the evidence of 
things not seen :" which, as the apostle illustrateth it in the 
same chapter by many examples, is no other but a firm and 
certain belief of the mind, whereby it resteth, and in a sense 
possesseth the substance of some things hoped for, through 
its confidence in the promise of God : and thus the soul 
hath a most firm evidence, by its faith, of things not yet 
seen nor come to pass. The object of this faith is the pro- 
mise, word, or testimony of God, speaking in the mind. 
Hence it hath been generally affirmed, that the object of 
The object faith is Deus loquens, iScc. that is, God speaking, &c. which 
Dcus lo- is also manifest from all those examples deduced by the 
quens. apostle throughout that whole chapter, whose faith was 


founded neither upon any outward testimony, nor upon 
the voice or writing of man, but upon the revelation of 
God's will, manifest unto them, and in them ; as in the 
example of Noah, ver. 7. thus, " By faith Noah, being 
warned of God of things not seen as yet, moved with fear, 
prepared an ark to the saving of his house ; by the which 
he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteous- 
ness which is by faith." What was here the object of Noah's 

. . faith. 

Noah's faith, but God speaking unto him.'' He had not 

the writings nor prophesyings of any going before, nor yet 
the concurrence of any church or people to strengthen 
him ; and yet his faith in the word, by which he contra- 
dicted the whole world, saved him and his house. Of 
which also Abraham is set forth as a singular example, be- Abraham's 
ing therefore called the Father of the faithful, who is said 
against hope to have believed in hope, in that he not only 
willingly forsook his father's country, not knowing whither 
he went ; in that he believed concerning the coming of 
Isaac, though contrary to natural probability ; but above 
all, in that he refused not to offer him up, not doubting 
but God was able to raise him from the dead ; of whom it 
is said, that in Isaac shall thy seed be called. And last of 
all, in that he rested in the promise, that his seed should 
possess the land, wherein he himself was but a pilgrim, 
and which to them was not to be fulfilled while divers ages 
after. The object of Abraham's faith in all this was no 
other but inward and immediate revelation, or God signi- 
fying his will unto him inwardly and immediately by his 

But because, in this part of the proposition, we made 
also mention of external voices, appearances, and dreams 
in the alternative, I think also fit to speak hereof, what in 
that respect may be objected ; to wit. 

That those who found their faith now upon immediate Object. 
and objective revelation, ought to have also outward voices 
or visions, dreams or appearances for it. 

It is not denied, but God made use of the ministry of Answ. 
angels, who, in the appearance of men, spake outwardly 


The minis- to the saints of old, and that he did also reveal some things 
gels°s()"ak- to them in dreams and visions ; none of which we will 
ingiii the aff\,.jn to be ceased, so as to limit the power and liberty of 

appearance . ' . i i • i i i r> 

ot'iiicMito God in manifestin<j himself towards his children. But 
J'ylj '" ^ while we are considering the object of faith, we must 
not stick to that which is but circumstantially and acci- 
dentally so, but to that which is universally and substan- 
tially so. 

Next again, we must distinguish betwixt that which in 
itself is subject to doubt and delusion, and therefore is re- 
ceived for and because of another ; and that which is not 
subject to any doubt, but is received simply for and because 
of itself, as being prima Veritas, the very first and original 
truth. Let us then consider how or how far these outward 
voices, appearances, and dreams were the object of the 
Revela- saints' faith : was it because they were simply voices, ap- 
dreams^and pt^arances, or dreams ? Nay, certainly ; for they were not 
visions. ignorant, that the devil might form a sound of words, con- 
vey it to the outward ear, and deceive the outward senses, 
by making things to appear that are not. Yea, do we not 
see by daily experience, that the jugglers and mountebanks 
can do as much as all that by their legerdemain ? God 
forbid then that the saints' faith should be founded upon 
so fallacious a foundation as man's outward and fallible 
senses. What made them then give credit to these visions? 
Certainly nothing else but the secret testimony of God's 
Spirit in their hearts, assuring them that the voices, dreams, 
and visions were of and from God. Abraham believed the 
angels ; but who told him that these men were angels .'' 
We must not think his faith then was built upon his out- 
ward senses, but proceeded from the secret persuasion of 
God's Spirit in his heart. This then must needs be 
acknowledged to be originally and principally the object 
of the saints' faith, without which there is no true and cer- 
tain faith, and by which many times faith is begotten and 
strengthened without any of these outward or visiblf 
helps ; as we may observe in many passages of the holy 
scripture, where it is only mentioned, " And God said," 


&c. " And the word of the Lord came" unto such and such, 
saying, &c. 

But if any one should pertinaciously affirm, That this Object. 
did import an outward audible voice to the carnal ear ; 

I would gladly know what other argument such an one Answ. 
could bring for this his affirmation, saving his own simple 
conjecture. It is said indeed, " The Spirit witnesseth The spirit 
with our spirit," Rom. viii. 16 ; but not to our outward the spiritu- 
ears. And seeing the Spirit of God is within us, and not al ear not to 
without us only, it speaks to our spiritual, and not to our ward, 
bodily ear. Therefore I see no reason, where it is so often 
said in scripture, The Spirit said, moved, hindered, called 
such or such a one, to do or forbear such or such a thing, 
that any have to conclude, that this was not an inward 
voice to the ear of the soul, rather than an outward voice 
to the bodily ear. If any be otherwise minded, let them, 
if they can, produce their arguments, and we may further 
consider of them. 

From all therefore which is above declared, I shall de- 
duce an argument to conclude the proof of this assertion, 
thus : 

That which any one firmly believes, as the ground and 
foundation of his hope in God, and life eternal, is the formal 
object of his faith. 

But the inward and immediate revelation of God's Spirit, 
speaking in and unto the saints, was by them believed as 
the ground and foundation of their hope in God, and life 

Therefore these inward and immediate revelations were 
the formal object of their faith. 

§ IX. That which now cometh under debate, is what Assert v. 
we asserted in the last place, to wit, That the same con- 
tinueth to be the object of the saints' faith unto this day. 
Many will agree to what we have said before, who differ 
from us herein. 

There is nevertheless a very firm argument, confirming 
the truth of this assertion, included in the proposition itself, 
to wit, That the object of the saints' faith is the same in 


all ages, though held forth under divers administrations ; 
which I shall reduce to an argument, and prove thus : 

First, Where the faith is one, the object of the faith is 

But the faith is one : Therefore, &c. 

That the faith is one, is the express words of the apostle, 
Eph. iv. 5. who placeth the one faith with the one God ; 
importing no less, than that to affirm two faiths is as absurd 
as to afHrm two gods. 

Moreover, if the faith of the ancients were not one and 
the same with ours, i. e. agreeing in substance therewith, 
and receiving the same definition, it had been impertinent 
The faith of for the apostle, Heb. xi. to have illustrated the definition 
of ofd't'iie 0^ o""^ ^^i^h by the examples of that of the ancients, or to 
same with go about to move US by the example of Abraham, if Abra- 
ham's faith were different in nature from ours. Nor doth 
any ditlerence arise hence, because they believed in Christ 
with respect to his appearance outwardly as future, and we 
as already appeared : for neither did they then so believe 
in him to come, as not to feel him present with them, and 
witness him near ; seeing the apostle saith, " They all drank 
of that spiritual rock which followed thein, which rock was 
Christ;" nor do we so believe concerning his appearance 
past, as not also to feel and know him present with us, and 
to feed upon him ; except Christ, saith the apostle, be in 
you, ye are reprobates ; so that both our faith is one, ter- 
minating in one and the same thing. And as to the other 
part or consequence of the antecedent, to wit, That the 
object is one where the faith is one, the apostle also proveth 
it in the fore-cited chapter, where he makes all the worthies 
of old examples to us. Now wherein are they imitable, 
but because they believed in God ? And what was the 
object of their faith, but inward and immediate revelation, 
as we have before proved ? Their example can be no ways 
applicable to us, except we believe in God, as they did ; 
that is, by the same object. The apostle clears this yet 
further by his own example, Gal. i. 16. where he saith, 
" So soon as Christ was revealed in him, he consulted not 


with flesh and blood, but forthwith believed and obeyed." 
The same apostle, Heb. xiii. 7, 8. where he exhorteth the 
Hebrews to follow the faith of the elders, adds this reason, 
" Considering the end of their conversation, Jesus Christ, 
the same to-day, yesterday, and for ever:" Hereby notably 
insinuating, that in the object there is no alteration. 

If any now object the diversity of administration ; Object 

I answer ; That altereth not at all the object : for the Answ. 
same apostle mentioning this diversity three times, 1 Cor. 
xii. 4, 5, 6. centereth always in the same object; the same 
Spirit, the same Lord, the same God. 

But further ; If the object of faith were not one and the 
same both to us and to them, then it would follow that we 
were to know God some other way than by the Spirit. 

But this were absurd : Therefore, &c. 

Lastly, this is most firmly proved from a common and 
received maxim of the school-men, to wit, Omnis actus spe- 
cificatur ah objedo, ' Every act is specified from its object ;' 
from which, if it be true, as they acknowledge, (though for 
the sake of many I shall not recur to this argument, as 
being too nice and scholastic, neither lay I much stress upon 
those kind of things, as being that which commends not 
the simplicity of the gospel) it would follow, that if the ob- 
ject were different, then the faith would be different also. 

Such as deny this proposition now-a-days use here a dis- 
tinction ; granting that God is to be known by his Spirit, 
but again denying that it is immediate or inward, but in 
and by the scriptures ; in which the mind of the Spirit (as 
they say) being fully and amply expressed, we are thereby 
to know God, and be led in all things. 

As to the negative of this assertion. That the scriptures 
are not sufficient, neither were ever appointed to be the 
adequate and only rule, nor yet can guide or direct a Chris- 
tian in all those things that are needful for him to know, 
we shall leave that to the next proposition to be examined. 
What is proper in this place to be proved is, That Chris- 
tians now are to be led inwardly and immediately by the 
Spirit of God, even in the same manner, though it befall 


not many to be led in the same measure, as the saints were 

of old. 
Christians § ^- I shall prove this by divers arguments, and first 
are now to from the iMomise of Christ in these words, John xiv. 16, 

be led by '_ ^ / ' 

the .Spirit, "And I will pray the Father, and he will give you another 
manner as Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever." Ver. 17. 
tliijsanitsof u Even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, 
because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him ; but ye 
know him, for he dwelleth with you, arfd shall be in you." 
Again, ver. 26. '< But the Comforter, which is the Holy 
Ghost, whom the Father will send in ray name, he shall 
teach you all things, and bring all things to your remem- 
brance." And xvi. 13. But "when he, the Spirit of truth 
is come, he will guide you into all truth : for he shall 
not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear he shall 
speak, and he will show you things to come." We have 
here first, who this is, and that is divers ways expressed, 
to wit : The Comforter, the Spirit of truth, the Holy Ghost, 
the Sent of the Father in the name of Christ. And hereby 
is sufficiently proved the sotlishness of those Socinians and 
other carnal Christians, who neither know nor acknowledge 
any internal Spirit or power but that which is merely natural ; 
by which they sufficiently declare themselves to be of the 
world, who cannot receive the Spirit, because they neither 
see him nor know him. Secondly, Where this Spirit is to 
be, "He dwelleth with you, and shall be in you." And 
Thirdly, What his work is, " He shall teach you all things, 
and bring all things to your remembrance, and guide you 
into all truth," oOo^/ja'Hi v(xas iig uadav t" aKrfisi(x\i. 
Query 1. ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^t, most do acknowledge that there is nothing 

Who IS this gigg understood than what the plain words signify; which 

Comiorier? . . ^ . ^ •' . 

is also evident by many other places of scripture that will 
jv,-„„sgngi. hereafter occur ; neither do I see how such as affirm other- 
cal conse- ^yays Can avoid blasphemy : for, if the Comforter, the Holy 

quences '' . . . . 

from the Ghost, and Spirit of truth, be all one with the scriptures, 
beHetoHhe ^^^^ ^^ '^^'i'l foUow that the scriptures are God, seeing it is 
scriptures true that the Holy Ghost is God. If these men's reasoning 

beint? the • , i ... . , . , 

Spirit. might take place, wherever the Spirit is mentioned in rela- 



tion to the saints, thereby might be truly and properly un- 
derstood the scriptures ; which, what a nonsensical monster 
it would make of the Christian religion, will easily appear 
to all men. As where it is said, "A manifestation of the 
Spirit is given to every man to profit withal ;" it might be 
rendered thus: A manifestation of the scriptures is given 
to every man to profit withal ; what notable sense this would 
make, and what a curious interpretation, let us consider by 
the sequel of the same chapter, 1 Cor. xii. 9, 10, 11. " To 
another the gifts of healing, by the same Spirit ; to another 
the working of miracles, &c. But all these worketh that 
one and the self-same Spirit, dividing to every man seve- 
rally as he will." What would now these great masters of 
reason, the Socinians, judge, if we should place the scrip- 
tures here instead of the Spirit? Would it answer their 
reason, which is the great guide of their faith ? Would it 
be good and sound reason in their logical schools, to afhrm 
that the scripture divideth severally as it will, and giveth to 
some the gift of healing, to others the working of miracles ? 
If then this Spirit, a manifestation whereof is given to 
every man to profit withal, be no other than that Spirit of 
truth before-mentioned which guideth into all truth, this 
Spirit of truth cannot be the scripture. I could infer an hun- 
dred more absurdities of this kind upon this sottish opinion, 
but what is said may suffice. For even some of themselves, 
being at times forgetful or ashamed of their ow'n doctrine, 
do acknowledge that the Spirit of God is another thing, 
and distinct from the scriptures, to guide and influence the 

Secondly, That this Spirit is inward, in my opinion Query 2. 
needs no interpretation or commentary, "He tlwelleth j^^^ p[^j,g*j 
with you, and shall be in you," This indwelling of the 
Spirit in the saints, as it is a thing most needful to be 
known and believed, so is it as positively asserted in the 
scripture as any thing else can be. " If so be that the 
Spirit of God dwell in you," saith the apostle to the Ro- 
mans, chap, viii. 9. And again, " Know ye not that your 
body is the temple of the Holy Ghost, 1 Cor. vi. 19. " And 
5 . G 



that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you ?" 1 Cor. iii. 16. 
Without this the apostle reckoneth no man a Christian. 
" If" any man f saith he) have not the Spirit of Ciu"ist, he is 
none of his." These words immediately follow those 
above mentioned out of the epistle to the Romans, " But 
ye are not in the flfsh, but in the Spirit, if so be the Spirit 
The Spirit of God dwell in you." The context of which showeth, 
main"i'okcn ^'^'^^ ^'^^ apostle reckonetii it the main token of a Christian, 
ot a Chris- both positively and negatively : for in the former verses 
he showeth how the carnal mind is enmity against God, 
and that such as are in the flesh cannot please him. Where 
subsuming, he adds concernino; the Romans, that they are 
not in the flesh, if the Spirit of God dwell in them. What 
is this but to affirm, that they in whom the Spirit dwells 
are no longer in the flesh, nor of those who please not God, 
but are become Christians indeed .'' Again, in the same 
verse he concludes negatively, that "If any man have not 
the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his ;" that is, he is no 
Christian. He then that acknowledges himself ignorant 
and a stranger to the inward in-being of the Spirit of Christ 
in his heart, doth thereby acknowledge himself to be yet 
in the carnal mind, which is enmity to God ; to be yet in 
the flesh, where God cannot be pleased ; and in short, 
whatever he may otherways know or believe of Christ, or 
however much skilled or acquainted with the letter of the 
holy scripture, not yet to be, notwithstanding all that, at- 
tained to the least degree of a Christian ; yea, not once to 
have embraced the Christian religion. For take but away 
the Spirit, and Christianity remains no more Christianity, 
than the dead carcase of a man, when the soul and spirit is 
departed, remains a man ; which the living can no more 
abide, but do bury out of their sight, as a noisome and 
useless thing, however acceptable it hath been when actu- 
ated and moved by the soul. Lastly, Whatsoever is 
excellent, whatsoever is noble, whatsoever is worthy, what- 
soever is desirable in the Christian faith, is ascribed to this 
Spirit, without which it could no more subsist than the 
outward world without the sun. Hereunto have all true 



Christians, in all ages, attributed their strergth and life. It 
is by this Spirit that they avouch themselves to have been 
converted to God, to have been redeemed from the world, 
to have been strengthened in their weakness, comforted in 
their afflictions, confirmed in their temptations, emboldened 
in their sufferings, and triumphed in the midst of all their 
persecutions. Yea, the writings of all true Christians are The great 
full of the great and notable things which they all affirm a^g ^^at 
themselves to have done, by the power, and virtue, and !,\^j!,rrper. 
efficacy of this Spirit of God working in them. " It is the fonned by 
Spirit that quickeneth," John vi. 63. It was the Spirit in ail ages, 
that gave them utterance. Acts ii. 4. It was the Spirit 
by which Stephen spake, that the Jews were not able 
to resist. Acts vi. 10. It is such as walk after the 
Spirit that receive no condemnation, Rom. viii. 1. It is 
the law of the Spirit that makes free, ver. 2. It is by 
the Spirit of God dwelling in us that we are redeemed 
from the flesh, and from the carnal mind, ver. 9. It is 
the Spirit of Christ dwelling in us that quickeneth our 
mortal bodies, ver. 11. It is through this Spirit that the 
deeds of the body are mortified, and life obtained, ver. 13. 
It is by this Spirit that we are adopted, and "cry ABBA 
Father," ver. 15. It is this " Spirit that beareth witness 
with our spirit that we are the children of God," ver. 16. 
It is this " Spirit that helpeth our infirmities, and maketh 
intercession for us, with groanings which cannot be ut- 
tered," ver. 26. It is by this Spirit that the glorious things 
wdiich God hath laid up for us, which neither outward 
ear hath heard, nor outward eye hath seen, nor the heart 
of man conceived by all his reasonings, are revealed unto 
us, 1 Cor. ii. 9, 10. It is by this Spirit that both wisdom 
and knowledge, and faith, and miracles, and tongues, and 
prophecies, are obtained, 1 Cor. xii. 8, 9, 10. It is by 
this Spirit that we are " all baptized into one body," ver. 
13. In short, what thing relating to the salvation of the 
soul, and to the life of a Christian, is rightly performed, or 
effectually obtained, without it? And what shall I say 
more .■* For the time would fail me to tell of all those things 


which the holy men of old have declared, and the saints 
of tliis day do themselves enjoy, by the virtue and power 
of" this Si)irit dwelling in them. Truly my paper could not 
contain the many testimonies whereby tliis truth is con- 
firmed ; wherefore, besides what is above mentioned out 
of the fathers, whom all pretend to reverence, and those 
of Luther and Melancthon, I shall ih-duee yet one observ- 
able testimony out of Calvin, because not a few of the fol- 
lowers of his doctrine do refuse and deride (and that, as it 
is to be feared, because of their own non-experience there- 
of) this way of the Spirit's indwelling, as uncertain and 
dangerous ; that so, if neither the testimony of the scrip- 
ture, nor the sayings of others, nor right reason can move 
them, they may at least be reproved by the words of their 
own master, who saith in the third book of his institutions, 
cap. "2, on this wise : 
Calvin, of "But they allege, It is a bold presumption for any to 
i^^oHh^e^^'" pretend to an undoubted knowledge of God's will ; which," 
Spirit's in- saith he, " I should grant unto them, if we should ascribe 
so much to ourselves as to subject the incomprehensible 
counsel of God to the rashness of our understandings. But 
while we simply say with Paul, that 'we have received not 
the spirit of this world, but the Spirit which is of God,' by 
whose teaching we know those things that are given us of 
God, what can they prate against it without reproaching 
the Spirit of God ? For if it be an horrible sacrilege to ac- 
cuse any revelation coming from him, either of a lie, of 
uncertainty or ambiguity, in asserting its certainty wherein 
do we offend ? But they cry out. That it is not without 
great temerity that we dare so boast of the Spirit of Christ. 
Who would believe that the sottisimess of these men were 
so great, who would be esteemed the masters of the world, 
that they should so fail in the lirst principles of religion ? 
Verily I could not believe it, if their own writings did not 
testify so much. Paul accounts those the sons of God, 
who are actuated by the Spirit of God ; but these will have 
the children of God actuated by their own spirits without 
the Spirit of God. He will have us call God Father, the 

dwelling in 


Spirit dictating that term unto us, which only can witness 
to our spirits that we are the sons of God. These, though 
they cease not to call upon God, do nevertheless dismiss 
the Spirit, by whose guiding he is rightly to be called 
upon. He denies them to be the sons of God, or the 
servants of Christ, who are not led by his Spirit ; but these 
feign a Christianity that needs not the Spirit of Christ. He 
takes away the hope of a blessed resurrection, unless we 
feel the Spirit residing in us ; but these feign a hope with- 
out any such feeling; but perhaps they will answer, that 
they deny not but that it is necessary to have it, only of 
modesty and humility we ought to deny and not acknow- 
ledge it. What means he then, when he commands the 
Corinthians to try themselves, if they be in the faith ; to 
examine themselves, whether they have Christ, whom who 
soever acknowledges not dwelling in him, is a reprobate } 
' By the Spirit which he hath given us,' saith John, ' we 
know that he abideth in us.' And wliat do we then else 
but call in question Christ's promise, while we would be 
esteemed the servants of God without his Spirit, which he 
declared he would pour out upon all his ? Seeing these 
things are the first grounds of piety, it is miserable blind- 
ness to accuse Christians of pride, because they dare glory Without 
of the presence of the Spirit ; without which glorying, presence''^ 
Christianity itself could not be. But by their example thev t'hnsiian- 

ity must 

declare, how truly Christ spake, saying, That his Spirit cease. 
was unknown to the world, and that those only acknow- 
ledge it, with whom it remains." Thus far Calvin. 

If therefore it be so, why should any be so foolish as to 
deny, or so unwise as not to seek after this Spirit, which 
Christ hath promised shall dwell in his children ? They 
then that do suppose the indwelling and leading of his 
Spirit to be ceased, must also suppose Christianity to be 
ceased, which cannot subsist without it. 

Thirdly, What the work of this Spirit is, is partly before What is the 
shown, which Christ compriseth in two or three thinii's, 0°'^'^"* ^*"' 

- _ _ I- & ' .Spirit ? 

"He will guide you into all truth ;" "He will teach you John xvi. 
all things, and bring all things to your remembrance." 2fi. 


Since Christ hath provided for us so good an instructor, 
why need we then lean so much to those traditions and 
commandments of men wherewith so many Christians have 
burthened themselves? Why need we set up our own 
The Spirit Carnal and corrupt reason for a guide to us in matters spi- 
the guide, pj^j,^]^ gj, gome will needs do? May it not be com- 
plained of all such, as the Lord did of old concerning Is- 
rael by the prophets, Jer. ii. 13: '< For my people have 
committed two evils, they have forsaken me, the fountain 
of living waters, and hewed them out cisterns, broken cis- 
• terns, that can hold no water ?" Have not many forsaken, 
do not many deride and reject, this inward and immediate 
guide, this Spirit that leads into all truth, and cast up to 
themselves other ways, broken ways indeed, which have 
not all this while brought them out of the flesh, nor out of 
the world, nor from under the dominion of their own lusts 
and sinful affections, whereby truth, wjiich is only rightly 
learned by this Spirit, is so much a stranger in the earth ? 

From all then that hath been mentioned concerning this 
promise, and these words of Christ, it will follow, that 
Christians are always to be led inwardly and immediately 
by the Spirit of God dwelling in them, and that the same 
is a standing and perpetual ordinance, as well to the church 
in general in all ages, as to every individual member in 
particular, as appears from this argument : 

The promises of Christ to his children are Yea and Amen, 
and cannot fail, but must of necessity be fulfilled. 

But Christ hath promised, that the Comforter, the Holy 
Ghost, the Spirit of truth, shall abide with his children for 
ever ; shall dwell with them, shall be in them, shall lead 
them into all truth, shall teach them all things, and bring 
all things to tlieir remembrance : 

Therefore the Comforter, the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of 
truth, his abiding with his children, &c., is Yea and 
Amen, &c. 

Again : No man is redeemed from the carnal mind, which 
is at enmity with God, which is not subject to the law of 
God, neither can be : no man is yet in the Spirit, but in 


the flesh, and cannot please God, except he in whom the 
Spirit of God dwells. 

But every true Christian is in measure redeemed from 
the carnal mind, is gathered out of the enmity, and can be 
subject to the law of God ; is out of the flesh, and in the 
Spirit, the Spirit of God dwelling in him. 

Therefore every true Christian hath the Spirit of God 
dwelling in him. 

Again: "Whosoever hath not the Spirit of Christ, is 
none of his ;" that is, no child, no friend, no disciple of 

But every true Christian is a child, a friend, a disciple 
of Christ : 

Therefore every true Christian hath the Spirit of Christ. 

Moreover : Whosoever is the temple of the Holy Ghost, 
in him the Spirit of God dwelleth and abideth. 

But every true Christian is the temple of the Holy Ghost : 

Therefore in every true Christian the Spirit of God 
dwelleth and abideth. 

But to conclude : He in whom the Spirit of God dwell- 
eth, it is not in him a lazy, dumb, useless thing ; but it 
moveth, actuateth, governeth, instructeth, and teacheth him 
all things whatsoever are needful for him to know ; yea, 
brino-eth all thinos to his remembrance. 

But the Spirit of God dwelleth in every true Christian : 

Therefore the Spirit of God leadeth, instructeth, and 
teacheth every true Christian whatsoever is needful for him 
to know. 

§ XI. But there are some that will confess. That the Object. 
Spirit doth now lead and influence the saints, but that he 
doth it only subjectively, or in a blind manner, by enlight- 
ening their understandings, to understand and believe the 
truth delivered in the scriptures ; but not at all by pre- 
senting those truths to the mind by way of object, and this 
they call, Medium hicognitum asseniiendi, as that of whose 
working a man is not sensible. 

This opinion, though somewhat more tolerable than the Answ. 


former, is nevertheless not altogether according to truth, 
neither tloth it reach the fiilni'ss of it. 

Arg. 1. 1. there be iniiny truths, which as they are ap- 

plicable to i)arliculars and individuals, and most needful to 
be known by tiiem, are in nowise to be found in the scrip- 
ture, as in the foHowing proposition shall be shown. 

Besides, the arguments already adduced do prove, that 
the Spirit doth not only subjectively help us to discern 
truths elsewhere delivered, but also objectively present 
those truths to our minds. For that which teacheth me all 
things, and is given me for liiat end, without doubt pre- 
sents those things to my miiid which it teacheth me. It is 
not said, It shall teach you how to understand those things 
that are written ; but. It shall teach you all things. Again, 
That which bringeth all things to my remembrance, must 
needs present them by way of object ; else it were im- 
proper to say, It brought them to my remembrance ; but 
only, that it helpelh to remember the objects brought from 

Ar". 2. My second argument shall be draw'n from the nature of 

the new covenant ; by which, and those that follow, I shall 
prove that we are led by the Spirit both immediately and 
objectively. The nature of the new covenant is expressed 
in divers places ; and 

Proof 1. First, Isa. lix. 21, " As for me, this is my covenant with 

them, saith the Lord ; My Spirit that is upon thee, and my 
words which I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart 
out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor 
out of the mouth of thy seed's seed, saith the Lord, from 

The lend- henceforth and for ever." By the latter part of this is sulh- 

Sinrit"' ''^*^ ciendy expressed the perpetuity and continuance of this 
promise, " It shall not depart, saith the Lord, from hence- 
forth and for ever." In the former part is the promise 
itself, which is the Sjiirit of God being upon them, and ihe 
words of God being put into their mouths. 

1. Imme- First, This was immediate, for there is no mention made 

'^ ^ ^' of any medium ; he saith not, I shall by the means of such 

and such writings or books, convey such and such words 


into your mouths ; but My words, I. even I, saith the 
Lord, have put into your mouths. 

Secondly, This must be objectively ; for the words put 2. Objec- 
into the mouth, are the object presented by him. He saith ^^^*^ ^' 
not. The words which ye shall see written, my Spirit shall 
only enlighten your understandings to assent unto ; but 
positively, "My words, which I have put in thy mouth," 
&c. From whence I argue thus : 

Upon whomsoever the Spirit remaineth always, and put- 
teth words into his mouth, him doth the Spirit teach 
immediately, objectively, and continually. 

But the Spirit is always upon the seed of the righteous, 
and putteth words into their mouths, neither departeth 
from them : 

Therefore the Spirit teacheth the righteous immediately, 
objectively, and continually. 

Secondly, The nature of the new covenant is yet more Proof 2. 
amply expressed, Jer. xxxi. 33, which is again repeated 
and re-asserted by the apostle, Heb. viii. 10, 11, in these 
words, " For this is the covenant that I will make with the 
house of Israel, after those days, saith the Lord, I will put 
my laws into their minds, and write them in their hearts, 
and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a 
people. And they shall not teach every man his neigh- 
bour, and every man his brother, saying. Know the Lord ; 
for all shall know me, from the least to the greatest." 

The object here is God's law placed in the heart, and 
written in the mind ; from whence they become God's 
people, and are brought truly to know him. 

In this then is the law distinguished from the gospel ; The differ- 
the law before was outward, written in tables of stone, but tween the 
now is inward, written in the heart : of old the people de- o''t^Y'^''^ , 

' _ _ ' '^ and inward 

pended upon their priests for the knowledge of God, but law. 
now they have all a certain and sensible knowledge of Him ; 
concerning which Augustine speaketh well, in his book 
De Litem Sf Spiritu ; from whom Aquinas first of all seems 
to have taken occasion to move this question. Whether 
the new law be a written law, or an implanted law .'' Lex 


sciipta, vel lex indita 1 Which he thus resolves, affirming 
that the new law, or gospel, is not properly a law written, 
as tiie old was, but Lex indita, an implanted law ; and that 
the old law was written without, but the new law is written 
within, on the table of the heart. 

How much then are they deceived, who, instead of 

making the gospel preferable to the law, have made the 

condition of such as are under the gospel far worse ? For 

The gospel no doubt it is a far better and more desirable tiling to con- 

fion more ^'<-'^'^^ with God immediately, than only mediately, as being 

glorious an hiolier and more glorious dispensation : and yet these 

than that of '^ , , , , ^ , , i i i • 

the law. men acknowledge that many under the law had imme- 
diate converse with God, whereas they now cry it is 

Again : Under the law there was the holy of holies, into 
which the high priest did enter, and received the word 
of the Lord immediately from betwixt the cherubims, so 
that the people could then certainly know the mind of the 
Lord ; but now, according to these men's judgment, we 
are in a far worse condition, having nothing but the out- 
ward letter of the scripture to guess and divine from ; con- 
cerning the sense or meaning of one verse of which, scarce 
two can be found to agree. But Jesus Christ hath pro- 
mised us better things, though many are so unwise as not 
to believe him, even to guide us by his own unerring Spi- 
rit, and hath rent and removed the veil, whereby not only 
one, and that once a year, may enter ; but all of us, at all 
times, have access unto him, as often as we draw near unto 
him with pure hearts : he reveals his will to us by his Spi- 
rit, and writes his laws in our hearts. These things then 
being thus premised, I argue, 

Where the law of God is put into the mind, and written 
in the heart, there the object of faitii, and revelation of the 
knowledge of God, is inward, immediate, and objective. 

But the law^ of God is put into the mind, and written 
in the heart of every true Christian, under the new cove- 

Therefore the object of faith, and revelation of the 





knowledge of God to every true Christian, is inward, im- 
mediate, and objective. 

The assumption is the express words of scripture : the 
proposition then must needs be true, except that which is 
put into the mind, and written in the heart, were either not 
inward, not immediate, or not objective, which is most 

§ XII. The third argument is from these words of John, Aig. 3. 
1 John ii. ver. 27, "But the anointing, which ye have re- Theanoint- 
ceived of him, abideth in you, and ye need not that any Jjjf,-|^^g'^^'^ 
man teach you : but as the same anointing teacheth you 
of all things, and is truth, and is no lie ; and even as it 
hath taught you, ye shall abide in him." 

First, This could not be any special, peculiar, or extra- 
ordinary privilege, but that which is common to all the 
saints, it being a general epistle, directed to all them of 
that age. 

Secondly, The apostle proposeth this anointing in them, 
as a more certain touch-stone for them to discern and try 
seducers by, even than his own writings ; for having in the 
former verse said, that he had written some things to them 
concerning such as seduced them, he begins the next verse, 
" But the anointmg," &c., " and ye need not that any man 
teach you," &c., which infers, that having said to them 
what can be said, he refers them for all to the inward 
anointing, which teacheth all things, as the most firm, con- 
stant, and certain bulwark against all seducers. 

And lastly. That it is a lasting and continuing thing; 
the anointing which abideth. If it had not been to abide 
in them, it could not have taught them all things, neither 
guarded them against all hazard. From which I argue 

He that hath an anointing abiding in him, which teach- 
eth him all things, so that he needs no man to teach him, 
hath an inward and immediate teacher, and hath some 
things inwardly and immediately revealed unto him. 

But the saints have such an anointing : 

Therefore, &c. 

1 asting 


I could prove this doctrine from many more places of 

scripture, which for brevity's sake I omit ; and now come 

to the second part of the proposition, where the objections 

usually formed against it are answered. 

Object. § Xfll. The most usual is. That these revelations are 

Answ. But this bespeaketh much ignorance in the opposers; 

for we distinguish between the thesis and the hypothesis; 
that is, between the proposition and supposition. For it is 
one thing to atlirni, that the true and undoubted revelation 
of God's Spirit is certain and infallible ; and another thing 
to alhrm, that this or that particular person or people is led 
infallibly by this revelation in what they speak or write, 
because tliey afhrm themselves to be so led by the inward 
and immediate revelation of the Spirit. The first is only 
asserted by us, the latter may be called in question. The 
question is not who are or are not so led .' But whether 
all ought not or may not be so led ? 
The cer- Seeing then we have already proved that Christ hath 

the"spirit's promised his Spirit to lead his children, and that every one 
guidance ^f [\^qi^^ ijoth ought and may be led by it, if any depart 
from this certain guide in deeds, and yet in words pretend 
to be led by it into things that are not good, it will not 
from thence follow, that the true guidance of the Spirit is 
uncertain, or ought not to be followed ; no more than it 
will follow that the sun showeth not light, because a blind 
man, or one who wilfully shuts his eyes, falls into a ditch 
at noon-day for want of light ; or that no words are spoken, 
because a deaf man hears them not ; or that a garden full 
of fragrant flowers has no sweet smell, because he that has 
lost his smelling doth not smell it ; the fault then is in the 
organ, and not in the object. 

All these mistakes therefore are to be ascribed to the 
weakness or wickedness of men, and not to that Holy Spi- 
rit. Such as bend themselves most against this certain and 
infallible testimony of the Spirit use commonly to allege 
the example of the old Gnostics, and the late monstrous 
and mischievous actings of the Anabaptists of Munster, all 


which toucheth us nothing- at all, neither weakens a whit 
our most true doctrine. Wherefore, as a most sure bul- 
wark against such kind of assaults, was subjoined that 
other part of our proposition thus : Moreover these divine 
and inward revelations, which we establish as absolutely 
necessary for the founding of the true faith, as they do not 
so neither can they at any time contradict the Scripture's 
testimony, or sound reason. 

Besides the intrinsic and undoubted truth of this asser- By expe 
tion, we can boldly affirm it from our certain and blessed 
experience. For this Spirit never deceived us, never acted 
nor moved us to any thing that was amiss ; but is clear 
and manifest in its revelations, which are evidently dis- 
cerned by us, as we wait in that pure and undefiled light 
of God, that proper and fit organ in which they are re- 
ceived. Therefore if any reason after this manner. 

That because some wicked, ungodly, devilish men have 
committed wicked actions, and have yet more wickedly 
asserted, that they were led into these things by the Spirit 
of God ; 

Therefore, No man ought to lean to the Spirit of God, 
or seek to be led by it, 

I utterly deny the consequence of this proposition, which, Theabsur. 
were it to be received as true, then would all faith in God coiise- 
and hope of salvation become uncertain, and the Christian qu6n<^e. 
religion be turned into mere scepticism. For after the 
same manner I might reason thus : 

Because Eve was deceived by the lying of the serpent ; 

Therefore she ought not to have trusted to the promise 
of God. 

Because the old world was deluded by evil spirits; 

Therefore ought neither Noah, nor Abraham, nor Moses, 
to have trusted the Spirit of the Lord. 

Because a lying spirit spake through the four hundred 
prophets that persuaded Ahab to go up and fight at Ramoth 
Gilead ; 

Therefore the testimony of the true Spirit in Micaiah was 
uncertain, and dangerous to be followed. 


Because them were seducing spirits crept into the churcli 
of old ; 

Tiierefore it was not good, or it is uncertain, to follow 
the anointing, wiiich taught all things, and is truth, and is 
no lie. 

Who dare say that this is a necessary consequence ? 
Moreover, not only the faith of the saints, and church of 
God of old, is hereby rendered uncertain, but also the 
faith of all sorts of Cliristians now is liable to the like 
hazard, even of those who seek a foundation for their faith 
elsewhere than from the Spirit. For I shall prove by an 
inevitable argument, ah incommodo, i. e., from the incon- 
veniency of it, that if the Spirit be not to be followed upon 
that account, and that men may not depend upon it as 
their guide, because some, while pretending thereunto, 
commit great evils ; that then, neither tradition, nor the 
scriptures, nor reason, which the Papists, Protestants, and 
Socinians do respectively make the rule of their faith, are 
1. Instances any whit more certain. The Romanists reckon it an error 
of tradition. ^^ celebrate Easter any other ways than that church doth. 
This can only be decided by tradition. And yet the Greek 
church, which equally layelh claim to tradition with herself, 
doth it otherwise. Yea, so little effectual is tradition to de- 
Euseb. cide the case, that Polycarpus, the disciple of John, and 
cles'. lib.'v. Anicetus, the bishop of Rome, who immediately succeeded 
c. 26. them, according to whose example both sides concluded 

the question ought to be decided, could not agree. Here 
of necessity one of them must err, and that following tra- 
dition. Would the Papists now judge we dealt fairly by 
them, if we should thence aver, that tradition is not to be 
regarded ? Besides, in a matter of f\ir greater importance 
the same difficulty will occur, to wit, in the primacy of the 
bishop of Rome ; for many do affirm, and that by tradition, 
that in the first six hundred years the Roman prelates never 
assumed the title of Universal Shepherd, nor were acknow- 
ledged as such. And, as that which altogether overturneth 
this presidency, there are those that allege, and that from 
tradition also, that Peter never saw Rome ; and that there- 


fore the bishop of Rome cannot be his successor. Would 
you-Rornanists think this sound reasoning, to say as you 

Many have been deceived, and erred grievously, in trust- 
ing to tradition ; 

Therefore we ought to reject all traditions, yea, even 
those by which we affirm the contrary, and, as we think, 
prove the truth. 

Lastly, In the * council of Florence, the chief doctors * Cone, 
of the Romish and Greek churches did debate whole ses- 5. decreto- 
sions loncj concernino- the interpretation of one sentence of ?."°'^^™ , 

^_ o ^ . . . Cone. Eph. 

the council of Ephesus, and of Epiphanius, and Basilius, Act. vi. 
neither could they ever agree about it. 12.^ Cone. 

Secondly, As to the scripture, the same difficulty oc- fi"^^^''®^' 
curreth : the Lutherans affirm they believe consubstantia- Cone. Flor. 
tion by the scripture ; which the Calvinists deny, as that 48o\."seq!" 
which, they say, according to the same scripture, is a gross 
error. The Calvinists again affirm absolute reprobation, 
which the Arminians deny, affirming the contrary ; wherein 
both affirm themselves to be ruled by the scripture and 2- Of serip- 


reason in the matter. Should I argue thus then to the 
Calvinists } 

Here the Lutherans and Armenians grossly err, by fol- 
lowing the scripture ; 

Therefore the scripture is not a good nor certain rule ; 
and e ccmtrario. 

Would either of them accept of this reasoning as good 
and sound.'' What shall I say of the Episcopalians, Pres- 
byterians, Lidependents, and Anabaptists of Great Britain, 
who are continually bufTeting one another with the scrip- 
ture } To whom the same argument might be alleged, 
though they do all unanimously acknowledge it to be the 

And Thirdly, As to reason, I shall not need to say 3 Ofteason. 
much ; for whence come all the controversies, contentions bates hence 
and debates in the world, but because every man thinks ^nsing be- 

' •' _ twixt the 

he follows right reason.'' Hence of old came the jangles old and late 
between the Stoics, Platonists, Peripatetics, Pythagoreans, phers. 


and Cynics, as of late betwixt the Aristotelians, Carte- 
sians, and other naturalists : Can it be thence inferred, or 
will the Sociiiians, those great reasoners, allow us to con- 
clude, because many, and those very wise men, have 
erred, by following, as they supposed, their reason, and 
that with what diligence, care and industry they could, to 
find out the truth, that therefore no man ought to make 
use of it at all, nor be positive in what he knows certainly 
to be rational ? And thus far as to opinions ; the same un- 
certainty is no less incident unto those other principles. 
Anabap- § XIV. But if we come to practices, tliough I confess I 

their wild do with my whole heart abhor and detest those wild prac- 

practices, tJ^es which are written concernin": the Anabaptists of Mun- 
anil rrotes- ci i 

tants and ster ; I am bold to say, as bad, if not worse things, have 
their\vars been Committed by those that lean to tradition, scripture, 
^u'^i''"°'^i' and reason : wherein also they have averred themselves to 

shed, each _ •' 

pretending have been authorized by these rules. I need but mention 
foru.""^^ all the tumults, seditions, and horrible bloodshed, where- 
with Europe hath been afflicted these divers ages ; in 
which Papists against Papists, Calvinists against Calvinists, 
Lutherans against Lutherans, and Papists, assisted by Pro- 
testants, against other Protestants assisted by Papists, have 
miserably shed one another's blood, hiring and forcing 
men to kill each other, who were ignorant of the quarrel, 
and strangers one to another: all, mean while, pretending 
reason for so doing, and pleading the lawfulness of it from 
Tradition, For what have the Papists pretended for their many 
and^'reason, massacres, acted as well in France as elsewhere, but tra- 
made a ro- ^lition, scripture, and reason ? Did they not say, that reason 

ver for per- ' i ' _ ^ .' j ' 

eecution persuaded them, tradition allowed them, and scripture 
der. """"^ commanded them, to persecute, destroy, and burn here- 
tics, such as denied this plain scripture. Hoc est corpus 
meum, This is my body? And are not the Protestants as- 
senting to this bloodshed, who assert the same thing, and 
encourage them, by burning and banishing, while their 
brethren are so treated for the same cause ? Are not the 
islands of Great Britain and Ireland, yea, and all the Chris- 


tian world, a lively example hereof, which were divers 
years together as a theatre of blood ; where many lost their 
lives, and numbers of families were utterly destroyed and 
ruined ? For all which no other cause was principally 
given, than the precepts of the scripture. If we then com- 
pare these actings with those of Munster, we shall not find 
great difference ; for both affirmed and pretended they 
were called, and that it was lawful to kill, burn, and de- 
stroy the wdcked. We must kill all the wicked, said those 
Anabaptists, that we, that are the saints, may possess the 
earth. We must burn obstinate heretics, say the Papists, 
that the holy church of Rome may be purged of rotten 
members, and may live in peace. We must cut off seduc- 
ing separatists, say the Prelatical Protestants, who trouble 
the peace of the church, and refuse the divine hierarchy, 
and religious ceremonies thereof. We must kill, say the 
Calvinistic Presbyterians, the Profane Malignants, who 
accuse the Holy Consistorial and Presbyterian government, 
and seek to defend the Popish and Prelatic hierarchy ; as 
also those other sectaries that trouble the peace of our 
church. What difference I pray thee, impartial reader, 
seest thou betwixt these ? 

If it be said. The Anabaptists went without, and against Object. 
the authority of the magistrate, so did not the other ; 

I might easily refute it, by alleging the mutual testimo- Ans-w, 
nies of these sects against one another. The behaviour of 
the Papists towards Henry the Third and Fourth of France ; Examples 
their designs upon James the Sixth in the gunpowder cruelties, 
treason ; as also their principle of the Pope's power to 
depose kings for the cause of heresy, and to absolve their 
subjects from their oath, and give them to others, proves 
it against them. 

And as to the Protestants, how much their actions differ Protestan' 
from those other above-mentioned, may be seen by the and 'perse- 
many conspiracies and tumults which they have been active cunons m 
in, bocti in Scotland and England, and which they have England,"^ 
acted within these hundred years in divers towns and pro- fj^j^^ ° " 
vinces of the Netherlands. Have they not oftentimes sought, 
6* I 


not only from the Popish magistrates, but even from those 
that liad beofun to reform, or that had given them some 
liberty of exercising their religion, that tiiey might only be 
permitted, without trouble or hindrance, to exercise their 
religion, promising they would not hinder or molest the 
Papists in the exercise of theirs? And yet did they not on 
the contrary, so soon as they had power, trouble and abuse 
those fellow-citizens, and turn them out of the city, and, 
which is worse, even such who together with them had 
forsaken the Popish religion ? Did they not these things in 
many places against the mind of the magistrates ? Have 
they not publicly, with contumelious speeches, assaulted 
their magistrates, from whom they had but just before sought 
and obtained the free exercise of their religion ? Repre- 
senting them, so soon as they opposed themselves to their 
hierarchy, as if they regarded neither God nor religion ? 
Have they not by violent hands possessed themselves of 
the Popish churches, so called, or by force, against the 
magistrates' mind, taken them away ? Have they not turned 
out of their office and authority whole councils of magis- 
trates, under pretence that they were addicted to Popery? 
Which Popish magistrates nevertheless they did but a little 
before acknowledge to be ordained by God ; affirming 
themselves obliged to yield them obedience and subjection, 
not only for fear, but for conscience' sake ; to whom more- 
over the very preachers and overseers of the reformed 
church had willingly sworn fidelity ; and yet afterwards 
have they not said, that the people are bound to force a 
wicked prince to the observation of God's word? There 
are many other instances of this kind to be found in their 
histories, not to mention many worse things, which we 
know to have been acted in our time, and which for bre- 
vity's sake I pass by. 
Linheran J miorht say much of the Lutherans, whose tumultuous 

seditions ... . . 

against the actions against their magistrates not professing the Lutheran 
teachers, profession, are testified of by several historians worthy of 
upmnhe"'' ^'''-'^''^- Among others, I shall propose only one example 
Marquis of to the reader's consideration, which fell out 51 Berlin in 


the year 1615: "Where the seditious multitude of the Branden- 
Lutheran citizens, being stirred up by the daily clamours in Oer- '' 
of their preachers, did not only with violence break into many. 
the houses of the reformed teachers, overturn their libraries, 
and spoil their furniture ; but also with reproachful words, 
yea, and with stones, assaulted the Marquis of Branden- 
burg, the Elector's brother, while he sought by smooth 
words to quiet the fury of the multitude ; they killed ten 
of his guard, scarcely sparing himself, who at last by flight 
escaped out of their hands," All which sufficiently de- 
clares, that the concurrence of the magistrate doth not alter 
their principles, but only their method of procedure. So 
that for my own part, I see no difference betwixt the act- 
ings of those of Munster, and these others, whereof the 
one pretended to be led by the Spirit, the other by tradi- 
tion, scripture, and reason, save this, that the former were 
rash, heady, and foolish, in their proceedings, and there- 
fore were the sooner brought to nothing, and so into con- 
tempt and derision : but the other, being more politic and 
wise in their generation, held it out longer, and so have 
authorized their wickedness more, with the seeming autho- 
rity of law and reason. But both their actings being equally 
evil, the difference appears to me to be only like that which 
is between a simple silly thief, that is easily catched, and 
hanged without any more ado ; and a company of resolute 
bold robbers, who being better guarded, though their of- 
fence be nothing less, yet by violence do, to shun the 
danger, force their masters to give them good terms. 

From all which then it evidently follows, that they argue 
very ill, who despise and reject any principle because men 
pretending to be led by it do evil; in case it be not the 
natural and consequential tendency of that principle to lead 
unto those things that are evil. 

Again : It doth follow from what is above asserted, that 
if the Spirit be to be rejected upon this account, all those 
other principles ought on the same account to be rejected. 
And for my part, as I have never a whit the lower esteem 
of the blessed testimony of the holy scriptures, nor do the 


cause of 
false pre- 
tenders to 

less respect any solid tradition, that is answerable and ac- 
cording to truth ; neither at all despise reason, that noble 
Lot none and excellent faculty of the mind, because wicked men 
cenaiii'tyof ^'^^'"^ abused the name of them, to cover their wickedness, 

the uner- ^nd deceive the simple ; so would I not have any reject or 

-met Spirit . . . 

of &od, be- doubt the certainty of that unerring Spirit which God hath 

given his children, as that which can alone guide them into 
all truth, because some have falsely pretended to it. 

§ XV. And because the Spirit of God is the fountain of 
all truth and sound reason, therefore we have well said, 
That it cannot contradict either the testimony of the scrip- 
ture, or right reason : " Yet, as the proposition itself con- 
cludeth, to the last part of which I now come, it will not 
from thence follow, that these divine revelations are to be 
subjected to the examination either of the outward testi- 
mony of scripture, or of the human or natural reason of 
man, as to a more noble and certain rule or touchstone ; 
for the divine revelation, and inward illumination, is that 
which is evident by itself, forcing the well-disposed under- 
standing, and irresistibly moving it to assent by its own 
evidence and clearness, even as the common principles of 
natural truths do bend the mind to a natural assent." 

He that denies this part of the proposition must needs 
affirm, that the Spirit of God neither can, nor ever hath 
manifested itself to man without the scripture, or a distinct 
discussion of reason ; or that the efficacy of this superna- 
tural principle, working upon the souls of men, is less evi- 
dent than natural principles in their common operations ; 
both which are false. 

For, First, Through all the scriptures we may observe, 
that the manifestation and revelation of God by his Spirit 
to the patriarchs, prophets, and apostles, was immediate 
and objective, as is above proved ; which they did not ex- 
amine by any other principle, but their own evidence and 

Secondly, To say that the Spirit of God has less evi- 
the Spirit*! dence upon the mind of man than natural principles have, 
is to have too mean and too low thoughts of it. How 

f he pelf- 


comes David to invite us to taste and see that God is good, 
if this cannot be felt and tasted? This were enough to 
overturn the faith and assurance of all the saints, both now 
and of old. How came Paul to be persuaded, that nothing 
coul^ separate him from the love of God, but by that evi- 
dence and clearness which the Spirit of God gave him ? 
The apostle John, who knew well wherein the certainty of 
faith consisted, judged it no ways absurd, without further 
argument, to ascribe his knowledge and assurance, and 
that of all the saints, hereunto in these words; "Hereby 
know we that we dwell in him, and he in us, because he 
hath given us of his Spirit," 1 John, iv. 13. And again, 
chap. V. ver. 6 : "It is the Spirit that beareth witness, be- 
cause the Spirit is truth." 

Observe the reason brought by him, " Because the Spirit 
is truth ;" of whose certainty and infallibility I have here- 
tofore spoken. We then trust to and confide in this Spirit, 
because we know, and certainly believe, that it can only 
lead us aright, and never mislead us ; and from this certain 
confidence it is that we affirm, that no revelation coming The Spirit 
from it can ever contradict the scripture's testimonv nor contradicts 

^ ■J not scrip- 

right reason: not as making this a more certain rule to our- tine nor 

1 1 a_ 1 I- ^ II 1- • right rea- 

selves, but as condescendmg to SLich, who not discerning son. 

the revelations of the Spirit, as they proceed purely from 

God, will try them by these mediums. Yet thfjse that have 

their spiritual senses, and can savour the things of the 

Spirit, as it were in prima instantia, i. e., at the first blush, 

can discern them without, or before they apply them either 

to scripture or reason ; just as a good astronomer can cal- Natural de- 

culate an eclipse infallibly, by which he can conclude, if {yo^g^tvom 

the order of nature continue, and some strange and unna- astronomy 

... . " „ and geome- 

tural revolution intervene not, there will be an eclipse oi try. 
the sun or moon such a day, and such an hour ; yet can he 
not persuade an ignorant rustic of this, until he visibly sees 
it. So also a mathematician can infallibly know, by the 
rules of art, that the three angles of a right triangle are 
equal to two right angles ; yea, can know them more cer- 
tainly than any man by measure. And some geometrical 


demonstrations are by all acknowledged to be infallible, 
which can be scarcely discerned or proved by the senses ; 
yet if a geometer be at the pains to certify some ignorant 
man concerning the certainty of his art, by condescending 
to measure it, and make it obvious to his senses, it will not 
thence follow, that that measuring is so certain as the de- 
monstration itself, or that the demonstration would be un- 
certain without it. 

§ XVI. But to make an end, I shall add one argument 
to prove, that this inward, immediate, objective revelation, 
which we have pleaded for all along, is the only sure, cer- 
tain, and unmovable foundation of all Christian faith ; 
which argument, when well considered, I hope will have 
weight with all sorts of Christians, and it is this : 
Immediate That which all professors of Christianity, of what kind 
revelation goever, are forced ultimately to recur unto, when pressed 
movable to the last ; that for and because of which all other founda- 
of'all Chris- tions are recommended, and accounted worthy to be be- 
tinn faitii. Jigy^ij^ and without which they are granted to be of no 
weight at all, must needs be the only most true, certain, 
and unmovable foundation of all Christian faith. 

But inward, immediate, objective revelation by the 
Spirit, is that which all professors of Christianity, of what 
kind soever, are forced ultimately to recur unto, &c. 
Therefore, &c. 

The proposition is so evident, that it will not be denied ; 

the assumption shall be proved by parts. 

Papij-i*' And first. As to the Papists, they place their foundation 

their '^ in the judgment of the church and tradition. If we press 

church and ^j^g^^ ^q sav, Why they believe as the church doth? Their 

iradition. j 7 j j 

why >. answer is, Because the church is always led by the infalli- 

ble Spirit. So here the leading of the Spirit is the utmost 
foundation. Again, if we ask them, Why we ought to trust 
tradition ? They answer. Because these traditions were 
delivered us by the doctors and fathers of the church ; 
which doctors and fathers, by the revelation of the Holy 
Ghost, commanded the church to observe them. Here 
again all ends in the revelation of the Spirit. 


And for the Protestants and Socinians, both which ac- Protestants 
knowledge the scriptures to be the foundation and rule of ni'ansma'ke 
their faith ; the one as subjectively influenced by the Spirit thRscHp- 

r r^ 1 11 • 1 -11 •^'■SS fh*^"" 

of God to use them, the other as managing them with and ground and 
by their own reason; ask both, or either of them. Why ^'||" j^"°"' 
they trust in the scriptures, and take them to be their rule ? 
Their answer is, Because we have in them the mind of God 
delivered unto us by those to whom these things were in- 
wardly, immediately, and objectively revealed by the Spirit 
of God ; and not because this or that man wrote them, but 
because the Spirit of God dictated them. 

It is strange then that men should render that so uncer- Christians 
tain and dangerous to follow, upon which alone the certain and not by 
ground and foundation of their own faith is built; and that "ature.hold 

° [ revelation 

they should shut themselves out from that holy fellowship ceased con- 
with God, which only is enjoyed in the Spirit, in which we sc^iptu're. 
are commanded both to walk and live. 

If any reading these things find themselves moved, by 
the strength of these scripture arguments, to assent and be- 
lieve such revelations necessary, and yet find themselves 
strangers to them, which, as I observed in the beginning, 
is the cause that this is so much gainsaid and contradicted, 
let them know, that it is not because it is ceased to become 
the privilege of every true Christian that they do not feel 
it, but rather because they are not so much Christians by 
nature as by name ; and let such know, that the secret light 
w^hich shines in the heart, and reproves unrighteousness, is 
the small beginning of the revelation of God's Spirit, which 
was first sent into the world to reprove it of sin, John xvi. 
8. And as by forsaking iniquity thou comest to be ac- 
quainted with that heavenly voice in thy heart, thou shalt 
feel, as the old man, or the natural man, that savoureth not 
the things of God's kingdom, is put off, with his evil and 
corrupt affections and lusts ; I say, thou shalt feel the new 
man, or the spiritual birth and babe raised, which hath its 
spiritual senses, and can see, feel, taste, handle, and smell 
the things of the Spirit ; but till then the knowledge of 
things spiritual is but as an historical faith. But as the 


Who wants description of the light of the sun, or of curious colours to 
Bees^ifot\hc ^ ^lind man, who, though of the largest capacity, cannot 
i'ght. so well understand it by the most acute and lively descrip- 

tion, as a child can by seeing them ; so neither can the 
natural man, of the largest capacity, by the best words, 
even scripture words, so well understand the mysteries of 
God's kingdom, as the least and weakest child who tasteth 
them, by having them revealed inwardly and objectively by 
the Spirit. 

Wait tiien for this in the small revelation of that pure 
light which first reveals things more known ; and as thou 
becomest fitted for it, thou shall receive more and more, 
and by a living experience easily refute their ignorance, 
who ask. How dost thou know that thou art actuated by 
the Spirit of God .-' Which will appear to thee a question 
no less ridiculous, than to ask one whose eyes are open, 
how he knows the sun shines at noon-day? And though 
this be the surest and most certain way to answer all objec- 
tions ; yet by what is above written it may appear, that the 
mouths of all such opposers as deny this doctrine may be 
shut, by unquestionable and unanswerable reasons. 


Concerning the Scriptures. 

From these revelations of the Spirit of God to the saints 
have proceeded the Scriptures of Truth, which con- 

I. A faithful historical account of the actings of God's peo- 
ple in divers ages ; with many singular and remarkable 
providences attending them. 

II. A prophetical account of several things, whereof some 
are already past, and some yet to come. 

III. A full and ample account of all the chief principles ot 
the doctrine of Christ, held forth in divers precious de- 


clarations, exhortations and sentences, which, by the 
moving of God's Spirit, were at several times, and upon 
sundry occasions, spoken and written unto some churches 
and their pastors. 
Nevertheless, because they are only a declaration of the 
fountain, and not the fountain itself, therefore they are 
not to be esteemed the principal ground of all truth and 
knowledge, nor yet the adequate primary rule of faith 
and manners. Yet because they give a true and faithful 
testimony of the first foundation, they are and may be 
esteemed a secondary rule, subordinate to the Spirit, 
from which they have all their excellency and certainty : 
for as by the inward testimony of the Spirit we do alone 
truly know them, so they testify. That the Spirit is that Johnxvi 
Guide by which the saints are led into all Truth ; there- ^iii. 14™' 
fore, according to the scriptures, the Spirit is the first 
and principal leader. Seeing then that we do therefore 
receive and believe the. scriptures because they proceed- 
ed from the Spirit, for the very same reason is the Spirit 
more originally and principally the rule, according to 
the received maxim in the schools, Propter quod wmm- 
quodque est tale, illud ipsum est magis tale : That for 
which a thing is such, that thing itself is more such. 

§ I. The former part of this proposition, though it needs 

no apology for itself, yet it is a good apology for us, and 

will help to sweep away that, among many other calumnies, 

W'herewith we are often loaded, as if we were vilifiers and 

deniers of the scriptures ; for in that which we affirm of 

them, it doth appear at what high rate we value them, ac- The holy 

counting them, without all deceit or equivocation, the most fhe'most^ 

excellent writings in the world ; to which not only no other excellent 

^ . . '' writings ir 

writings are to be preferred, but even in divers respects the world. 

not comparable thereto. For as we freely acknowledge 

that their authority doth not depend upon the approbation 

or canons of any church or assembly ; so neither can we 

subject them to the fallen, corrupt, and defiled reason of 

man : and therein as we do freely agree with the Protestants 

7 * K 


against tlie error of the Romanists, so on the other hand, 
we cannot <ro the length of such Protestants as make their 
authority t(j depend upon any virtue or power that is in the 
writings themselves ; but we desire to ascribe all to that 
Spirit from which they proceeded. 

We confess indeed there wants not a majesty in the style, 

a coherence in the parts, a good scope in the wliole ; but 

seeing these things are not discerned by the natural, but 

only by the spiritual man, it is the Spirit of God that must 

give us that belief of the scriptures which may satisfy our 

consciences ; therefore some of the chief among Protestants, 

both in their particular writings and public confessions, are 

forced to acknowledge this. 

Calvin's Hence Calvin, though he saijth he is able to prove that 

thaV'the"^ if there be a God in heaven, these writings have proceeded 

scripture's f|-ora him, yet he concludes another knowledge to be ne- 

certainty is t ,-. i-i i -r ^ a 

from the cessary. Instit. lib. 1, cap. 7, sect. 4. 

Spirit. ^^ -g^^ -^^m gj^j|.}^ j^g^ ^^ ^^g respect the consciences, that 

they be not daily molested with doubts, and hesitate 
not at every scruple, it is requisite that this persuasion 
which we speak of be taken higher than human reason, 
judgment, or conjecture ; to wit, from the secret testi- 
mony of the Spirit." And again, "To those who ask, 
that we prove unto them, by reason, that Moses and the 
prophets were inspired of God to speak, I answer, That 
the testimony of the Holy Spirit is more excellent than all 
reason." And again, "Let this remain a firm truth, that 
he only whom the Holy Spirit hath persuaded, can repose 
himself on the scripture with a true certainty." And 
lastly, "This then is a judgment which cannot be begotten 
but by an heavenly revelation," &c. 
Tlieconibs- The Same is also affirmed in the first public confession 
Fninch'^*" of the French churches, published in the year 1559, Art. 
churches. 4 . u We know these books to be canonical, and the most 
certain rule of our faith, not so much by the common ac- 
cord and consent of the church, as by the testimony and 
inward persuasion of the Holy Spirit." 


Thus also in the fifth article of the confession of faith, Churches 
of the churches of Holland, confirmed by the Synod of assert the 


Dort : " We receive these books only for holy and canoni- 
cal — not so much because the church receives and ap- 
proves them, as because the Spirit of God doth witness in 
our hearts that they are of God." 

And, lastly, The divines, so called, at Westminster, who Westmin- 
began to be afraid of, and guard against the testimony of sionthe^^' 
the Spirit, because they perceived a dispensation beyond s^"^^- 
that which they were under beginning to dawn, and to 
eclipse them ; yet could they not get by this, though they 
have laid it down neither so clearly, distinctly, nor honestly 
as they that went before. It is in these words, chap. 1. 
sec. 5: "Nevertheless, our full persuasion and assurance 
of the infallible truth thereof, is from the inward work of 
the Holy Spirit, bearing witness by and with the Word in 
our hearts." 

By all which it appeareth how necessary it is to seek the 
certainty of the scriptures from the Spirit, and no where 
else. The infinite janglings and endless contests of those 
that seek their authority elsewhere, do witness to the truth 

For the ancients themselves, even of the first centuries, Apocrypha, 
were not agreed among themselves concerning them ; while Conc.Laod. 
some of them rejected books which we approve, and others ^^"- ^^; i" 
of them approved those which some of us reject. It is not I63. 
unknown to such as are in the least acquainted with anti- held in d°e' 
quity, what great contests are concerning the second epistle y*;^?" '^f;^' 
of Peter, that of James, the second and third of John, and from the ca- 
the Revelations, which many, even very ancient, deny to "h"\v*is- 
have been written by ihe beloved disciple and brother of ^"^"^ °f :'''^- 

*' ^ lomon, Ju- 

James, but by another of that name. What should then dith, To- 
become of Christians, if they had not received that Spirit, Maccabees, 
and those spiritual senses, by which they know how to dis- which the 

r- /'^^T•l• /-(• COUncil 01 

cern the true from the false .■' It is the privilege of Christ's Carthage, 
sheep indeed that they hear his voice, and refuse that of a ygai- 399, ^ 
stranger ; which privilege being taken away, we are left a received. 
prey to all manner of wolves. 


§ II. Though then we do acknowledge the scriptures to 
be very heavenly and divine writings, the use of them to 
be very comfortable and necessary to the church of Christ, 
and that we also admire and give praise to the Lord, for 
his wonderful providence in preserving these writings so 
pure and uncorrupted as we have them, through so long a 
night of apostacy, to be a testimony of his truth against 
the wickedness and abominations even of those whom he 
made instrumental in preserving them, so that they have 
The Scrip- kept them to be a witness against themselves ; yet we may 
nor^he^*^ not call them the principal fountain of all truth and know- 
ledge, nor yet the first adequate rule of faith and manners ; 
because the principal fountain of truth must be the Truth 
itself; i. e., that whose certainty and autliority depends not 
upon another. When we doubt of the streams of any river 
or flood, we recur to the fountain itself; and, having found 
it, there we desist, we can go no farther ; because there it 
springs out of the bowels of the earth, which are inscrut- 
able. Even so the writings and sayings of all men we 
must bring to the Word of God, I mean the Eternal Word, 
and if they agree hereunto, we stand there. For this Word 
always proceedeth, and doth eternally proceed from God, 
in and by which the unsearchable wisdom of God, and un- 
searchable counsel and will conceived in the heart of God, 
is revealed unto us. That then the scripture is not the 
principal ground of faith and knowledge, as it apjiears by 
what is above spoken, so it is proved in the latter part of 
the proposition, which, being reduced to an argument, runs 
thus : 

That whereof the certainty and authority depends upon 
another, and which is received as truth because of its pro- 
ceeding from another, is not to be accounted the principal 
ground and origin of all truth and knowledge : 

But the scriptures' authority and certainty depend upon 
the Spirit by which they were dictated ; and the reason why 
they were received as truth is, because they proceeded from 
the Spirit: 

Therefore they are not the principal ground of truth. 


To confirm this argument, I added the school maxim : 
Propter quod unumquodque est tale, illud ipsum magis est 
tale. Which maxim, though I confess it doth not hold 
universally in all things, yet in this it doth and will very 
well hold, as by applying it, as we have above intimated, 
will appear. 

The same argument will hold as to the other branch of Neither are 
the proposition. That it is not the primary adequate rule pJimary 

of faith and manners; thus: rule of faith 

.... and man- 

That which is not the rule of my faith in believing the ners. 

scriptures themselves, is not the primary adequate rule of 

faith and manners : 

But the scripture is not, nor can it be the rule of that 
faith by which I believe them, &c. 

Therefore, &c. 

But as to this part, we shall produce divers arguments That the 
hereafter. As to what is affirmed, that the Spirit, and not r^jg_ 
the scriptures, is the rule, it is largely handled in the former 
proposition ; the sum whereof I shall subsume in one argu- 
ment, thus : 

If by the Spirit we can only come to the true knowledge 
of God ; if by the Spirit we are to be led into all truth, 
and so be taught of all things ; then the Spirit, and not the 
scriptures, is the foundation and ground of all truth and 
knowledge, and the primary rule of faith and manners : 

But the first is true, therefore also the last. 

Next, the very nature of the gospel itself declareth that 
the scriptures cannot be the only and chief rule of Chris- 
tians, else there should be no difference betwixt the law 
and the gospel ; as from the nature of the new covenant, 
by divers scriptures described in the former proposition, is 

But besides these which are before mentioned, herein Wherein 
doth the law and the gospel differ, in that the law, being golperdH^ 
outwardly written, brings under condemnation, but hath ^^r. 
not life in it to save ; whereas the gospel, as it declares and 
makes manifest the evil, so, being an inward powerful 
thing, it gives power also to obey, and delivers from the 


evil. Hence it is called EoafyiKm, which is glad tidings. 
The law or letter, which is without us, kills ; but the gos- 
pel, which is the inward spiritual law, gives life ; for it 
consists not so much in words as in virtue. Wherefore 
such as come to know it, and be acquainted with it, come 
to feel greater power over their iniquities than all outward 
laws or rules can give them. Hence the apostle concludes, 
Rom. vi. 14, '< Sin shall not have dominion over you : for 
ye are not under the law, but under grace." This grace 
then that is inward, and not an outward law, is to be the 
rule of Christians. Hereunto the apostle commends the 
elders of the church, saying. Acts xx. 32, " And now, 
brethren, I commend you to God, and to the word of his 
grace, which is able to build you up, and to give you an 
inheritance among all them which are sanctified." He 
doth not commend them here to outward laws or writings, 
but to the word of grace, which is inward ; even the spi- 
ritual law, which makes free, as he elsewhere affirms, Rom. 
viii. 2, "The law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus, hath 
made me free from the law of sin and death." This spiritual 
law is that which the apostle declares he preached and 
directed people unto, which was not outward, as by Rom. 
X. 8, is manifest ; where distinguishing it from the law, he 
saith, " The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in 
thy heart ; that is the word of faith which we preach." 
From what is above said I argue thus: 

The principal rule of Christians under the gospel is not 
an outward letter, nor law outwardly written and delivered, 
but an inward spiritual law, engraven in the heart, the law 
of the Spirit of life, the word that is nigh in the heart and 
m the mouth. 

But the letter of the scripture is outward, of itself a dead 
thing, a mere declaration of good things, but not the things 
The Kfi-ip- Therefore it is not, nor can be, the chief or principal rule 

ture not the ^ /^i • • 

rule. of Christians. 

§ HI. Thirdly, That which is given to Christians for a 
rule and guide, must needs be so full, that it may clearly 


and distinctly guide and order them in all things and occur- 
rences that may fall out. 

But in that there are numberless things, with regard to 
their circumstances, which particular Christians may be con- 
cerned in, for which there can be no particular rule had in 
the scriptures ; 

Therefore the scriptures cannot be a rule to them. 

I shall give an instance in two or three particulars to 
prove this proposition. It is not to be doubted but some 
men are particularly called to some particular services ; 
their being not found in which, though the act be no ge- 
neral positive duty, yet in so far as it may be required of 
them, is a great sin to omit ; forasmuch as God is zealous 
of his glory, and every act of disobedience to his will ma- 
nifested, is enough not only to hinder one greatly from 
that comfort and inward peace which otherwise he might 
have, but also bringeth condemnation. 

As for instance, some are called to the ministry of the 
word : Paul saith, There was a necessity upon him to 
preach the gospel ; wo unto me, if I preach not. 

If it be necessary that there be now ministers of the 
church, as well as then, then there is the same necessity 
upon some, more than upon others -to occupy this place; 
which necessity, as it may be incumbent upon particular 
persons, the scripture neither doth nor can declare. 

If it be said, That the qualifications of a minister are Object 
found in the scripture, and by applying these qualifications 
to myself, I may know whether I be fit for such a place or 
not ; 

I answer, The qualifications of a bishop, or minister, as Answ. 
they are mentioned both in the epistle to Timothy and 
Titus, are such as may be found in a private Christian ; 
yea, which ought in some measure to be in every true 
Christian : so that this giveth a man no certainty. Every 
capacity to an office giveth me not a sufficient call to it. 

Next again. By what rule shall I judge if I be so quali- 
fied ? How do I know that I am sober, meek, holy, harm- 
less ? Is it not the testimony of the Spirit in my conscience 


that must assure me hereof? And suppose that I was qua- 
lified and called, yet what .scripture rule shall inform me, 
whether it be my duty to j)reach in this or that place, in 
France or England, Holland or Germany ? Whether I shall 
take up my time in confirming the faithful, reclaiming 
heretics, or converting infidels, as also in writing epistles 
to this or that church ? 

The general rules of the scripture, viz.. To be diligent 
in my duty, to do all to the glory of God, and for the 
good of his church, can give me no light in this thing. 
Seeing two different things may both have a respect to that 
way, yet may I commit a great error and ofit?nce in doing 
the one, when I am called to the other. If Paul, when his 
face was turned by the Lord toward Jerusalem, had gone 
back to Achaia, or Macedonia, he might have supposed he 
could have done God more acceptable service, in preach- 
ing and confirming the churches, than in being shut up in 
prison in Judea ; but would God have been pleased here- 
with ? Nay certainly. Obedience is better than sacrifice ; 
and it is not our doing that which is good simply that 
pleaseth God, but that good which he willeth us to do. 
Every member hath its particular place in the body, as the 
Apostle showeth, 1 Cor. xii. If then, I being the foot, 
should offer to exercise the office of the hand ; or being the 
hand, that of the tongue ; ray service would be trouble- 
some, and not acceptable ; and instead of helping the body, 
That which I should make a schism in it. So that that which is good 
IS good for f^j, another to do, may be sinful to me : for as masters will 

une to do, i i- i • j 

maybe sin- have their servants to obey them, accordmg to then- good 
mher.^"' pleasure, and not only in blindly doing that which may 
seem to them to tend to their master's profit, whereby it 
may chance, the master having business both in the field 
and in the house, that the servant that knows not his mas- 
ter's will may go to the field, when it is the mind of the 
master he should stay and do the business of the house, 
would not this servant then deserve a reproof, for not an- 
swering his master's mind ? And what master is so sottish 
and careless, as, having many servants, to leave them in 


such disorder as not to assign each his particular station, 
and not only the general terms of doing that which is pro- 
fitable ? which would leave them in various doubts, and 
no doubt end in confusion. 

Shall we then dare to ascribe unto Christ, in the order- 
ing of his church and servants, that which in man might 
justly be accounted disorder and confusion? The apostle 
showeth this distinction well, Rom. xii. 6, 7, 8, "Having Diversities 
then gifts diiiering according to the grace that is given to ° ^^ 
us ; whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the 
proportion of faith ; or ministry, let us wait on our minis- 
tering ; or he that teacheth, on teaching ; or he that ex- 
horteth, on exhortation." Now what scripture rule showeth 
me that I ought to exhort, rather than prophesy? or to 
minister, rather than teach ? Surely none at all. Many 
more difficulties of this kind occur in the life of a Chris- 

Moreover, that which of all things is most needful for Of faith and 
him to know, to wit, whether he really be in the faith, and ^an the'^ 
an heir of salvation, or not, the scripture can give him no scripture 
certainty in, neither can it be a rule to him. That this thee? 
knowledge is exceeding desirable and comfortable all do 
unanimously acknowledge ; besides that it is especially 
commanded, 2 Cor. xiii. 5, " Examine yourselves, whether 
ye be in the faith, prove your own selves ; know ye not 
your own selves, how that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye 
be reprobates ? And 2 Pet. i. 10, "Wherefore the rather, 
brethren, give diligence to make your calling and elec- 
tion sure." Now I say. What scripture rule can assure 
me that I have true faith ? That my calling and election is 
sure ? 

If it be said. By comparing the scripture marks of true * 
faith w ith mine : 

I demand. Wherewith shall I make this observation ? 
What shall ascertain me that I am not mistaken ? It cannot 
be the scripture : that is the matter under debate. 

If it be said. My own heart : 

How unfit a judge is it in its own case ? And how like 



lo be partial, especially if it be yet unrenewed ? Doth not 
The heari the scripture say, that " it is deceitful above all things ?" 

of man de j ~ , . . r/'iii • -i- 

ceittul. i iind the promises, 1 hnd the threatenings, in the scrip- 
ture ; but who telleth rae that the one belongs to me more 
than the otlier? The scripture gives rne a mere declaration 
of these things, but makes no application ; so that the as- 
sumption must be of my own making, thus ; as for exam- 
ple : I find this proposition in scripture ; 

" He that believes, shall be saved:" thence I draw the 

But I, Robert, believe ; 

Therefore, I shall be saved. 

The minor is of my own making, not expressed in the 
scripture ; and so a human conclusion, not a divine posi- 
tion ; so that my faith and assurance here is not built upon 
a scripture proposition, but upon an human principle ; 
which, unless I be sure of elsewhere, the scripture gives 
me no certainty in the matter. 

Again, If I should pursue the argument further, and 
seek a new medium out of the scripture, the same difficulty 
would occur : thus, 

He that hath the true and certain marks of true faith, 
hath true faith : 

But I have those marks : 

Therefore I have true faith. 

For the assumption is still here of my own making, and 

is not found in the scriptures; and by consequence the 

conclusion can be no better, since it still folio weth the 

weaker proposition. This is indeed so pungent, that the 

The inward best of Protestants, who plead for this assurance, ascribe 

oFthrSpint it to the inward testimony of the Spirit ; as Calvin, in that 

the seal of i^^ctq citation, cited in the former proposition. So that, 

scripture ■'=' ' _ _ _ ' * ... 

promises, not to Seek farther into the writings of the primitive Pro- 
testants, which are full of such expressions, even the West- 
minster confession of faith affirmeth, chap, xviii, sect. 12, 
<' This certainty is not a bare conjecture and probable per- 
suasion, grounaed upon fallible hope, but an infallible 
assurance of faith, founded upon the divine truth of the 



promise of salvation ; the inward evidences of these graces, 
unto which these promises are made ; the testimony of the 
Spirit of adoption, witnessing to our spirits that we are the 
children of God ; which Spirit is the earnest of our in- 
heritance, whereby we are sealed to the day of redemp- 

Moreover, the scripture itself, wherein we are so ear- 
nestly pressed to seek after this assurance, doth not at all 
affirm itself a rule sufficient to give it, but wholly ascribeth 
it to the Spirit, as Rom. viii. 16, " The Spirit itself beareth 
witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God." 
1 John iv. 13, "Hereby know we that we dwell in him, 
and he in us, because he hath given us of his Spirit;" 
and chap, v, 6, " And it is the Spirit that beareth witness, 
because the Spirit is truth," 

§ IV. Lastly, That cannot be the only, principal, nor That the 

chief rule, which doth not universally reach every indivi- are not'th* 

dual that needeth it, to produce the necessary etTect ; and chief rule, 

from the use of which, either by some innocent and sinless 

defect, or natural yet harmless and blameless imperfection, 

many who are within the compass of the visible church, 

and may, without absurdity, yea, with great probability, 

be accounted of the elect, are necessarily excluded, and 

that either wholly, or at least from the immediate use 

thereof. But it so falls out frequently concerning the 

scriptures, in the case of deaf people, children, and idiots, i.Deafpeo. 

who can by no means have the benefit of the scriptures, R'*^' ^^^h 
'' . _ t dren, and 

Shall we then affirm, that they are w'ithout any rule to God- idiots in- 
ward, or that they are all damned .'' As such an opinion is 
in itself very absurd, and inconsistent both with the justice 
and mercy of God, so I know no sound reason can be 
alleged for it. Now if we may suppose any such to be 
under the new covenant dispensation, as I know none will 
deny but that we may suppose it without any absurdity, 
we cannot suppose them without some rule and means of 
knowledge; seeing it is expressly affirmed, "They shall 
be all taught of God," John vi, 45. "For all shall know 
me from the least to the greatest," Heb, viii, 11. But 


secondly, Though we were rid of this diiTiculty, how many 
illiterate and yet good men are there in the church of God, 
who cannot read a letter in their own mother tongue ? 
Which imperfection, though it be inconvenient, I cannot 
tell whether we may safely afrirm it to be sinful. These 
can have no immediate knowledge of the rule of their 
faith ; so their faith must needs depend upon the credit of 
other men's readino- or reiatintj it unto them ; where either 
the altering, adding, or omitting of a little word may be a 
foundation in the poor hearer of a very dangerous mistake, 
whereby he may either continue in some iniquity ignorant- 

2. Papists ly, or believe a lie confidently. As for example, The 
second ^ Papists in all their catechisms, and public exercises of ex- 
command- aminations towards the people, have boldly cut away the 
ment irom . . 
the people, second command, because it seems so expressly to strike 

against their adoration and use of images ; whereas many 
of these people, in whom by this omission this false opinion 
is fostered, are under a simple impossibility, or at least a 
very great difficulty, to be outwardly informed of this 
abuse. But further ; suppose all could read the scriptures 
in their own language ; where is there one of a thousand 
that hath that thorough knowledge of the original languages 
in which they are written, so as in that respect immediately 

3. The mi- to receive the benefit of them? Must not all these here 
certainly oi 

the inter- depend upon the honesty and faithfulness of the interpre- 

the^scrip- ^^''^ ' Which how uncertain it is for a man to build his 
ture, and faith upon, the many corrections, amendments, and various 

their adul- , ■ , t^ , , 

terating it. essays, which even among Protestants have been used, 
whereof the latter have constantly blamed and corrected 
the former, as guilty of defects and errors, doth sufficiently 
declare. And that even the last translations in the vulgar 
languages need to be corrected, as I could prove at large, 
were it proper in this place, learned men do confess. 

But last of all, there is no less difficulty occurs even to 
those skilled in the original lano-uafjes, who cannot so im- 
mediately receive the mind of the authors in these writings, 
as that their faith doth not at least obliquely depend upon 
the honesty and credit of the transcribers, since the origi- 



nal copies are granted by all not to be now extant. Of 
which transcribers Jerome in his time complained, saying, Hierun. 
That they wrote not what they found, but what they under- acf Lucin." 
stood. And Epiphanius saith, That in the good and cor- P- 247. 
rect copies of Luke it was written, that Christ wept, and Epiph. m 
that Irenseus doth cite it ; but that the Catholics blotted it ^m.Voper. 
out, fearing lest heretics should have abused it. Other 
fathers also declare. That whole verses were taken out of 
Mark, because of the Manichees. 

But further, the various readings of the Hebrew cha- Theyariouc 
racter by reason of the points, which some plead for, as the Hebrew 
coeval with the first writings, which others, with no less enaiacter, 
probability, allege to be a later invention ; the disagreement 
of divers citations of Christ and the apostles with those 
passages in the Old Testament they appeal to ; the great 
controversy among the fathers, whereof some highly approve 
the Greek Septuagint, decrying and rendering very doubt- 
ful the Hebrew copy, as in many places vitiated and altered 
by the Jews ; other some, and particularly Jerome, exalting 
the certainty of the Hebrew, and rejecting, yea, even de- 
riding the history of the Septuagint, which the primitive 
church chiefly made use of; and some fathers that lived 
centuries before him, affirmed to be a most certain thing : 
and the many various readings in divers copies of the 
Greek, and the great altercations among the fathers of the 
first three centuries, who had greater opportunity to be 
better informed than we can now lay claim to, concerning 
the books to be admitted or rejected, as is above observed ; 
I say, all these and much more which might be alleged, 
puts the minds even of the learned into infinite doubts, 
scruples, and inextricable difficulties : whence we may very 
safely conclude, that Jesus Christ, who promised to be al- 
ways with his children, to lead them into all truth, to guard 
Ihem against the devices of the enemy, and to establish 
their faith upon an unmovable rock, left them not to be 
principally ruled by that, which was subject in itself to 
many uncertainties : and therefore he gave them his Spirit, 
as their principal guide, which neither moths nor time can 

learned in 


wear out, nor transcribers nor translators corrupt ; which 
none are so young, none so illiterate, none in so remote a 
place, but they may come to be reached, and rightly in- 
formed by it. 

Through and by the clearness which that Spirit gives us 
it is, that we are only best rid of those difficulties that oc- 
cur to us concerning the scriptures. The real and un- 
doubted experience whereof I myself have been a witness of, 
with great admiration of the love of God to his children in 
Wrong these latter days: for I have known some of my friends, 
o?scl-i'ptu"e ^^'^^" profess the same faith with me, faithful servants of the 

discerned in Most Hiffh God, and full of divine knowledge of his truth, 
the Spirit . ° ,• , , ■ ,, i i i 11 

by the un- as it was immediately and inwardly revealed to them by the 

Spirit, from a true and living experience, who not only 
were ignorant of the Greek and Hebrew, but even some of 
them could not read their own vulgar language, who being 
pressed by their adversaries with some citations out of the 
English translation, and finding them to disagree with the 
manifestation of truth in their own hearts, have boldly 
affirmed the Spirit of God never said so, and that it was 
certainly wrong ; for they did not believe that any of the 
holy prophets or apostles had ever written so ; which when 
I on this account seriously examined, Ij-eally found to be 
errors and corruptions of the translators ; who, as in most 
translations, do not so much give us the genuine significa- 
tion of the words, as strain them to express thai which 
comes nearest to that opinion and notion they have of 
truth. And this seemed to me to suit very well with that 
saying of Augustine, Epist. 19, ad Hier. Tom ii. fol. 14, 
after he has said, '< That he gives only that honour to those 
books which are called canonical, as to believe that the au- 
thors thereof did in writing not err," he adds, " And if I 
shall meet with anything in these writings that seemeth re- 
pugnant to truth, I shall not doubt to say, that either the 
vohime is faulty or erroneous; that the expounder hath 
not reached what was said ; or that I have in no wise un- 
derstood it." So that he supposes that in the transcription 
and translation there may be errors. 


§ V. If it be then asked me, Whether I think hereby to Object. 
render the scriptures altogether uncertain, or useless ? 

I answer; Not at all. The proposition itself declares Answ. i. 
how much I esteem them ; and provided that to the Spirit 
from which they came be but granted that place the scrip- 
tures themselves give it, I do freely concede to the scrip- 
tures the second place, even whatsoever they say of them- 
selves ; which the apostle Paul chiefly mentions in two 
places, Rom. xv. 4: "Whatsoever things were written 
aforetime, were written for our learning, that we through 
patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope." 
2 Tim. iii. 15, 16, 17 : The holy scriptures are able to 
make thee wise unto salvation, through faith which is in 
Christ Jesus. All scripture given by inspiration of God, 
is profitable — for correction, for instruction in righteous- 
ness, that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly fur- 
nished unto all good works. 

For though God doth principally and chiefly lead us by 
his Spirit, yet he sometimes conveys his comfort and con- 
solation to us through his children, whom he raises up and 
inspires to speak or write a word in season, whereby the 
saints are made instruments in the hand of the Lord to 
strengthen and encourage one another, which doth also 
tend to perfect and make them wise unto salvation ; and 
such as are led by the Spirit cannot neglect, but do natu- The saints' 
rally love, and are wonderfully cherished by that which ;om4brt is 
proceedeth from the same Spirit in another ; because such ^J^®. ®^™^ .. 
mutual emanations of the heavenly life tend to quicktn the 
mind when at any time it is overtaken with heaviness. 
Peter himself declares this to have been the end of his 
writing, 2 Pet, i. 12, 13 : " Wherefore I will not be neg- 
ligent to put you always in remembrance of these things, 
though ye know them, and be established in the present 
truth ; yea, I think it meet, as long as I am in this taber- 
nacle, to stir you up, by putting you in remembrance." 

God is teacher of his people himself; and there is no- 
thing more express, than that such as are under the new 
covenant, need no man to teach them : yet it was a fruit 


of Christ's ascension to send teuchers and pastors for per- 
fecting of the saints. So that the same work is ascribed 
to the scriptures as to teachers ; the one to make the 
man of God perfect, the other for the perfection of the 

As then teachers are not to go before the teaching of 
God himself under the new covenant, but to follow after 
it ; neither are they to rob us of that great privilege which 
Christ hath purchased unto us by his blood ; so neither is 
the scripture to go before the teaching of the Spirit, or to 
rob us of it. 
Answ. 2. Secondly, God hath seen meet that herein we should, as 
The scrip- in a looking-glass, see the conditions and experiences of 
lookhH'- the saints of old ; that finding our experience answer to 
glass. theirs, we might thereby be the more confirmed and com- 

forted, and our hope of obtaining the same end strength- 
ened; that observing the providences attending them, seeing 
the snares they were liable to, and beholding their deliver- 
ances, we may thereby be made wise unto salvation, and 
seasonably reproved and instructed in righteousness. 
The scrip- This is the great work of the scriptures, and their ser- 

tures' work y|(.g j-q yg that we may witness them fulfilled in us, and so 
and service. ' •' , ' 

discern the stamp of God's spirit and ways upon them, by 

the inward acquaintance we have with the same Spirit and 
work in our hearts. The prophecies of the scriptures are 
also very comfortable and profitable unto us, as the same 
Spirit enlightens us to observe them fulfilled, and to be ful- 
filled ; for in all this it is to be observed, that it is only the 
spiritual man that can make a right use of them : they are able 
to make the man of God perfect, so it is not the natural man ; 
and whatsoever was written aforetime, was written for our 
comfort, [our] that are the believers, [our] that are the saints ; 
concerning such the apostle speaks : for as for the others, 
the apostle Peter plainly declares, tliat the unstable and 
unlearned wrest them to their own destruction : these were 
they that were unlearned in the divine and heavenly learn- 
ing of the Spirit, not in human and school literature ; in 
which we may safely presume that Peter himself, being a 


fisherman, had no skill ; for it may with great probability, 
yea certainty, be affirmed, that he had no knowledge of 
Aristotle's logic, which both Papists and Protestants now,* Logic, 
degenerating from the simplicity of truth, make the hand- 
maid of divinity, as they call it, and a necessary introduc- 
tion to their carnal, natural, and human ministry. By the 
infinite obscure labours of which kind of men, intermixing 
their heathenish stuff, the scripture is rendered at this day 
of so little service to the simple people : whereof if Jerome 
complained in his time, now twelve hundred years ago, 
Hierom. Epist. 134, ad Cypr. Tom. 3, saying, "It is wont 
to befal the most part of learned men, that it is harder to 
understand their expositions, than the things which they 
go about to expound ;" what may we say then, considering 
those great heaps of commentaries since, in ages yet far 
more corrupted ? 

§ VI. In this respect above mentioned, then, we have 
shown what service and use the holy scriptures, as managed 
in and by the Spirit, are of to the church of God ; where- The scrip. 

fore we do account them a secondary rule. Moreover, be- turesase 

•' ' condary 

cause they are commonly acknowledged by all to have rule. 
been written by the dictates of the Holy Spirit, and that 
the errors which may be supposed by the injury of times 
to have slipped in, are not such but that there is a sufficient 
clear testimony left to all the essentials of the Christian 
faith ; we do look upon them as the only fit outward judge 
of controversies among Christians ; and that whatsoever 
doctrine is contrary unto their testimony, may therefore 
justly be rejected as false. And for our parts, we are veiy 
willing that all our doctrines and practices be tried by 
them ; which we never refused, nor ever shall, in all con- 
troversies with our adversaries, as the judge and test. We 
shall also be very willing to admit it as a positive certain 
maxim. That whatsoever any do, pretending to the Spirit, 
which is contrary to the scriptures, be accounted and 
reckoned a delusion of the devil. For as we never lay 
claim to the Spirit's leadings, that we may cover ourselves 
in any thing that is evil ; so we know, that as every evil 
8* M 


contradicts the scriptures, so it cloth also the Spirit in the 
first place, from which the scriptures came, and whose mo- 
tions can never contradict one another, tiiougii they may 
appear sometimes to be contradictory to the blind eye of 
the natural man, as Paul and James seem to contradict 
one another. 

Tiius for we have shown both what we believe, and 
what we believe not, concerning the holy scriptures, hop- 
ing we have given them their due place. But since they 
tiiat will needs have them to be the only, certain, and 
principal rule, want not some show of arguments, even 
from the scripture itself (though it no where calls itself so) 
by which they labour to prove their doctrine ; I shall 
briefly lay them down by way of objections, and answer 
them, before I make an end of this matter. 

Obj. 1. § VII. Their first objection is usually drawn from Isaiah 

viii. 20, " To the law and to the testimony ; if they speak 
not according to this word, it is because there is no light 
in them." Now this law, testimony, and word, they plead 
to be the scriptures. 

Answ. To which I answer; That that is to beg the thing in 

question, and remains yet unproved. Nor do I know for 
what reason we may not safely atfirm this law and word to 
be inward : but suppose it was outward, it proves not the 
case at all for them, neither makes it against us ; for it 
may be confessed, without any prejudice to our cause, that 
the outward law was more particularly to the Jews a rule, 
and more principally than to us ; seeing their law was out- 
ward and literal, but ours, under the new covenant, as 
hath. been already said, is expressly affirmed to be inward, 
and spiritual ; so that this scripture is so far from making 

To try all against us, that it makes for us. For if the Jews were 

wh^r/ ''^ directed to try all things by their law, which was without 
them, written in tables of stone ; then if we will have this 
advice of the prophet to reach us, we must make it hold 
parallel to that dispensation of the gospel which we are 
under : so that we are to try all things, in the first place, 
by that word of faith which is preached unto us, which the 


apostle saith is in the heart ; and by that law which God 
hath given us, which the apostle saith also expressly is 
written and placed in the mind. 

Lastly, If we look to this place according to the Greek 
interpretation of the Septuagint, our adversaries shall have 
nothing from thence to carp ; yea, it will favour us much ; 
for there it is said, that "the law is given us for a help;" 
which very well agrees with what is above asserted. 

Their second objection is from John v. 39, " Search the Obj. 2. 
scriptures," &c. 

Here, say they, we are commanded, by Christ himself, 
to search the scriptures. 

I answer, First, That the scriptures ought to be searched, Answ. i. 
we do not at all deny ; but are very willing to be tried by 
them, as hath been above declared : but the question is, 
Whether they be the only and principal rule ? Which this 
is so far from proving, that it proveth the contrary ; for 
Christ checks them here for too high an esteem of the 
scriptures, and neglecting of him that was to be preferred 
before them, and to whom they bore witness, as the fol- 
lowing words declare ; " for in them ye think ye have Search the 
eternal life, and they are they which testify of me : and ye &c? ^ ' 
will not come unto me, that ye might have life." This 
shows, that while they thought they had eternal life in the 
•scriptures, they neglected to come unto Christ to have life, 
of which the scriptures bore witness. This answers well 
to our purpose, since our adversaries now do also exalt 
the scriptures, and think to have life in them ; which is no 
more than to look upon them as the only principal rule and 
way to life, and yet refuse to come unto the Spirit of which 
they testify, even the inward spiritual law, which could 
give them life : so that the cause of this people's ignorance 
and unbelief was not their want of respect to the scriptures, 
which though they knew, and had a high esteem of, yet 
Christ testifies in the former verses, that they had neither 
" seen the Father, nor heard his voice at any time ; neither 
had his word abiding in them ;" which had they then had, 
then they had believed in the Son. Moreover, that place Answ. 2. 



may be taken in the indicative mood, Ye search the scrip- 
tures ; whicli interpretation the Greeic word will bear, and 
so Pasor translateth it : which by the reproof following 
secmeth also to be the more genuine interpretation, as Cy- 
rillus lonjx ajjo hath observed. 

Obj. 3. § VIII. Their third objection is from these words, Acts 

xvii. 11, "These were more noble than those in Thessalo- 
nica, in that they received the word with all readiness of 
mind, and searched thp scriptures daily, whether those 
things were so." 

Here, say they, the Bereans are commended for search- 
ing the scriptures, and making them the rule. 

Ans. 1. I answer ; That the scriptures either are the principal or 

only rule, will not at all follow from this ; neither will their 
searching the scriptures, or being commended for it, infer 
any such thing: for we recommend and approve the use 
of them in that respect as much as any ; yet will it not 
follow, that we affirm them to be the principal and only 

Secondly, It is to be observed that these were the Jews 
of Berea, to whom these scriptures, which were the law 
and the prophets, were more particularly a rule ; and the 
thing under examination was, whether the birth, life, works, 
and sufferings of Christ, did answer to the prophecies con- 
cerning him ; so that it was most proper for them, being 
Jews, to examine the apostle's doctrine by the scriptures ; 
seeing he pleaded it to be a fulfilling of them. It is said 
nevertheless, in the first place. That "they received the 
word with cheerfulness ;" and in the second place, " They 
searched the scriptures:" not that they searched the scrip- 
tures, and then received the word ; for then could they not 
have prevailed to convert them, had they not first minded 
the word abiding in them, which opened their understand- 
ings ; no more than the Scribes and Pharisees, who, as in 
the former objection we observed, searched the scriptures 
and exalted them, and yet remained in their unbelief, be- 
cause they had not the word abiding in them. 

Ans. 3. But lastly. If this commendation of the Jewish Bereans 

Ans. 2. 

The Bere- 
ans search- 
ing the 
them not 
the only 
rule to try 


might infer that the scriptures were the only and principal 
rule to try the apostle's doctrine by, what should have be- 
come of the Gentiles ? How should they ever have come 
to have received the faith of Christ, who neither knew the 
scriptures, nor believed them ? We see in the end of the 
same chapter, how the apostle, preaching to the Athenians, The Athe 
took another method, and directed them to somewhat of g/^JJ^gj' 
God within themselves, that they might feel after him. He 
did not go about to proselyte them to the Jewish religion, 
and to the belief of the law and the prophets, and from 
thence to prove the coming of Christ ; nay, he took a 
nearer way. Now certainly the principal and only rule is 
not different ; one to the Jews, and another to the Gen- 
tiles ; but is universal, reaching both : though secondary 
and subordinate rules and means may be various, and 
diversely suited, according as the people they are used to 
are stated and circumstantiated : even so we see that the 
apostle to the Athenians used a testimony of one of their 
own poets, which he judged would have credit with them ; 
and no doubt such testimonies, whose authors they esteem- 
ed, had more weight with them than all the sayings of 
Moses, and the prophets, whom they neither knew nor 
would have cared for. Now because the apostle used the 
testimony of a poet to the Athenians, will it therefore follow 
he made that the principal or only rule to try his doctrine 
by ? So neither will it follow, that though he made use 
of the scriptures to the Jews, as being a principle already 
believed by them, to try his doctrine, that from thence the 
scriptures may be accounted the principal or only rule. 

§ IX. The last, and that which at first view seems to be 
the greatest objection, is this: 

If the scripture be not the adequate, principal, and only Obj. 4. 
rule, then it would follow that the scripture is not com- 
plete, nor the canon filled ; that if men be now imme- 
diately led and ruled by the Spirit, they may add new 
scriptures of equal authority with the old ; whereas every 
one that adds is cursed : yea, what assurance have we, but 


at this rate every one may bring in a new gospel according 
to his I'ancy ? 

Answ. The dangerous consequences insinuated in this objection 

were fully answered in the latter part of the last pro])osition, 
in what was said a little before, offering freely to disclaim 
all pretended revelations contrary to the scriptures. 

Obj. 1. But if it be urged, That it is not enough to deny these 

consequences, if they naturally follow from your doctrine 
of immediate revelation, and denying the scripture to be 
the only rule ; 

Ans. 1. I answer ; We have proved both these doctrines to be 

true and necessary, according to the scriptures themselves; 
and therefore to fasten evil consequences upon them, which 
we make appear do not follow, is not to accuse us, but 
Christ and his apostles, who preached them. 

Ans. 2. But Secondly, We have shut the door upon all such 

doctrine in this very position ; affirming. That the scrip- 
tures give a full and ample testimony to all the principal 
doctrines of the Christian faith. For we do firmly believe 
that there is no other gospel or doctrine to be preached, 
but that which was delivered by the apostles ; and do freely 

Gal. i. 8. subscribe to that saying, Let him that preacheth any other 
gospel, than that which hath been already preached by the 
apostles, and according to the scriptures, be accursed. 

A new re- So we distinguish betwixt a revelation of a new gospel, 

not a^nevv '^"^ "^^^' doctrines, and a new revelation of the good old 

gospel. gospel and doctrines ; the last we plead for, but the first 
we utterly deny. For we firmly believe. That no other 
foundation can any man lay, than that which is laid already. 
But that this revelation is necessary we have already proved ; 
and this distinction doth sufficiently guard us against the 
hazard insinuated in the objection. 

Books ca- As to the scriptures being a filled canon, I see no neces- 
sity of believing it. And if these men, that believe the 
scriptures to be the only rule, will be consistent with their 
own doctrine, they must needs be of my judgment ; seeing 
it is sim()ly impossible to prove the canon by the scriptures. 
For it cannot be found in any book of the scriptures, that 



these books, and just these, and no other, are canonical, 
as all are forced to acknowledge ; how can they then evite 
this argument? 

That which cannot be proved by scripture is no necessary 
article of faith. 

But the canon of the scripture ; to wit, that there are so 
many books precisely, neither more nor less, cannot be 
proved by scripture : 

Therefore, it is no necessary article of faith. 

If they should allege ; That the admitting of any other Obj. a. 
books to be now written by the same Spirit might infer the 
admission of new doctrines ; 

I deny that consequence ; for the principal or fundamen- 
tal doctrines of the Christian religion are contained in the 
tenth part of the scripture ; but it will not follow thence 
that the rest are impertinent or useless. If it should please 
God to bring to us any of those books, which by the injury 
of time are lost, which are mentioned in the scripture ; as, 
The Prophecy of Enoch ; the Book of Nathan, &c., or, the Books losu 
Third Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians ; I see no reason 
why we ought not to receive them, and place them with 
the rest. That which displeaseth me is, that men should 
first affirm that the scripture is the only and principal rule, 
and yet make a great article of faith of that which the scrip- 
ture can give us no light in. 

As for instance : How shall a Protestant prove by scrip- 
ture, to such as deny the Epistle of James to be authentic, 
that it ought to be received .-* 

First, If he would say, Because it contradicts not the 
rest ; besides that there is no mention of it in any of the 
rest, perhaps these men think it doth contradict Paul in 
relation to faith and works. But, if that should be granted, 
it would as well follow, that every writer that contradicts 
not the scripture, should be put into the canon ; and by 
this means these men fall into a greater absurdity than they 
fix upon us : for thus they would equal every one the 
writings of their own sect with the scriptures ; for I sup- 
pose 'jhey judge their own confession of faith doth not con- 


tradict the scriptures : Will it therefore follow that it should 

be bound up with the Bible ? And yet it seems impossible, 

according to their principles, to bring any better argument 

Whether to prove tiie Epislle of James to be authentic. There is 

ot Jaines b*e ^^en this unavoidable necessity to say, We know it by the 

authentic, same Spirit from which it was written: or otherwise to step 

and how to ' ^ • • i i 

know it? back to Rome, and say, We know by tradition that the 
church hath declared it to be canonical ; and the church 
is infallible. Let them find a mean, if they can. So that 
out of this objection we shall draw an unanswerable argu- 
ment ad hominem, to our purpose. 

That which cannot assure me concerning an article of 
faith necessary to be believed, is not the primary, adequate, 
only rule of faith, &c. 

But the scripture cannot thus assure me; Therefore, Sec. 
I prove the assumption thus : 

That which cannot assure me concerning the canon of 
the scripture, to wit, that such books are only to be ad- 
mitted, and the Apocrypha excluded, cannot assure me of 

Therefore, &c. 

Obj. 3. And lastly. As to these words. Rev. xxii. 18, That " if 

any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto 

Answ. him the plagues that are written in this book ;" I desire 

they will show me how it relates to any thing else than to 

that particular prophecy. It saith not. Now the canon of 

the scriptures is filled up, no man is to write more from 

the Spirit ; yea, do not all confess that there have been 

prophecies and true prophets since? The Papists deny it 

not. And do not the Protestants affirm, that John Hus 

prophesied of the reformation.-* Was he therefore cursed.' 

Or did he therein evil ? I could give many other exam- 

What it pies, confessed by themselves. But, moreover, the same 

adTt"o the ^^'<^s in effect commanded long before, Prov. xxx. 6, "Add 

scriptures, thou not unto his words, lest he reprove thee, and thou be 

found a liar:" Yet how many books of the prophets were 

written after } And the same was said by Moses, Deut. iv. 

2, "Ye shall not add unto the word which I command 


you; neither shall ye diminish aught from it." So that, 
though we should extend that of the revelation beyond the 
particular prophecy of that book, it cannot be understood 
but of a new gospel, or new doctrines, or of restraining 
man's spirit, that he mix not his human words with the 
divine ; and not of a new revelation of the old, as we have 
said before. 


Concerning the Condition of Man in the Fall, 

All Adam's posterity, or mankind, both Jews and Gentiles, 
as to the first Adam, or earthly man, is fallen, degene- 
rated, and dead ; deprived of the sensation or feeling of 
this inward testimony or seed of God; and is subject Rom. v. 12, 
unto the power, nature, and seed of the serpent, which ' 
he soweth in men's hearts, while they abide in this na- 
tural and corrupted estate : from whence it comes, that 
not only their words and deeds, but all their imagina- 
tions, are evil perpetually in the sight of God, as pro- 
ceeding from this depraved and wicked seed. Man 
therefore, as he is in this state, can know nothing aright ; 
yea, his thoughts and conceptions concerning God and 
things spiritual, until he be disjoined from this evil seed, 
and united to the Divine Light, are unprofitable both to 
himself and others. Hence are rejected the Socinian 
and Pelagian errors, in exalting a natural light ; as also 
of the Papists, and most Protestants, who affirm. That 
man, without the true grace of God, may be a true 
minister of the gospel. Nevertheless, this seed is not 
imputed to infants, until by transgression they actually 
join themselves therewith ; for they are by nature " the 
children of wrath," who walk according to the "power Eph, ii. 
of the prince of the air, the spirit that now worketh in 
the children of disobedience," having their conversation 
in the lusts of the flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh, 
and of the mind. 

9 N 


§ I. Hitherto we have discoursed how the true know- 
ledge of God is attained and preserved ; also of what use 
and service the holy scripture is to the saints. 

We come now to examine the state and condition of jnan 
as he stands in the fall ; what his capacity and power is ; 
and how far he is able, as of himself, to advance in rela- 
tion to the things of God. Of this we touched a little in 
the beginning of the second proposition ; but the full, right, 
and thorough understanding of it is of great use and ser- 
vice ; because from the ignorance and altercations that have 
been about it, there have arisen great and dangerous errors, 
both on the one hand and on the other. While some do 
so far exalt the light of nature, or the faculty of the natural 
man, as capable of himself, by virtue of the inward will, 
faculty, light, and power, that pertains to his nature, to fol- 
low that which is good, and make real progress towards 
heaven ; and of these are the Pelagians, and Semi-Pela- 
gians of old ; and of late the Socinians, and divers others 
among the Papists ; others again will needs run into an- 
Augus- other extreme, to whom Augustine, among the ancients, 
against Pe- ^''st made way in his declining age, through the heat of his 
lagius. 2eal against Pelagius, not only confessing man incapable 
of himself to do good, and prone to evil ; but that in his 
very mother's womb, and before he commits any actual 
transgression, he is contaminate with a real guilt, whereby 
he deserves eternal death : in which respect they are not 
afraid to affirm. That many poor infants are eternally 
damned, and for ever endure the torments of hell. There- 
fore the God of truth, having now again revealed his truth 
that good and even way, by his own Spirit, hath taught 
us to avoid both these extremes. 

That then which our proposition leads to treat of is, 

First, What the condition of man is in the fall ; and how 
far incapable to meddle in the things of God. 

And, secondly, That God doth not impute this evil to 
infants, until they actually join with it : that so, by estab- 
lishing the truth, we may overturn the errors on both 


And as for that third thing included in the proposition 
itself concerning these teachers which want the Grace of 
God, we shall refer that to the tenth proposition, where the 
matter is more particularly handled. 

§ II. As to the first, not to dive into the many curious Pakt I. 
notions which many have concerning the condition of Adam 
before the fall, all agree in this : That thereby he came to Adam'a 
a very great loss, not only in the things which related to 
the outward man, but in regard of that true fellowship and 
communion he had with God. This loss was signified unto 
him in the command, " For in the day thou eatest thereof, 
thou shalt surely die," Gen. ii. 17. This death could not 
be an outward death, or the dissolution of the outward 
man ; for as to that, he did not die yet many hundred 
years after ; so that it must needs respect his spiritual life 
and communion with God. The consequence of this fall, 
besides that which relates to the fruits of the earth, is also 
expressed. Gen. iii. 24, '' So he drove out the man, and 
he placed at the east of the garden of Eden, cherubims, 
and a flaming sword, which turned every way, to keep the 
way of the tree of life." Now whatsoever literal signification 
this may have, we may safely ascribe to this paradise a 
mystical signification, and truly account it that spiritual 
communion and fellowship, which the saints obtain with 
God by Jesus Christ ; to whom only these cherubims give 
way, and unto as many as enter by him, who calls himself 
the Door. So that, though we do not ascribe any whit of Guilt not 
Adam's guilt to men, until they make it theirs by the Hke Adam^s ^^ 
acts of disobedience ; yet we cannot suppose that men, posterity. 
who are come of Adam naturally, can have any good thing 
in their nature, as belonging to it ; which he, from whom 
they derive their nature, had not himself to communicate 
unto them. 

If then we may affirm, that Adam did not retain in his 
nature (as belonging thereunto) any will or light capable to 
give him knowledge in spiritual things, then neither can 
his posterity ; for whatsoever real good any man doth, it 
proceedeth not from his nature, as he is man, or the son of 


Adam ; but from the seed of God in him, as a new visita- 
tion of life, in order to bring him out of this natural con- 
dition : so that, though it be in him, yet it is not of him ; 
and this the Lord himself witnessed. Gen. vi. 5, where it 
is said, he " saw that every imagination of the thoughts of 
his heart was only evil continually :" wiiich words, as 
they are very positive, so are they very comprehensive. 
Every ima- Observe the emphasis of them ; First, There is " every 
ginatioii of imagination of the thouMits of his heart ;" so that this ad- 

the natural _ ^ . ^ 

man is evil, mits of no exception of any imagination of the thoughts 
of his heart. Secondly, " Is only evil continually ;" it is 
neither in some part evil continually, nor yet only evil at 
some times ; but both only evil, and always and continu- 
ally evil ; which certainly excludes any good, as a proper 
eflfect of man's heart, naturally : for that which is only evil, 
and that always, cannot of its own nature produce any 
good thing. The Lord expressed this again a little after, 
chap. viii. 21, "The imagination of man's heart is evil 
from his youth." Thus inferring how natural and proper 
it is unto him ; from which I thus argue : 

If the thoughts of man's heart be not only evil, but al- 
ways evil ; then are they, as they simply proceed from his 
heart, neither good in part, nor at any time. 
But the first is true ; therefore the last. 

If man's thoughts be always and only evil, then are they 
altogether useless and ineflfectual to him in the things of 

But the first is true ; therefore the last. 
Tne heart Secondly, This appears clearly from that saying of the 
ceiU^u" ^^' prophet Jeremiah, chap. xvii. 9, " The heart is deceitful 
above all things, and desperately wicked." For who can 
with any colour of reason imagine, that that which is so 
hath any power of itself, or is in any wise fit to lead a man 
to righteousness, whereunto it is of its own nature directly 
opposite .■* This is as contrary to reason, as it is impos- 
sible in nature that a stone, of its own nature and proper 
motion, should fly upwards : for as a stone of its own na- 


ture inciineth and is prone to move downwards towards the 
centre, so the heart of man is naturally prone and inclined 
to evil, some to one, and some to another. From this then 
I also thus argue : 

That which is " deceitful above all things, and desper- 
ately wicked," is not fit, neither can it lead a man aright 
in things that are good and honest. 

But the heart of man is such : 

Therefore, &c. 

But the apostle Paul describeth the condition of men in Rom. iii.ife. 
the fall at large, taking it out of the Psalmist. " There is and liii. 2.' 
none righteous, no not one : there is none that understandeth, *^*^- 
there is none that seeketh after God. They are all gone 
out of the way, they are altogether become unprofitable ; 
there is none that doth good, no not one. Their throat is Man's 
an open sepulchre, with their tongues they have used the fall, 
deceit, the poison of asps is under their lips : whose 
mouths are full of cursing and bitterness. Their feet are 
swift to shed blood ; destruction and misery are in their 
ways : and the way of peace have they not known. There 
is no fear of God before their eyes." What more positive 
can be spoken .'' He seemeth to be particularly careful to 
avoid that any good should be ascribed to the natural man ; 
he shows how he is polluted in all his ways ; he shows how 
he is void of righteousness, of understanding, of the know- 
ledge of God ; how he is out of the way, and in short un- 
profitable ; than which nothing can be more fully said to 
confirm our judgment: for if this be the condition of the 
natural man, or of man as he stands in the fall, he is unfit 
to make one right step to heaven. 

If it be said, That is not spoken of the condition of man Object. 
in general ; but only of some particulars, or at the least 
that it comprehends not all ; 

The text showeth the clear contrary in the foregoing Answ. 
verses, where the apostle takes in himself, as he stood in 
his natural condition. "What then.? Are we better than 
they ^ No, in no wise ; for we have before proved both 
Jews and Gentiles, that they are all under sin, as it is 



written :" and so he goes on ; by which it is manifest that 
he speaks of mankind in general. 
Object. If they object that which the same apostle saith in the 

foregoing chapter, ver 14, to wit, That the Gentiles do 
by nature the things contained in the law, and so conse- 
quently do by nature that which is good and acceptable in 
the sight of God ; 
Ans. 1. I answer ; This nature must not, neither can be under- 

stood of man's own nature, which is corrupt and fallen ; 
but of the spiritual nature, which proceedeth from the seed 
of God in man, as it receiveth a new visitation of God's, 
love, and is quickened by it : which clearly appears by the 
By wnat following words, where he saith, " These having not the 
naturejhe Jaw," i, e., outwardly, " are a law unto themselves; which 
did do the show the work of the law written in their hearts." These 
ihe faw. acts of theirs then are an effect of the law written in their 
hearts ; but the scripture declareth, that the writing of the 
law in the heart is a part, yea and a great part too, of the 
new covenant dispensation, and so no consequence nor 
part of man's nature. 
A.NS. 2. Secondly, If this nature here spoken of could be under- 

stood of man's own nature, which he hath as he is a man, 
then would the apostle unavoidably contradict himself; 
Tlie natural since he elsewhere positively declares. That the natural 
cerneth' ^^^^ discerneth not the things of God, nor can. Now I 
not, &c. hope the law of God is among the things of God, especially 
as it is written in the heart. The apostle in the viith chap, 
of the same epistle, saith, verse 12, that "the law is holy, 
just, and good;" and verse 14, the "law is spiritual, buT 
he is carnal." Now in what respect is he carnal, but as 
he stands in the fall unregenerate ? Now what inconsistencj' 
would here be, to say. That he is carnal, and yet not so of 
his own nature, seeing it is from his nature that he is so 
denominated ? We see the apostle contra-distinguisheth 
the law as spiritual, from man's nature as carnal and sinful. 
Mat vii. 16. Wherefore, as Christ saith. There can no grapes be ex- 
pected from thorns, nor figs of thistles ; so neither can the 
fulfilling of the law, which is spiritual, holy, and just, be 


expected from that nature which is corrupt, fallen, and 
unregenerate. Whence we conclude, with good reason, 
that the nature here spoken of, by which the Gentiles are The Gen- 
said to have done the things contained in the law, is not ual namre' 
the common nature of men; but that spiritual nature that jndomgthe 
ariseth from the works of the righteous and spiritual law 
that is written in the heart. I confess they of the other 
extreme, when they are pressed with this testimony by the 
Socinians and Pelagians, as well as by us when we use 
this scripture, to show them how some of the heathen, by 
the light of Christ in their heart, came to be saved, are 
very far to seek ; giving this answer. That there were some 
relics of the heavenly image left in Adam, by which the 
heathen could do some good things. Which, as it is in 
itself without proof, so it contradicts their own assertions 
elsewhere, and gives away their cause. For if these 
relics were of force to enable them to fulfil the righteous 
law of God, it takes away the necessity of Christ's com- 
ing ; or at least leaves them a way to be saved without 
him ; unless they will say (which is worst of all) That 
though they really fulfilled the righteous law of God, yet 
God damned them, because of the w^ant of that particular 
knowledge, while he himself withheld all means of their 
coming to him, from them ; but of this hereafter. 

§ III. I might also here use another argument from 
these words of the apostle, 1 Cor. ii, where he so positively 
excludes the natural man from an understanding in the 
things of God ; but because I have spoken of that scrip- 
ture in the beginning of the second proposition, I will here 
avoid to repeat what is there mentioned, referring there- Socinians 
unto : yet because the Socinians and others, who exalt the fj'Iht'ofthe 
light of the natural man, or a natural light in man, do ob- natural 
iect aeamst this scripture, I shall remove it before I pro- ^ . 

, ^ « ^ *Antequani> 

ceecl. progrediar. 

They say, The Greek word -^vx'^k ought to be trans- Object. 
lated animal, and not natural ; else, say they, it would 
have been (putfixog. From which they seek to infer, that it 
is only the animal man, and not the rational, that is ex- 


eluded here from discerning the things of God. Which 

shift, without disputing about the word, is easily refuted; 

neither is it any wise consistent with the scope of the 

place. For, 

A\s. 1. First, The animal life is no other than that which man 

mail is iiie hath in common with other living creatures; for as he is a 

f,o?,'f,„Y"'^ mere man, he differs no otherwise from beasts than by the 

rational property. Now the apostle deduceth his argument 

in the foregoing verses from this simile; That as the things 

of a man cannot be known but by the spirit of a man, so 

the things of God no man knoweth but by the Spirit of 

God. But I hope these men will confess unto me, that 

the things of a man are not known by the animal spirit 

only, i. e. by that which he hath in common with the 

beasts, but by the rational ; so that it must be the rational 

that is here understood. Again, the assumption shows 

clearly that the apostle had no such intent as these men's 

gloss would make him have, viz. : " So the things of God 

knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God." According to 

their judgment he should have said. The things of God 

knoweth no man by his animal spirit, but by his rational 

spirit: for to say, the Spirit of God, here spoken of, is no 

other than the rational spirit of man, would border upon 

blasphemy, since they are so often contra-distinguished. 

Again, going on, he saith not that they are rationally, but 

spiritually discerned. 

Ans. 2. Secondly, The apostle throughout this chapter shows 

how the wisdom of man is unfit to judge of the things of 

God, and ignorant of them. Now I ask these men, whether 

a man be called a wise man from his animal property, or 

The ration- from his rational.'' If from his rational, then it is not only 

Mie^nalural ^'^*^ animal, but also the rational, as he is yet in the natural 

stale ex- state, which the apostle excludes here, and whom he con- 
cluded trom . . • 1 , /. ■ • 1 -1 r -r. 

discerning tra-distmguisheth irom the spiritual, verse 15, cut the 

ot'*God?°^ spiritual man judgeth all things. This cannot be said of 

any man merely because rational, or as he is a man, seeing 

the men of the greatest reason, if we may so esteem men, 

whom the scripture calls wise, as were the Greeks of old. 


not only may be, but often are enemies to the kingdom of 
God ; while both the preaching of Christ is said to be 
foolishness with the wise men of the world, and the wis- 
dom of the world is said to be foolishness with God. Now 
"A'hether it be any ways probable that either these wise men 
that are said to account the gospel foolishness, are only so 
called with respect to their animal property, and not their 
rational ; or that the wisdom that is foolishness with God 
is not meant of the rational, but only the animal property, 
any rational man, laying aside interest, may easily judge. 

§ IV. I come now to the other part, to wit. That this infants, no 
evil and corrupt seed is not imputed to infants, until to\hem^'^'^ 
they actually join with it. For this there is a reason given 
in the end of the proposition itself, drawn from Eph. ii. 
For these are by nature children of wrath, who walk ac- 
cording to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that 
now worketh in the children of disobedience. Here the 
apostle gives their evil walking, and not any thing that is 
not reduced to act, as a reason of their being " children of 
wrath." And this is suitable to the whole strain of the 
gospel, where no man is ever threatened or judged for 
what iniquity he hath not actually wrought : such indeed 
as continue in iniquity, and so do allow the sins of their 
fathers, God will visit the iniquity of the fathers upon the 

Is it not strange then that men should entertain an opinion 
so absurd in itself, and so cruel and contrary to the nature 
as well of God's mercy as justice, concerning which the 
scripture is altogether silent ? But it is manifest that man 
hath invented this opinion out of self-love, and from that 
bitter root from which all errors spring ; for the most part The abso- 
of Protestants that hold this, having, as they fancy, the o'J-'eifctio^n 
absolute decree of election to secure them and their chil- springs 
dren, so as they cannot miss of salvation, they make no bve. 
difficulty to send all others, both old and young, to hell. 
For whereas self-love, which is always apt to believe that 
which it desires, possesseth them with a hope that their 
part is secure, they are not solicitous how they leave their 




there is no 
law, so no 

neighbours, which are the Air greater part of mankind, in 
these inextricable diflScuIlies. Tlie Papists again use this 
opinion as an art to augment the esteem of their church, 
and reverence of its sacraments, seeing they pretend it is 
washed away by baptism ; only in this they appear to be a 
little more merciful, in that they send not these unbaptized 
infants to hell, but to a certain limhus, concerning which 
the scriptures are as silent as of the other. This then is not 
only not authorized in the scriptures, but contrary to the 
express tenor of them. The apostle saith plainly, Rom. iv. 
15, " Where no law is, there is no transgression." And 
again, ch. v. 13, "But sin is not imputed, where there is 
no law." Than which testimonies there is nothing more 
To infants positive ; since to infants there is no law, seeing as such 
they are utterly incapable of it ; the law cannot reach any 
but such as have in some measure less or more the exer- 
cise of their understanding, which infants have not. So 
that from thence I argue thus : 

Sin is imputed to none, where there is no law. 

But to infants there is no law: 

Therefore sin is not imputed to them. 

The proposition is the apostle's own words ; the as- 
sumption is thus proved : 

Those who are under a physical impossibility of either 
hearing, knowing, or understanding any law, where the 
impossibility is not brought upon them by any act of their 
own, but is according to the very order of nature appointed 
by God ; to such there is no law. 

But infants are under this physical impossibility : 

Therefore, &c. 

Secondly, What can be more positive than that of Ezek. 
xviii. 20, " The soul that sinneth, it shall die : the son shall 
not bear the iniquity of the father." For the prophet here 
first showeth what is the cause of man's eternal death, 
which he saith is his sinning ; and then, as if he purposed 
expressly to shut out such an opinion, he assures us, " The 
son shall not bear the iniquity of the father." From which 
I thus argue : 


If the son bear not the iniquity of his father, or of his Infanta 
immediate parents, far less shall he bear the iniquity of Acbm'"^ 

Adam. transgres- 

But the son shall not bear the iniquity of his father : 

Therefore, &c. 

§ V. Having thus far shown how absurd this opinion 
is, I shall briefly examine the reasons its authors bring 
for it. 

First, They say, Adam was a public person, and there- Obj. i. 
fore all men sinned in him, as being in his loins. And for 
this they allege that of Rom. v. 12, " Wherefore as by one 
man sin entered into the world, and death by sin ; and so 
death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned." 
These last words, say they, may be translated, In whom all 
have sinned. 

To this I answer : That Adam is a public person is not Answ. 
denied ; and that through him there is a seed of sin pro- 
pagated to all men, which in its own nature is sinful, and 
inclines men to iniquity ; yet it will not follow from thence, 
that infants, who join not with this seed, are guilty. As for 
these words in the Romans, the reason of the guilt there 
alleged is, " For that all have sinned." Now no man is 
said to sin, unless he actually sin in his own person ; for 
the Greek words scp Z may very well relate to ^ava7og, which 
is the nearest antecedent ; so that they hold forth, how that 
Adam, by his sin, gave an entrance to sin in the world : 
and so death entered by sin, scp' w, i. e. upon which [viz. 
occasion] or, in which [viz. death] all others have sinned ; 
that is, actually in their own persons ; to wit, all that were 
capable of sinning : of which number that infants could not 
be, the apostle clearly shows by the following verse : " Sin 
is not imputed, where there is no law :" and since, as is 
above proved, there is no law to infants, they cannot be 
\iere included. 

Their second objection is from Psalm li. 5, " Behold I Obj. 2, 
was shapen in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive 
me." Hence, they say, it appears that infants from their 
conception are guilty. 


Answ. How they infer this consequence, for my part I see not. 

The iniquity and sin here appears to be far more ascribable 

Conceived to tile parents than to the cliild. It is said indeed, " In sin 

swered"' ^^^ ^V mother conceive me ;" not my mother did conceive 
me a sinner. Besides, that, so interpreted, contradicts ex- 
pressly the scripture before-mentioned, in mailing children 
guilty of" the sins of their immediate parents, (for of Adam 
there is not here any mention) contrary to the plain words, 
"the son shall not bear the father's iniquity." 

Ob J. 3. Thirdly, They object, " That the wages of sin is death ;" 

and that seeing children are subject to diseases and death, 
therefore they must be guilty of sin. 

Answ. J answer. That these things are a consequence of the 

fall, and of Adam's sin, is confessed ; but that that infers 

Death the necessarily a guilt in all others that are subject to them is 

shi^answer- <Jt;nied. For though the whole outward creation suffered a 

^^' decay by Adam's fall, which groans under vanity ; accord- 

ing to which it is said in Job, that the heavens are not 
clean in the sight of God ; yet will it not from thence fol- 
low, that the herbs, earth, and trees are sinners. 

Next, death, though a consequent of the fall, incident 
to man's earthly nature, is not the wages of sin in the 
saints, but rather a sleep, by which they pass from death 
to life ; which is so far from being troublesome and pain- 
ful to them, as all real punishments for sin are, that the 
apostle counts it gain : " To me," saith he, " to die is 
gain," Philip i. 21. 

Obj. 4. Some are so foolish as to make an objection farther, 

saying, That if Adam's sin be not imputed to those who 
actually have not sinned, then it would follow that all in- 
fants are saved. 

Answ. But we are willing that this supposed absurdity should 

be the consequence of our doctrine, rather than that which 
it seems our adversaries reckon not absurd, thougii the un- 
doubted and unavoidable consequence of theirs, viz. : 
That many infants eternally perish, not for any sin of their 
own, but only for Adam's iniquity ; where we are willing 


to let the controversy stop, commending both to the illu- 
minated understanding of the Christian reader. 

This error of our adversaries is both denied and refuted 
by Zuinglius, that eminent founder of the Protestant 
churches of Switzerland, in his book De Baptismo, for 
which he is anathematized by the Council of Trent, in the 
fifth session. We shall only add this information : That 
we confess then that a seed of sin is transmitted to all men 
from Adam, although imputed to none, until by sinning 
they actually join with it ; in which seed he gave occasion 
to all to sin, and it is the origin of all evil actions and 
thoughts in men's hearts, icp' w to wit, ^avocTw, as it is in 
Rom. v., i. e., in which death all have sinned. For this 
seed of sin is frequently called death in the scripture, and 
the body of death ; seeing indeed it is a death to the life 
of righteousness and holiness : therefore its seed and its 
product is called the old man, the old Adam, in which all 
sin is ; for which cause we use this name to express this sin. Original sin 
and not that of original sin ; of which phrase the scripture phraTe^^"™ 
makes no mention, and under which invented and unscrip- 
tural barbarism this notion of imputed sin to infants took 
place among Christians. 


Concerning the Universal Redemption by Chiist, and also 
the Saving and Spiritual Light, ivherewith every Man is 


God, out of his infinite love, who delighteth not in the Ezek. xviii. 

on By. OQ 1 1 

death of a sinner, but that all should live and be saved, ' 

hath so loved the world, that he hath given his only Son 
a Light, that whosoever believeth in him shall be saved, 


John iii. 16, who enhghteneth every man that cometh 
into the world, John i. 9, and raakelh manifest all 
things that are reprovable, Ephes. v. 13, and teacheth 
all temperance, righteousness, and godliness ; and this 
Light enliohteneth the hearts of all for a time, in order 
to salvation ; and this is it which reproves the sin of all 
individuals, and would work out the salvation of all, if 
not resisted. Nor is it less universal than the seed of 
sin, being the purchase of his death, who tasted death 
for every man : for as in Adam all die, even so in Christ 
all shall be made alive, 1 Cor. xv. 22. 


According to which principle or hypothesis all the objec- 
tions against the universality of Christ's death are easily 
solved ; neither is it needful to recur to the ministry of 
angels, and those other miraculous means which they 
say God useth to manifest the doctrine and history of 
Christ's passion unto such, who, living in parts of the 
world where the outward preaching of the gospel is un- 
known, have well improved the first and common grace. 
For as hence it well follows that some of the old philo- 
sophers might have been saved, so also may some, who 
by providence are cast into those remote parts of the 
world where the knowledge of the history is wanting, 
be made partakers of the divine mystery, if they receive 

iCor. xii.7. and resist not that grace, a manifestation whereof is 
given to every man to profit withal. This most certain 
doctrine being then received, that there is an evangelical 
and saving light and grace in all, the universality of the 
love and mercy of God towards mankind, both in the 
death of his beloved Son the Lord Jesus Christ, and in the 
manifestation of the light in the heart, is established and 
confirmed, against all the objections of such as deny it. 

Heb. ii. 9. Therefore Christ hath tasted death for every man ; not 


only for all kinds of men, as some vainly talk, but for 
every man of all kinds ; the benefit of whose offering is 
not only extended to such who have the distinct outward 
knowledge of his death and sufferings, as the same is 
declared in the scriptures, but even unto those who are 
necessarily excluded from the benefit of this knowledge 
by some inevitable accident ; which knowledge we wil- 
lingly confess to be very profitable and comfortable, but 
not absolutely needful unto such from whom God hi^m- 
self hath withheld it ; yet they may be made partakers 
of the mystery of his death, though ignorant of the his- 
tory, if they suffer his seed and light, enlightening their 
hearts, to take place; in which light communion with the 
Father and the Son is enjoyed; so as of wicked men to 
become holy, and lovers of that power, by whose in- 
ward and secret touches they feel themselves turned from 
the evil to the good, and learn to do to others as they 
would be done by, in which Christ himself affirms all to 
be included. As they have then falsely and erroneously 
taught, who have denied Christ to have died for all men : 
so neither have they suflficiently taught the truth, who, 
affirming him to have died for all, have added the abso- 
lute necessity of the outward knowledge thereof, in 
order to obtain its saving effect. Among whom the Re- 
monstrants of Holland have been chiefly wanting, and 
many other asserters of universal redemption, in that 
they have not placed the extent of this salvation in that 
divine and evangelical principle of light and life where- 
with Christ hath enlightened every man that cometh into 
the world, which is excellently and evidently held forth 
in these scriptures. Gen. vi. 3 ; Deut. xxx. 14 ; John i. 
7, 8, 9, 16 ; Rom. x. 8 ; Titus, ii. 11. 

Hitherto we have considered man's fallen, lost, cor- 
rupted, and degenerated condition. Now it is fit to en- 
quire how, and by what means he may come to be freed 
out of this miserable and depraved condition, which in 
these two propositions is declared and demonstrated ; which 


I thought meet to place together because of their affinity, 

the one being as it were an explanation of the other. 

Absolute As for that doctrine which these propositions chiefly 

[foil" that strike at, to wit, absolute reprobation, according to which 

hornbleand some are not afraid to assert, That God, by an eternal 

blaspncin- . t i j 

ousdoc- and immutable decree, hath predestinated to eternal dam- 
scnbed. nation the far greater part of mankind, not considered as 
made, much less as fallen, without any respect to their dis- 
obedience or sin, but only for the demonstrating of the 
glory of his justice ; and that for the bringing this about, 
he hath appointed these miserable souls necessarily to walk 
in their wicked ways, that so his justice may lay hold on 
them : and that God doth therefore not only sufler them to 
be liable to this misery in many parts of the world, by 
withholding from them the preaching of the gospel and the 
knowledge of Christ, but even in those places where the 
gospel is preached, and salvation by Christ is offered ; 
whom though he publicly invite them, yet he justly con- 
demns for disobedience, albeit he hath withheld from them 
all grace by which they could have laid hold of the gospel, 
viz. : Because he hath, by a secret will urtknown to all 
men, ordained and decreed (without any respect had to 
their disobedience or sin) that they shall not obey, and that 
the offer of the gospel shall never prove effectual for their 
salvation, but only serve to aggravate and occasion their 
greater condemnation. 

I say, as to this horrible and blasphemous doctrine, our 
cause is common with many others, who have both wisely 
and learnedly, according to scripture, reason, and anti- 
quity, refuted it. Seeing then that so much is said already 
and so well against this doctrine, tiiat little can be super- 
added, except what hath been said already, I shall be short 
in this respect ; yet, because it lies so in opposition to my 
way, I cannot let it altogether pass. 
This doc- § I, First, We may safely call this doctrine a novelty, 
veTty.^ no- gg^j^^^ ^j^^ ^^^^ ip^^j. hujjjred years after Christ there is no 
mention made of it : for as it is contrary to the scripture's 
testimony, and to the tenor of the gospel, so all the ancient 


writers, teachers, and doctors of the church pass it over 
with a profound silence. The first foundations of it were The rise of 
laid in the later writings of Augustine, who, in his heat 
against Pelagius, let fall some expressions which some 
have unhappily gleaned up, to the establishing of this 
error ; thereby contradicting the truth, and sufficiently 
gainsaying many others, and many more and frequent ex- 
pressions of the same Augustine. Afterwards was this 
doctrine fomented by Dominicus a friar, and the monks 
of his order; and at last unhappily taken up by John Cal- 
vin, otherwise a man in divers respects to be commended, 
to the great staining of his reputation, and defamation both 
of the Protestant and Christian religion ; which though it 
received the decrees of the synod of Dort for its confirma- 
tion, hath since lost ground, and begins to be exploded by 
most men of learning and piety in all Protestant churches. 
However, we should not oppugn it for the silence of the 
ancients, paucity of its asserters, or for the learnedness of 
its opposers, if we did observe it to have any real bottom 
in the writings or sayings of Christ and the apostles, and 
that it were not highly injurious to God himself, to Jesus 
Christ our Mediator and Redeemer, and to the power, 
virtue, nobility, and excellency of his blessed gospel, and 
lastly unto all mankind. 

§ II. First, It is highly injurious to God, because it i. Highly 
makes him the author of sin, which of all things is most qq*^"*^"^ **^ 
contrary to his nature. I confess the asserters of this prin- making 

. , , , . 11-1 -n "™ '"^^ ^"' 

ciple deny this consequence; but that is but a mere illu- thorofsin. 
sion, seeing it so naturally follows from their doctrine, and 
is equally ridiculous, as if a man should pertinaciously 
deny that one and two make three. For if God has de- 
creed that the reprobated ones shall perish, without all 
respect to their evil deeds, but only of his own pleasure, 
and if he hath also decreed long before they were in being, 
or in a capacity to do good or evil, that they should walk 
in those wicked ways, by which, as by a secondary means, 
they are led to that end ; who, I pray, is the first author 
and cause thereof but God, who so willed and decreed .'' 
10* p 


This is as natural a consequence as can be : and therefore, 
although many of the preachers of this doctrine have 
sought out various, strange, strained, and intricate dis- 
tinctions to defend their opinion, and avoid this horrid 
consequence ; yet some, and that of the most eminent of 
them, have been so plain in the matter, as they have put 
it beyond all doubt. Of which I shall instance a few among 
• Calvin in many passages. *" I say. That by the ordination and will 
Id^f Inst"' o^ God, Adam fell. God would have man to fall. Man 
c. 18. s. 1. is blinded by the will and commandment of God, We 
Pried. Id. refer the causes of hardening us to God. The highest or 
vid Id iiist" remote cause of hardening is the will of God. It foUoweth 
c. 23. s. 1. that the hidden counsel of God is the cause of hardening." 
tBezalib. These are Calvin's expressions. f"God," saith Beza, 
de Praed. u hath predestinated not only unto damnation, but also 
X Id. de unto the causes of it, whomsoever he saw meet." |"The 
PriEd. ad. (^ig(,,.gj, ^f Qq J cannot be excluded from the causes of cor- 
^Zanch. de ruption." §" It is certain," saith Zanchius, " that God is 
5. Id. lib. the tirst cause of obduration. Reprobates are held so fast 
Dei cap^'2 under God's almighty decree, that they cannot but sin and 
de praed. perish," ||"It is the opinion," saith Parous, " of our 
lib. 3. de' doctors, That God did inevitably decree the temptation 
tiaT'c^'^^' '^"^ ^''^^ °^ man. The creature sinneth indeed necessarily. 
Id. c. 1. by the most just judgment of God. Our men do most 
rightly affirm, that the fall of man was necessary and in- 
if Martyr evitablc, by accident, because of God's decree," IF" God," 
in Rom. g^i^j^ Martyr, " doth indine and force the wills of wicked 
** Zuing. men into great sins." **"God," saith Zuinglius, " moveth 
Hb^deProv. ^j^^ ^.^^^^^ ^^ j,jjj_ jj^ (.{jj^^j^^ q^j forcing him thereunto. 

But thou wilt say, he is forced to sin; I permit truly that 
ttResp.adhe is forced." ff" Reprobate persons," saith Piscator, 
i.'p^i2o'^ " ^'"^ absolutely ordained to this two-fold end, to undergo 
everlasting punishment, and necessarily to sin ; and there- 
fore to sin, that they may be justly punished." 

If these sayings do not plainly and evidently import that 
God is the author of sin, we must not then seek these men's 
opinions from their words, but some way else. It seems 
as if thev had assumed to themselves that monstrous and 


twofold will they feign of God ; one by which they declare 
their minds openly, and another more secret and hidden, 
which is quite contrary to the other. Nor doth it at all 
help them, to say that man sins willingly, since that willing- 
ness, proclivity, and propensity to evil is, according to 
their judgment, so necessarily imposed upon him, that he 
cannot but be willing, because God hath willed and de- 
creed him to be so. Which shift is just as if I should take 
a child incapable to resist me, and throw it down from a 
great precipice ; the weight of the child's body indeed 
makes it go readily down, and the violence of the fall upon 
some rock or stone beats out its brains and kills it. Now 
then, I pray, though the body of the child goes willingly 
down, for I suppose it, as to its mind, incapable of any 
will, and the weight of its body, and not any immediate 
stroke of my hand, who perhaps am at a great distance, 
makes it die, whether is the child or I the proper cause of 
its death? Let any man of reason judge, if God's part be 
not, with them, as great, yea, more immediate, in the sins of 
men, as by the testimonies above brought doth appear; 
whether doth not this make him not only the author of sin, 
but more unjust than the unjustest of men ? 

§ III. Secondly, This doctrine is injurious to God, be- 2. It makes 
cause it makes him delight in the death of sinners, yea, ]^°iiedeath 
and to will many to die in their sins, contrary to these of a sinner, 
scriptures, Ezek. xxxiii. 11 ; 1 Tim. ii. 4 ; 2 Pet. iii. 9. 
For if he hath created men only for this very end, that he 
might show forth his justice and power in them, as these 
men affirm, and for effecting thereof hath not only with- 
held from them the means of doing good, but also pre- 
destinated the evil, that they might fall into it ; and that 
he inclines and forces them into great sins ; certainly he 
must necessarily delight in their death, and will them to 
die ; seeing against his own will he neither doth, nor can 
do any thing. 

§ IV. Thirdly, It is highly injurious to Christ our me- 3 It renders 
diator, and to the efficacy and excellency of his gospel ; mediation 
for it renders his mediation ineffectual, as if he had not by "leffectual. 


his sufferings thoroughly broken down the middle wall, nor 
yet removed the wrath of God, nor purchased the love of 
God towards all mankind, if it was afore decreed that it 
should be of no service to the far greater part of mankind. 
It is to no purpose to allege, that the death of Christ was 
of efficacy enough to have saved all mankind, if in effect 
its virtue be not so far extended as to put all mankind into 
a capacity of salvation. 

4. It makes Fourthly, It makes the preaching of the gospel a mere 
a mock. mock and illusion, if many of these, to whom it is preach- 
ed, be by an irrevocable decree excluded from being 
benefited by it ; it wholly makes useless the preaching of 
faith and repentance, and the whole tenor of the gospel 
promises and threatenings, as being all relative to a former 
decree and means before appointed to sucii ; which, be- 
cause they cannot fail, man needs do nothing but wait for 
that irresistible juncture, which will come, though it be 
but at the last hour of his life, if he be in the decree of 
election ; and be his diligence and waiting what it can, he 
shall never attain it, if he belong to the decree of repro- 

5. It makes Fifthly, It makes the cominsf of Christ, and his propi- 
the comino' . . . . 

of Christ" tiatory sacrifice, which the scripture affirms to have been 

wrath' ° ^^^ ^^^^^ of God's love to the world, and transacted for the 
sins and salvation of all men, to have been rather a testi- 
mony of God's wrath to the world, and one of the greatest 
judgments, and severest acts of God's indignation towards 
mankind, it being only ordained to save a very few, and 
for the hardening, and augmenting the condemnation of 
the far greater number of men, because they believe not 
truly in it ; the cause of which unbelief again, as the divines 
[so called] above assert, is the hidden counsel of God : 
certainly the coming of Christ was never to them a testi- 
mony of God's love, but rather of his implacable wrath : 
and if the world may be taken for the far greater number 
of such as live in it, God never loved the world, according 
to this doctrine, but rather hated it greatly, in sending his 
Son to be crucified in it. 


§ V. Sixthly, This doctrine is highly injurious to man- 6. It ren- 
kind ; for it renders them in a far worse condition than the ^ind^n^a' 
devils in hell. For these were some time in a capacity to worse con- 

, 1 1 1 rr- 1 /- 1 ■ -1 1 dition than 

have stood, and do sutler only tor their own guilt ; where- the de- 
as many millions of men are for ever tormented, according ^"^~ 
to them, for Adam's sin, which they neither knew of, nor 
ever were accessary to. It renders them worse than the 
beasts of the field, of whom the master requires no more 
than they are able to perform ; and if they be killed, death 
to them is the end of sorrow ; wher-eas man is for ever tor- 
mented for not doing that which he never was able to do. 
It puts him into a far worse condition than Pharaoh put —Than the 
the Israelites; for though he withheld straw from them, ^^^'^^^'p^^ 
yet by much labour and pains they could have gotten it: raoh. 
but from men they make God to withhold all means of 
salvation, so that they can by no means attain it ; yea, they 
place mankind in that condition which the poets feign of 
Tantalus, who, oppressed with thirst, stands in water up to Tantalus's 
the chin, yet can by no means reach it with his tongue ; '^''^'^ ^^'°"' 
and being tormented with hunger, hath fruits hanging at 
his very lips, yet so as he can never lay hold on them with 
his teeth ; and these things are so near him, not to nourish 
him, but to torment him. So do these men : they make 
the outward creation of the works of Providence, the 
smitings of conscience, sufficient to convince the heathen 
of sin, and so to condemn and judge them: but not at all 
to help them to salvation. They make the preachi^ig of 
the gospel, the offer of salvation by Christ, the use of the 
sacraments, of prayer, and good works, sufficient to con- 
demn those they account reprobates within the church, 
serving only to inform them to beget a seeming faith and 
vain hope ; yet because of a secret impotency, which they 
had from their infancy, all these are wholly ineffectual to 
bring them the least step towards salvation ; and do only 
contribute to render their condemnation the greater, and 
their torments the more violent and intolerable. 

Having thus briefly removed this false doctrine which 
stood in my way, because they that are desirous may see it 


both learnedly and piously refuted by many others, I come 
to the matter of our proposition, which is, That " God out 
of his infinite love, who delighteth not in the death of a 
sinner, but that all should live and be saved, hath sent his 
only begotten Son into the world, that whosoever believeth 
in him might be saved ;" which also is again affirmed in the 
Clirist tast- sixth proposition, in these words, Christ then tasted death 
eJety ma'r <o'' ^^"*^'T ^an, of all kinds. Such is the evidence of this 
trutii, delivered almost wholly in the express words of 
scripture, that it will not need much probation. Also, be- 
cause our assertion herein is common with many others, 
who have both earnestly and soundly, according to the 
scripture, pleaded for this universal redemption, I shall be 
the more brief in it, th; t I may come to that which may 
seem more singularly ' r>'^-Mliarly ours. 
Christ's re- 5, VI. This doctrine of universal redemption, or Christ's 
umversal, <^yi"g ^^^ ^11 men, is of itself so evident from the scripture 

contrary to testimony, that there is scaice found any other article of 

ii.e doctrine ... • i 1 

of absolute the Christian faith so frequently, so plamly, and so posi- 

tfon.° *' tively asserted. It is that which maketh the preaching of 
Christ to be truly termed the gospel, or an annunciation of 
glad tidings to all. Thus the angel declared the birth and 
coming of Christ to the shepherds to be, Luke ii. 10, " Be- 
hold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be 
to ail people :" he saith not, to a few. Now if this coming 
of Christ had not brought a possibility of salvation to all, 
it should rather have been accounted bad tidings of great 
sorrow to most people ; neither should the angel have had 
reason to have sung, " Peace on earth, and good will to- 
wards men," if the greatest part of mankind had been 
necessarily shut out from receiving any benefit by it. How 
should Christ have sent out his servants to " preach the 
gospel to every creature," Mark xvi. 15, (a very compre- 
hensive commission) that is, to every son and daughter of 
mankind, without all exception .'' He commands them to 
preach salvation to all, repentance and remission of sins 
to all ; warning every one, and exhorting every one, as 
Paul did. Col. i. 28. Now how could they have preached 


the gospel to every man, as became the ministers of Jesus The gospel 
Christ, in much assurance, if salvation by that gospel had Joeverv^ 
not been possible to all ? What ! if some of those had m^"- 
asked them, or should now ask any of these doctors, who 
deny the universality of Christ's death, and yet preach it to 
all promiscuously. Hath Christ died for me ? How can 
they, with confidence, give a certain answer to this ques- 
tion? If they give a conditional answer, as their principle 
obligeth them to do, and say, If thou repent, Christ hath 
died for thee ; doth not the same question still recur ? Hath 
Christ died for me, so as to make repentance possible to 
me ? To this they can answer nothing, unless they run in 
a circle ; whereas the feet of those that bring the glad 
tidings of the gospel of peace are said to be beautiful, for 
that they preach the common salvation, repentance unto 
all ; ofllering a door of mercy and hope to all, through 
Jesus Christ, who gave himself a ransom for all. The 
gospel invites all ; and certainly by the gospel Christ in- 
tended not to deceive and delude the greater part of man- 
kind, when he invites and crieth, saying ; " Come unto 
me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give 
you rest." If all then ought to seek after him, and to look 
for salvation by him, he must needs have made salvation 
possible to all; for who is bound to seek after that which 
is impossible ? Certainly it were a mocking of men to bid 
them do so. And such as deny, that by the death of Christ 
salvation is made possible to all men, do most blasphe- 
mously make God mock the world, in giving his servants a 
commission to preach the gospel of salvation unto all, 
while he hath before decreed that it shall not be possible 
for them to receive it. Would not this make the Lord to Theabsur- 
send forth his servants with a lie in their mouth, (which jo^tj^ng'^of 
were blasphemous to think) commanding them to bid all absolute re 
and every one believe that Christ died for them, and had 
purchased life and salvation .'' whereas it is no such thing, 
according to the forementioned doctrine. But seeing 
Christ, after he arose and perfected the work of our re- 
demption, gave a commission to preach repentance, remis- 


sion of sins, and salvation to all, it is manifest that he died 
for all. For, He that hatli loininissionated his servants thus 
to preacii, is a God of truth, and no mocker of poor man- 
kind ; neither doth he require of any man that which is 
simply impossible for him to do : for that no man is bound 
to do that which is impossible, is a principle of truth en- 
graven in every man's mind. And seeing he is both a most 
righteous and merciful God, it cannot at all stand, either 
with his justice or mercy, to bid such men repent or be- 
lieve, to whom it is impossible. 

§ VII. Moreover, if we regard the testimony of the scrip- 
ture in this matter, where there is not one scripture, that I 
know of, which affirmeth Christ not to die for all, there are 
divers that positively and expressly assert, He did ; as 1 
To pray for Tim. ii. 1, 3, 4, 6 : "I exhort therefore, that first of all, 
Ch'risrdied su})plications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, 
for all— be made for all men," &c. '< For this is good and accept- 
able in the sight of God our Saviour, who will have all 
men to be saved, and to come to the knowledge of the 
truth ; who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in 
due time." Except we will have the apostle here to assert 
quite another thing than he intended, there can be nodiing 
more plain to confirm what we have asserted. And this 
scripture doth well answer to that manner of arguing which 
we have hitherto used : for, first, the apostle here recom- 
mends them to pray for all men ; and to obviate such an 
objection, as if he had said with our adversaries, Christ 
prayed not for the world, neither willeth he us to pray for 
all ; because he willeth not that all should be saved, but 
hath ordained many to be damned, that he might show forth 
his justice in them; he obviates, I say, such an objection, 
—And will telling them, that "it is good and acceptable in the sight 
m7n to be "^ ^"^' ^^'^^ will have all men to be saved." I desire to 
saved. know what can be more expressly affirmed ? or can any two 

propositions be stated in terms more contradictoiy than 
these two ? God willeth not some to be saved ; and, God 
willeth all men to be saved, or, God will have no man pe- 
rish. If we believe the last, as the apostle hath affirmed, 


the first must be destroyed ; seeing of contradictory propo- 
sitions, the one being admitted, the other is destroyed. 
Whence, to conclude, he gives us a reason of his willing- 
ness that all men should be saved, in these words, " Who 
gave himself a ransom for all ;" as if he would have said, 
Since Christ died for all, since he gave himself a ransom 
for all, therefore he will have all men to be saved. This 
Christ himself gives as a reason of God's love to the world, 
in these words, John iii. 16 : " God so loved the world, 
that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever be- 
lieveth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life ;" 
compared with 1 John iv. 9. This [whosoever] is an in- 
definite term, from which no man is excluded. From all 
which then I thus argue : 

For whomsoever it is lawful to pray, to them salvation Arg. l 
is possible : 

But it is lawful to pray for every individual man in the 
whole world : 

Therefore salvation is possible unto them. 
I prove the major proposition thus ; 

No man is bound to pray for that which is impossible to Arg. 2. 
be attained : 

But every man is bound and commanded to pray for all 
men : 

Therefore it is not impossible to be obtained. 
I prove also this proposition further, thus ; 

No man is bound to pray, but in faith : Arg. 3. 

But he that prayeth for that, which he judges simply im- 
possible to be obtained, cannot pray in faith : 

Therefore, &c. 

That which God willeih is not impossible : Arg. 4 

But God willeth all men to be saved: 

Therefore it is not impossible. 
And lastly ; 

Those for whom our Saviour gave himself a ransom, to Arg. 5 
such salvation is possible : 

But our Saviour gave himself a ransom for all : 

11 Q 


Therefore salvation is possible unto them. 

Proof 1. § VIII. This is very positively affirmed, Heb. ii. 9, in 

these words, "But we see Jesus, who was made a little 

lower than the angels, for the suffering of death crowned 

witii glory and honoin", that he by the grace of God should 

taste death for every man." He that will but open his 

eyes, may see this truth here asserted: if he "tasted death 

for every man," then certainly there is no man for whom 

he did not taste death ; then there is no man who may not 

be made a sharer of the benefit of it ; for he came not 

"to condemn the world, but that the world through him 

might be saved," John iii. 17. "He came not to judge 

Our adver- the world, but to save the world," John xii. 47. Whereas, 

docTrlne oT according to the doctrine of our adversaries, he rather 

a great part came to condemn the world, and judge it ; and not that it 

of mankind . , , i i i • •. t-. t i 

being pre- might be saved by him, or to save it. t or il he never 
damiuuion ^'^'i^^ ^0 bring salvation to the greater part of mankind, but 
rcfuied. that his coming, though it could never do them good, yet 
shall augment their condemnation ; from thence it necessa- 
rily follows, that he came not of intention to save, but to 
judge and condemn the greater part of the world, contrary 
to his own express testimony ; and as the apostle Paul, in 
the words above cited, doth assert affirmatively. That 
God willeth the salvation of all, so doth the apostle Peter 
Proof 2. assert negatively. That he willeth not the perishing of 
any, 2 Pet. iii. 9, " The Lord is not slack concerning his 
promise, as some men count slackness ; but is long suffer- 
ing to us-ward, not willing that any should perish, but that 
all should come to repentance." And this is correspon- 
dent to that of the prophet Ezekiel, xxxiii. 11 : " As I live, 
saith the Lord, I have no pleasure in the death of the 
wicked ; but that the wicked turn from his way and live." 
If it be safe to believe God, and trust in him, we must not 
think that he intends to cheat us by all these expressions 
through his servants, but that he was in good earnest. And 
that this will and desire of his hath not taken effect, the 
blame is on our parts, as shall be after spoken of; which 
could not be, if we never were in any capacity of salva- 


tion, or that Christ had never died for us, but left us under 
an impossibility of salvation. What mean all those earnest 
invitations, all those serious expostulations, all those re- 
gretting contemplations, wherewith the holy scriptures are 
full ? As, Why will ye die, house of Israel ! Why 
will ye not come unto me, that ye might have life ? I have 
waited to be gracious unto you : I have sought to gather 
you : I have knocked at the door of your hearts : Is not 
your destruction of yourselves ? I have called all the day 
long. If men who are so invited be under no capacity of 
being saved, if salvation be impossible unto them, shall we 
suppose God in this to be no other but like the author of a 
romance, or master of a comedy, who amuses and raises 
the various affections and passions of his spectators by 
divers and strange accidents ; sometimes leading them into 
hope, and sometimes into despair ; all those actions, in 
effect, being but a mere illusion, while he hath appointed 
what the conclusion of all shall be? 

Thirdly, This doctrine is abundantly confirmed by that Proof 3. 
of the apostle, 1 John ii. 1,2: " And if any man sin, we 
have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the right- 
eous. And he is the propitiation for our sins ; and not for 
ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world." The Adversa- 
way which our adversaries take to evite this testimony, is nfemorrthe 
most foolish and ridiculous: the world here, sav they, is words, "the 


the world of believers: for this commentary v,e have no- world." 
thing but their own assertion, and so while it manifestly 
destroys the text, may be justly rejected. For, first, let 
them show me, if they can, in all the scripture, where the 
whole world is taken for believers only ; I shall show 
them where it is many times taken for the quite contrary ; 
as. The world knows me not : The world receives me 
not: I am not of this world: besides all these scrip- 
tures. Psalm xvii. 14; Isai. xiii. 11 ; Mat. xviii. 7; John 
vii. 7, and viii. 26, and xii. 19, and xiv. 17, and xv. 18, 
19, and xvii. 14, and xviii. 20 ; 1 Cor. i. 21, and ii. 12, and 
vi. 2 ; Gal. vi. 14 ; James i. 27 ; 2 Pet. ii. 20 ; 1 John ii. 
15, and iii. 1, and iv. 4, 5, and many more. Secondly, 


The apostle in iliis very place contra-distinguisheth the 
world from the saints thus ; " And not for ours only, but 
for the sins of the whole world :" Wiiat means the apostle 
by ours here? Is not that the sins of believers? Was 
not he one of those believers? And was not this an uni- 
versal epistle, written to all the saints that then were ? So 
that according to these men's comment, there should be a 
very unnecessary and foolish redundancy in the apostle's 
words ; as if he had said, He is a propitiation not only for 
the sins of all believers, but for the sins of all believers : 
Is not this to make the a})ostle's words void of good sense ? 
Let them show us wherever there is such a manner of speak- 
ing in all the scripture, where any of the penmen first name 
the believers in concreto with themselves, and then contradis- 
tinguish them from some other whole world of believers ? 
That whole world if it be of believers, must not be the 
world we live in. But we need no better interpreter for 
the apostle than himself, who uses the very same expression 
and phrase in the same epistle, ch. v. 19, saying, " We 
know that we are of God, and the whole world lieth in 
wickedness," There cannot be found in all the scripture 
two places which run more parallel ; seeing in both, the 
same apostle, in the same epistle to the same persons, con- 
tradistinguisheth himself, and the saints to whom he writes, 
from the whole world; which, according to these men's 
commentary^ ought to be understood of believers: as if 
John had said, We know particular believers are of God ; 
but the whole world of believers lieth in wickedness. What 
absurd wresting of scripture were this ? And yet it may 
be as well pleaded for as the other ; for they differ not at 
all. Seeing then that the apostle John tells us plainly. That 
Christ not only died for him, and for the saints and mem- 
bers of the church of God, to whom he wrote, but for the 
whole world, let us then hold it for a certain and undoubted 
truth, notwithstanding the cavils of such as oppose. 

This might also be proved from many more scripture 
testimonies, if it were at this season needful. All the 
fathers, so called, and doctors of the church, for the first 


four centuries, preached this doctrine ; according to which 
they boldly held forth the gospel of Christ, and efficacy of The hea- 
his death; inviting and entreating the heathen to come yitedtosal- 
and be partakers of the benefits of it, showing them how nation ; 

r ' o none pre- 

there was a door opened for them all to be saved through destinated 
Jesus Christ ; not telling them that God had predestinated tion. 
any of them to damnation, or had made salvation impossi- 
ble to them, by withholding power and grace, necessary to 
believe, from them. But of many of their sayings, which 
might be alleged, I shall only instance a few. 

Augustine on the xcvth Psalm saith, "The blood of Proof 4. 
Christ is of so great worth, ihat it is of no less value than moniesVf 

the whole world." the doctors 

and lathers 
Prosper ad Gall. c. 9 : " The redeemer of the world of the first 

gave his blood for the world, and the world would not be Christ died 
redeemed, because the darkness did not receive the light, for all. 
He that saith, the Saviour was not crucified for the re- 
demption of the whole world, looks not to the virtue of 
the sacrament, but to the part of infidels ; since the blood 
of our Lord Jesus Christ is the price of the whole world ; 
from which redemption they are strangers, who either de- 
lighting in their captivity would not be redeemed, or after 
they were redeemed returned to the same servitude." 

The same Prosper, in his answer to Vincentius's first 
objection: " Seeing therefore because of one common na- 
ture and cause in truth, undertaken by our Lord, all are 
rightly said to be redeemed, and nevertheless all are not 
brought out of captivity ; the property of redemption with- 
out doubt belongeth to those from whom the prince of this 
world is shut out, and now are not vessels of the devil, but 
members of Christ ; whose death was so bestowed upon 
mankind, that it belonged to the redemption of such who 
were not to be regenerated. But so, that that which was 
done by the example of one for all, might, by a singular 
mystery, be celebrated in every one. For the cup of im- 
mortality, which is made up of our infirmity and the divine 
power, hath indeed that in it which may profit all ; but if 
it be not drunk, it doth not heal." 


The author de vocat. geritium, lib. 11. cap. 6: "There 
is no cause to doubt but that our Lord Jesus Christ died 
for sinners and wicked men. And if there can be any 
found, wlio may be said not to be of this number, Christ 
hath not died for all ; he made himself a redeemer for the 
whole world." 

Chrysostom on John i. : " If he enlightens every man 
coming into the world, how comes it that so many men 
remain without light ? For all do not so much as acknow- 
ledge Christ, How then doth he enlighten every man.'' 
He illuminates indeed so far as in him is ; but if any of 
their own accord, closing the eyes of their mind, will not 
The cause direct their eyes unto the beams of this light, the cause that 
main in' ^^^y remain in darkness is not from the nature of the light, 
darkness, ijut through their own malignity, who willingly have ren- 
dered themselves unworthy of so great a gift. But why 
believed they not .'' Because they would not : Christ did 
his part." 

The Arelatensian synod, held about the year 490, '-Pro- 
nounced him accursed, who should say that Christ hath 
not died for all, or that he would not have all men to be 

Ambrose on Psalm cxviii, Serm. 8: " The mystical Sun 
of Righteousness is arisen to all ; he came to all ; he suf- 
fered for all ; and rose again for all : and therefore he suf- 
fered, that he might take away the sin of the world. But if 
any one believe not in Christ, he robs himself of this gene- 
ral benefit, even as if one by closing the windows should 
The sun- hold out the sun-bcams. The sun is not therefore not 
out, heat arisen to all, because such a one hath so robbed himself 
"'^'' of its heat : but the sun keeps its prerogative ; it is such a 

one's imprudence that he shuts himself out from the com- 
mon benefit of the light." 

The same, in his 11th book of Cain and Abel, cap. 13, 
saith : " Therefore he brought unto all the means of health, 
that whosoever should perish, may ascribe to himself the 
causes of his death, who would not be cured when he had 
the remedy by which he might have escaped." 


§ IX. Seeing then that this doctrine of the universality 
of Christ's death is so certain and agreeable to the scrip- 
ture testimony, and to the sense of the purest antiquity, it 
may be wondered how so many, some whereof have been 
esteemed not only learned, but also pious, have been ca- 
pable to fall into so gross and strange an error. But the 
cause of this doth evidently appear, in that the way and 
method by which the virtue and efficacy of his death is 
communicated to all men, hath not been rightly under- 
stood, or indeed hath been erroneously taught. The Pe- Pelagian 
lagians, ascribing all to man's will and nature, denied man ^"'"^®' 
to have any seed of sin conveyed to him from Adam. And 
the Semi-Pelagians, making grace as a gift following upon 
man's merit, or right improving of his nature, according to 
their known principle, Faclentl quod in se est, Dcus non de- 
negat .gratiam. 

This gave Augustine, Prosper, and some others occa- Extremes 

sion, labouring, in opposition to these opinions, to magnify ify gome'" 

the grace of God, and paint out the corruption of man's making 

1 i-r.i .1. 1 1 -1 God the au- 

nature, as the proverb is oi those that seek to make straight thor of sin. 

a crooked stick, to incline to the other extreme. So also 
the reformers, Luther and others, finding among other 
errors the strange expressions used by some of the Popish 
scholastics concerning free will, and how much the ten- 
dency of their principles is to exalt man's nature and lessen 
God's grace, having all those sayings of Augustine and 
others for a pattern, through the like mistake ran upon the 
same extreme : though afterwards the Lutherans, seeing 
how far Calvin and his followers drove this matter, who, 
as a man of subtle and profound judgment, foreseeing 
where it would land, resolved above board to assert that 
God had decreed the means as well as the end, and there- 
fore had ordained men to sin, and excites them thereto, 
which he labours earnestly to defend, and that there was 
no avoiding the making of God the author of sin, thereby 
received occasion to discern the falsity of this doctrine, 
and disclaimed it, as appears by the later writings of Me- 
lancthon, and the Mompelgartensian conference, where 


Epit. Hist. Lucas Osiaiider, one of the collocutors, terras it impious; 

OsLnd. calls it a making God the author of sin, and an horrid and 

Cent. 16. horrible blasphemy. Yet because none of those who iiave 
. 4. cap. 32. . . 

asserted this universal redeiiij)tion since the reformation 

have given a clear, distinct, and satisfactory testimony how 

it is communicated to all, and so have fallen short of fully 

declaring the perfection of the gospel dispensation, others 

have been thereby the more strengthened in their errors ; 

which I shall illustrate by one singular example. 

The Arminians, and other assertors of universal grace, 
use this as a chief argument: 

That which every man is bound to believe, is true : 

But every man is bound to believe that Christ died for 
him : 

Therefore, &c. 

Of this argument the other party deny the assumption, 

saying : That they who never heard of Christ, are not 

Remon- obliged to believe in him ; and seeing the Remonstrants 

strants' /rjg j^j^gy ^^^ commonlv called) do generallv themselves ac- 

opinjon \ •' J J Ts J 

Btrensihens knowledge, that without the outward knowledge of Christ 

decree^of ^ there is no salvation, that gives the other party yet a stronger 
reproba- argument for their precise decree of reprobation. For, say 
they, seeing we all see really, and in effect, that God hath 
withheld from many generations, and yet from many na- 
tions, that knowledge which is absolutely needful to salva- 
tion, and so hath rendered it simply impossible unto them ; 
why may he not as well withhold* the grace necessary to 
make a saving application of that knowledge, where it is 
preached } For there is no ground to say, That this were 
injustice in God, or partiality, more than his leaving those 
others in utter ignorance ; the one being but a withholding 
grace to apprehend the object of faith, the other a with- 
drawing the object itself. For answer to this, they are 
forced to draw a conclusion from their former hypothesis 
of Christ's dying for all, and God's mercy and justice, 
saying. That if these heathen, who live in these remote 
places, where the outward knowledge of Christ is not, did 
improve that common knowledge they have, to whom the 


outward creation is for an object of faith, by which they 
may gather that there is a God, then the Lord would, by 
some providence, either send an angel to tell them of 
Christ, or convey the scriptures to them, or bring them 
some way to an opportunity to meet with such as might 
inform them. Which, as it gives always too much to the 
power and strength of man's will and nature, and savours 
a little of Socinianism and Pelagianism, or at least of Semi- 
Pelagianism, so, since it is only built upon probable con- 
jectures, neither hath it evidence enough to convince any 
strongly tainted with the other doctrine ; nor yet doth it 
make the equity and wonderful harmony of God's mercy 
and justice towards all so manifest to the understanding. 
So that I have often observed, that these assertors of uni- 
versal grace did far more pithily and strongly overturn the 
false doctrine of their adversaries, than they did establish 
and confirm the truth and certainty of their own. And 
though they have proof sufficient from the holy scriptures 
to confirm the universality of Christ's death, and that none None, by 
are precisely, by any irrevocable decree, excluded from b"e d^ecrTe' 
salvation, yet I find when they are pressed in the respects excluded 
above mentioned, to show how God hath so far equally tion. 
extended the capacity to partake of the benefit of Christ's 
death unto all, as to communicate unto them a sufficient 
way of so doing, they are somewhat in a strait, and are put 
more to give us their conjectures from the certainty of the 
former presupposed truth ; to wit, that because Christ hath 
certainly died for all, and God hath not rendered salvatioa 
impossible to any, therefore there must be some way or 
other by which they may be saved ; which must be by im- 
proving some common grace, or by gathering from the 
works of creation and providence; than by really demon- 
strating, by convincing and spiritual arguments, what that 
way is. 

§ X. It falls out then, that as darkness, and the great 
apostasy, came not upon the Christian world all at once, 
but by several degrees, one thing making way for another ; 
until that thick and gross vail came to be overspread, where- 




The more 
full disco- 
very of the 
gospel re- 
served to 
this our 

with the nations were so blindly covered, from the seventh 
and eighth, until the sixteenth century ; even as the dark- 
ness of the night comes not upon the outward creation at 
once, but by degrees, according as the sun declines in 
each horizon ; so neither did that full and clear light and 
knowledge of the glorious dispensation of the gospel of 
Christ appear all at once ; the work of the first witnesses 
being more to testify against and discover the abuses of 
the apostasy, than to establish the truth in purity. He that 
comes to build a new city, must lirst remove the old rub- 
bish, before he can see to lay a new foundation ; and he 
that comes to an house greatly polluted and full of dirt, 
will first sweep away and remove the filth, before he put up 
his own good and new furniture. The dawning of the day 
dispels the darkness, and makes us see the things that are 
most conspicuous : but the distinct discovering and dis- 
cerning of things, so as to make a certain and perfect ob- 
servation, is reserved for the arising of the sun, and its 
shining in full brightness. And we can, from a certain 
experience, boldly affirm, that the not waiting for this, but 
building among, yea, and with, the old Popish rubbish, and 
setting up before a full purgation, hath been to most Pro- 
testants the foundation of many a mistake, and an occasion 
of unspeakable hurt. Therefore tli£ Lord God, who as he 
seeth meet doth communicate and make known to man the 
more full, evident, and perfect knowledge of his everlasting 
truth, hath been pleased to reserve the more full discovery 
of this glorious and evangelical dispensation to this our 
age ; albeit divers testimonies have thereunto been borne 
by some noted men in several ages, as shall hereafter ap- 
pear. And for the greater augmentation of the glory of 
his grace, that no man might have whereof to boast, he 
hath raised up a few despicable and illiterate men, and for 
the most part mechanics, to be the dispensers of it ; by 
which gospel all the scruples, doubts, hesitations and ob- 
jections above mentioned are easily and evidently answered, 
and the justice as well as mercy of God, according to their 
divine and heavenly harmony, are exhibited, established, 


and confirmed. According to which certain light and 
gospel, as the knowledge thereof has been manifested to us 
by the revelation of Jesus Christ in us, fortified by our own 
sensible experience, and sealed by the testimony of the 
Spirit in our hearts, we can confidently affirm, and clearly 
evince, according to the testimony of the holy scriptures, 
the following points : 

§ XI. First, That God, who out of his infinite love sent Prop. I 
his Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, into the world, who tasted 
death for every man, hath given to every man, whether A day of 
Jew or Gentile, Turk or Scythian, Indian or Barbarian, of ^{[i'^tionto 
whatsoever nation, country, or place, a certain day or time 
of visitation ; during which day ©r time it is possible for 
them to be saved, and to partake of the fruit of Christ's 

Secondly, That for this end God hath communicated Pkop. II. 
and given unto every man a measure of the light of his A measure 

o p r .\ a • •. of light in 

own kSon, a measure oi grace, or a measure of the Spu'it, all. 
which the scripture expresses by several names, as some- 
times of the seed of the kingdom. Mat. xiii. 18, 19 ; the 
Light that makes all things manifest, Eph. v. 13; the 
Word of God, Rom. x. 17; or manifestation of the Spirit 
given to profit withal, 1 Cor. xii. 7 ; a talent, Mat. xxv. 
15 ; a little leaven. Mat. xiii. 33 ; the gospel preached in 
every creature. Col. i. 23. 

Thirdly, That God, in and by this Light and Seed, in- Prop. III. 
vites, calls, exhorts, and strives with every man, in order 
to save him ; which, as it is received and not resisted, God's sal- 
works the salvation of all, even of those who are ignorant wrought by 
of the death and sufferings of Christ, and of Adam's fall, the light in 
both by bringing them to a sense of their own misery, and 
to be sharers in the sufferings of Christ inwardly, and by 
making them partakers of his resurrection, in becoming 
holy, pure, and righteous, and recovered out of their sins. 
By which also are saved they that have the knowledge of 
Christ outwardly, in that it opens their understanding 
rightly to use and apply the things delivered in the scrip- 
tures, and to receive the savipjQf use of them : but that this 



may be resisted and rejected in both, in which then God 
is said to be resisted and pressed down, and Christ to be 
again crucified, and put to open shame in and among men. 
And to those who thus resist and refuse him, he becomes 
their condemnation. 

Conseq. 1. First, then, According to this doctrine the mercy of God 
is excfllently well exhibited, in that none are necessarily 
shut out from salvation ; and his justice is demonstrated, 
in that he condemns none but such to whom he really made 
offer of salvation, afTording them the means sufficient there- 

Conseq. 2. Secondly, This doctrine, if well weighed, will be found 
to be the foundation of GJiristianity, salvation, and assur- 

Conseq. 3. Tiiirdly, It agrees and answers with the whole tenor of 
the gospel promises and threats, and with the nature of the 
ministry of Christ ; according to which, the gospel, salva- 
tion, and repentance are commanded to be preached to 
every creature, without respect of nations, kindred, fami- 
lies, or tongues. 

Conseq. 4. Fourthly, It magnifies and commends the merits and 
death of Christ, in that it not only accounts them sufficient 
to save all, but declares them to be brought so nigh unto 
all, as thereby to be put into the nearest capacity of sal- 

Conseq. 5. Fifthly, It exalts above all the grace of God, to which it 
attributeth all good, even the least and smallest actions that 
are so; ascribing thereunto not only the first beginnings 
and motions of good, but also the whole conversion and 
salvation of the soul. 

Conseq. 6. Sixthly, It contradicts, overturns, and enervates, the 
false doctrine of the Pelagians, Semi-Pelagians, Socinians, 
and others, who exalt the light of nature, the liberty of 
man's will, in that it wholly excludes the natural man from 
having any place or portion in his own salvation, by any 
acting, moving, or working of his own, until he be first 
quickened, raised up, and actuated by God's Spirit. 

Conseq. 7. Seventhly, As it makes the whole salvation of man soleJy 


and alone to depend upon God, so it makes his condemna- 
tion wholly and in every respect to be of himself, in that 
he refused and resisted somewhat that from God wrestled 
and strove in his heart, and forces him to acknowledge 
God's just judgment in rejecting and forsaking of him. 

Eighthly, It takes away all ground of despair, in that it Conseq. ', 
gives every one cause of hope and certain assurance that 
they may be saved ; neither doth feed any in security, in 
that none are certain how soon their day may expire : and 
therefore it is a constant incitement and provocation, and 
lively encouragement to every man, to forsake evil, and 
close with that which is good. 

Ninthly, It wonderfully commends as well the certainty Conseq. 9 
of the Christian religion among infidels, as it manifests its 
ow^n verity to all, in that it is confirmed and established by 
the experience of all men ; seeing there was never yet a 
man found in any place of the earth, however barbarous 
and wild, but hath acknowledged, that at some time or 
other, less or more, he hath found somewhat in his heart 
reproving him for some things evil which he hath done, 
threatening a certain horror if he continued in them, as 
also promising and communicating a certain peace and 
sweetness, as he has given way to it, and not resisted it. 

Tenthly, It wonderfully showeth the excellent wisdom Conseq. lo. 
of God, by which he hath made the means of salvation so 
universal and comprehensive, that it is not needful to recur 
to those miraculous and strange ways ; seeing, according 
to this most true doctrine, the gospel reacheth all, of what- 
soever condition, age, or nation. 

Eleventhly, It is really and effectively, though not in so Conseq. II 
many words, yet by^eeds, established and confirmed by 
all the preachers, promulgators, and doctors of the Christian 
religion that ever were, or now are, even by those that 
otherways in their judgment oppose this doctrine, in that 
they all, wherever they have been or are, or whatsoever 
people, place, or country they come to, do preach to the 
people, and to every individual among them, that they may 
be saved ; entreating and desiring them to believe in Christ, 


who hath died for them. So that what they deny in the 
general, they acknowledge of every particular ; there being 
no man to whom tiiey do not preach in order to salvation, 
telling him Jesus Christ calls and wills him to believe and 
be saved ; and that if he refuse, he shall tlierefore be con- 
demned, and that his condemnation is of himself. Such 
is the evidence and virtue of Truth, that it constrains its 
adversaries even against their wills to plead for it. 
Conseq. 12. Lastly, According to this doctrine, the former argument 
used by the Arrainians, and evited by the Calvinists, con- 
cerning every man's being bound to believe that Christ 
died for him, is, by altering the assumption, rendered in- 
vincible ; thus. 

That which every man is bound to believe, is true : 

But every man is bound to believe that God is merciful 
unto him : 

Therefore, &c. 

This assumption no man can deny, seeing his mercies 
are said to be over all his works. And herein the scripture 
every where declares the mercy of God to be, in that he in- 
vites and calls sinners to repentance, and hath opened a 
way of salvation for them : so that though those men be 
not bound to believe the history of Christ's death and pas- 
sion who never came to know of it, yet they are bound to 
believe that God will be merciful to them, if they follow 
his ways ; and that he is merciful unto them, in that he 
reproves them for evil, and encourages them to good. 
Our adver- Neither ought any man to believe that God is unmerciful 
merciful as- ^o him, or that he hath from the beginning ordained him 

sertion -if jq come into the world that he might be left to his own evil 
God. ... . ^ 

inclinations, and so do wickedly as a means appointed by 

God to bring him to eternal damnation ; which, were it 

true, as our adversaries affirm it to be of many thousands, 

I see no reason why a man might not believe ; for certainly 

a man may believe the truth. 

As it manifestly appears from the thing itself, that these 

good and excellent consequences follow from the belief of 

this doctrine, so from the proof of them it will yet more 


evidently appear ; to which before I come, it is requisite to 
speak somewhat concerning the state of the controversy, 
which will bring great light to the matter : for from the not 
right understanding of a matter under debate, sometimes 
both arguments on the one hand, and objections on the 
other, are brought, which do no way hit the case ; and 
hereby also our sense and judgment therein will be more 
fully understood and opened. 

§ XII. First, then. By this day and time of visitation, Ques. i. 
which we say God gives unto all, during which they may ^j- f^g ^ '^ 
be saved, we do not understand the whole time of every question, 
man's life ; though to some it may be extended even to 
the very hour of death, as we see in the example of the 
thief converted upon the cross ; but such a season at least 
as sufficiently exonerateth God of every man's condemna- 
tion, which to some may be sooner, and to others later, ac- 
cording as the Lord in his wisdom sees meet. So that That many 
many men may outlive this day, after which there may be "he^d^y of* 

no possibility of salvation to them, and God iustly suffers God's visi- 
1111 1 • -1 r 1 • 1 tation. 

them to be hardened, as a just punishment oi then' unbe- 
lief, and even raises them up as instruments of wrath, and 
makes them a scourge one against another. Whence to 
men in this condition may be fitly applied those scriptures 
which are abused to prove that God incites men necessarily 
to sin. This is notably expressed by the apostle, Rom. i, 
from verse 17 to the end, but especially verse 28, " And 
even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, 
God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things 
which are not convenient." That many may outlive this 
day of God's gracious visitation unto them, is shown by 
the example of Esau, Heb. xii. 16, 17, who sold his 
birthright ; so he had it once, and was capable to have 
kept it ; but afterwards, when he would have inherited the 
blessing, he was rejected. This appears also by Christ's 
weeping over Jerusalem, Luke xix. 42, saying, "If thou 
hadst known in this thy day the things that belong unto thy 
peace; but now they are hid from thine eyes." Which 
plainly imports a time when they might have known them, 


which now was removed from them, though they were yet 

alive : but of this more shall be said hereafter. 

UiRs. 2. ^ XIII. Secondly, By this seed, grace, and word of 

God, and light wherewith we say every one is enlightened, 

and hath a measure of it, which strives with him in order 

to save him, and which may, by the stubbornness and 

wickedness of man's will, be quenched, bruised, wounded, 

pressed down, slain and crucified, we understand not the 

proper essence and nature of God precisely taken, which 

is not divisible into parts and measures, as being a most 

pure, simple being, void of all composition or division, and 

therefore can neither De resisted, hurt, wounded, crucified, 

The light, or slain by all the efforts and strength of men; but we 

ancfits pro- Understand a spiritual, heavenly, and invisible principle, in 

perties de- which God, as Father, Son and Spirit, dwells ; a measure 

scribed. I ' ' 

of which divine and glorious life is in all men as a seed, 
which of its own nature, draws, invites, and inclines to 
God ; and this some call vehiculiim Dei, or the spiritual 
body of Christ, the flesh and blood of Christ, which came 
down from heaven, of which all the saints do feed, and are 
thereby nourished unto eternal life. And as every un- 
righteous action is witnessed against and reproved by this 
light and seed, so by such actions it is hurt, wounded, and 
slain, and flees from them even as the flesh of man flees 
from that which is of a contrary nature to it. Now because 
it is never separated from God nor Christ, but wherever it 
1 Tim. vi. is, God and Christ are as wrapped up therein, therefore 
and in that respect as it is resisted, God is said to be re- 
sisted ; and where it is borne down, God is said to be 
pressed as a cart under sheaves, and Christ is said to be 
slain and crucified. And on the contrary, as this seed is 
received in the heart, and suffered to bring forth its natural 
and proper effect, Christ comes to be formed and raised, 
of which the scripture makes so much mention, calling it 
the new man ; Christ within, the hope of glory. This 
is that Christ within, which we are heard so much to speak 
and declare of; every where preaching him up, and ex- 
horting people to believe in the light, and obey it, thai 



they may come to know Christ m them, to deUver them 
from all sin. 

But by this, as we do not at all intend to equal ourselves 
to that holy man the- Lord Jesus Christ, who was born of 
the virgin Mary, in whom all the fulness of the Godhead 
dwelt bodily, so neither do we destroy the reality of his That the 
present existence, as some have falsely calumniated us. the"God°- 
For though we affirm that Christ dwells in us, yet not im- headdwella 

^ . 1 • ■ 1 1 • 1 • • '" Christ 

mediately, but mediately, as he is in that seed, which is in bodily, &c. 
us ; whereas he, to wit, the Eternal Word, which was with 
God, and was God, dwelt immediately in that holy man. 
He then is as the head, and we as the members ; he the 
vine, and we the branches. Now as the soul of man dwells 
otherwise and in a far more immediate manner in the head 
and in the heart, than in the hands or legs ; and as the sap, 
virtue, and life of the vine lodgeth far otherwise in the 
stock and root than in the branches, so God dwelleth 
otherwise in the man Jesus than in us. We also freely 
reject the heresy of Apollinarius, who denied him to have 
any soul, but said the body was only actuated by the God- 
head. As also the error of Eutyches, who made the man- 
hood to be wholly swallowed up of the Godhead, Where- 
fore, as we believe he was a true and real man, so we also 
believe that he continues so to be glorified in the heavens 
in soul and body, by whom God shall judge the world, in 
the great and general day of judgment. 

§ XIV. Thirdly, We understand not this seed, licjht, or Ques. 3. 
grace to be an accident, as most men ignorantly do, but a Uo-i^t is a 
real spiritual substance, which the soul of man is capable spiritual 

'■ ' . ... substance, 

to feel and apprehend; from which that real, spiritual, in- which may 

ward birth in believers arises, called the new creature, the the soul and 

new man in the heart. This seems strano^e to carnal- apprehend- 

. ^ . . ed. 

minded men, because they are not acquainted with it ; but 

we know it, and are sensible of it, by a true and certain 
experience. Though it be hard for man in his natural 
wisdom to comprehend it, until he come to feel it in him- 
self; and if he should, holding it in the mere notion, it 
would avail him little ; yet we are able to make it appear 
12* s 




to be true, and that our faith concerning it is not without 
a soHd ground : for it is in and by this inward and sub- 
stantial seed in our hearts as it conies to receive nourish- 
ment, and to have a birth or geniture in us, that we coine 
to [lave those spiritual senses r ised by which we are raad*» 
capable of tasting, smelling, seeing, and handling the 
things of God : for a man cannot reach unto those things 
by his natural spirit and senses, as is above declared. 

Next, We know it to be a substance, because it subsists 
in the hearts of wicked men, even vvhde they are in their 
wickedness, as shall be hereafter proved more at large. 
Now no accident can be in a subject without it give the 
subject its own denomination ; as where whiteness is in a 
The de- subject, there the subject is called white. So we dis- 
operaduiiin tinguish betwixt holiness, as it is an accident, which deno- 
[Ji^^soul ot minates man so, as the seed receives a place in him, and 
betwixt this holy substantial seed, which many times lies in 
man's heart as a naked grain in the stony ground. So also 
as we may distinguish betwixt health and medicine ; health 
cannot be in a body without tlie body be called healthful, 
because health is an accident ; but medicine may be in a 
body that is most unhealthful, for that it is a substance. 
And as when a medicine begins to work, the body may in 
some respect be called healthful, and in some respect un- 
healthful, so we acknowledge as this divine medicine 
receives place in man's heart, it may denominate him in 
some part holy and good, though there remain yet a cor- 
rupted unmortified part, or some part of the evil humours 
unpurged out ; for where two contrary accidents are in one 
subject, as health and sickness in a body, the subject re- 
ceives its denomination from the accident which prevails 
most. So many men are called saints, good and holy ineii, 
and that truly, when this holy seed hath Avrought in them 
in a good measure, and hath somewhat leavened them into 
its nature, though they may be yet liable to many infirmities 
and weaknesses, yea and to some iniquities : for as the 
seed of sin and ground of corruption, yea and the capacity 
of yielding thereunto, and sometimes actually falling, doth 


not denominate a good and holy man impious ; so neither 
doth the seed of righteousness in evil men, and the possi- 
bility of their becoming one with it, denominate them good 
or holy. 

§ XV. Fourthly, We do not hereby intend any ways to Ques. 4. 
lessen or derogate from the atonement and sacrifice of Jesus 
Christ ; but on the contrary do magnify and exalt it. For 
as we believe all those things to have been certainly trans- 
acted which are recorded in the holy scriptures concerning 
the birth, life, miracles, sufferings, resurrection and ascen- 
sion of Christ ; so we do also believe that it is the duty of 
every one to believe it to whom it pleases God to reveal 
the same, and to bring to them the knowledge of it ; yea 
we believe it were damnable unbelief not to believe it, 
when so declared ; but to resist that holy seed, which as 
minded would lead and incline every one to believe it as 
it is offered unto them, though it revealeth not in every one 
the outward and explicit knowledge of it, nevertheless it 
always assenteth to it, ubi declaratur^ where it is declared. 
Nevertheless as we firmly believe it was necessary that 
Christ should come, that by his death and sufferings he 
might offer up himself a sacrifice to God for our sins, who 
his own self " bare our sins in his own body on the tree ;" 
so we believe that the remission of sins which any partake That re- 
of, is only in and by virtue of that most satisfactory sacri- sins is only 

fice, and no otherwise. For it is bv the obedience of that f"'' alone 

by Christ, 
one that the free gift is come upon all to justification. For 

we affirm, that as all men partake of the fruit of Adam's 

fall, in that by reason of that evil seed, which through him 

is communicated unto them, they are prone and inclined 

unto evil, though thousands of thousands be ignorant of 

Adam's fall, neither ever knew of the eating of the forbidden 

fruit ; so also many may come to feel the influence of this 

holy and divine seed and light, and be turned from evil to 

good by it, though they knew nothing of Christ's corning 

in the flesh, through whose obedience and sufferings it is 

purchased unto them. And as we affirm it is absolutely 

needful that those do believe the history of Christ's outward 


appearance, whom it pleased God to bring to the knowledge 
of it ; so we do freely confess, that even that outward know 
ledge is very comfortable to such as are subject to and led 
by the inward seed and light. For not only doth the sense 
of Christ's love and sutlerings tend to humble them, but 
they are thereby also strengthened in their faith, and en- 
couraged to follow that excellent pattern which he hath 
left us, " who suffered for us," as saith the apostle Peter, 
1 Pet. ii. 21, " leaving us an example that we should fol- 
low his steps:" and many times we are greatly edified and 
refreshed with the gracious sayings which proceed out of 
The history his mouth. The history then is profitable and comfortable 

is profitable . , , , • i • i i 

with the With the mystery, and never without it ; but the mystery is 
mystery, ^^^^j ^^^^ ^^ profitable without the explicit and outward 

knowledge of the history. 
QuEs. 5. But Fifthly, This brings us to another question, to wit, 

How Christ "Whether Christ be in all men or no .'' Which sometimes 

IS in all 

men. hath been asked us, and arguments brought against it ; be- 

cause indeed it is to be found in some of our writings that 
Christ is in all men ; and we often are heard, in our public 
meetings and declarations, to desire every man to know and 
be acquainted with Christ in them, telling them that Christ 
is in them ; it is fit therefore, for removing of all mistakes, 
to say something in this place concerning this matter. We 
have said before how that a divine, spiritual, and superna- 
tural light is in all men ; how that that divine supernatural 
light or seed is vehiculum Dei ; how that God and Christ 
dwelleth in it, and is never separated from it ; also how 
that, as it is received and closed with in the heart, Christ 
comes to be formed and brought forth : but we are far from 
ever having said, that Christ is thus formed in all men, or 
in the wicked : for that is a great attainment, which the 
apostle travailed that it might be brought forth in the Gala- 
tians. Neither is Christ in all men by way of union, or 
indeed, to speak strictly, by way of inhabitation ; because 
this inhabitation, as it is generally taken, imports union, or 
the manner of Christ's being in the saints : as it is written, 
** I will dwell in them, and walk in them," 2 Cor. vi. 16 


But in regard Christ is in all men as in a seed, yea, and 
that he never is nor can be separate from that holy pure 
seed and light which is in all men ; therefore may it be said 
in a larger sense, that he is in all, even as we observed 
before. The scripture saith, Amos ii. 13, God is pressed 
down as a cart under sheaves ; and Heb. vi. 6, Christ 
is crucified in the ungodly ; though to speak properly and 
strictly, neither can God be pressed down, nor Christ, as 
God, be crucified. In this respect then, as he is in the 
seed which is in all men, we have said Christ is in all men, 
and have preached and directed all men to Christ in them, 
who lies crucified in them by their sins and iniquities, that Christ cru- 
they may look upon him whom they have pierced, and re- ^an ^y j^y 
pent : whereby he that now lies as it were slain and buried quities. 
in them, may come to be raised, and have dominion in 
their hearts over all. And thus also the apostle Paul 
preached to the Corinthians and Galatians, Christ cruci- 
fied in them, iv viuv as the Greek hath it, 1 Cor. ii. 2 ; 
Gal. iii. 1. This Jesus Christ was that which the apostle 
desired to know in them, and make known unto them, that 
they might come to be sensible how they had thus been 
crucifying Christ, that so they might repent and be saved. 
And forasmuch as Christ is called that light that en- 
lightens every man, the light of the world, therefore the 
light is taken for Christ, who truly is the fountain of light, 
and hath his habitation in it for ever. Thus the light of 
Christ is sometimes called Christ, i. e. that in which Christ 
is, and from which he is never separated. 

§ XVI. Sixthly, It will manifestly appear by what is 
above said, that we understand not this divine principle to 
be any part of man's nature, nor yet to be any relics of any 
good which Adam lost by his fall, in that we make it a 
distinct separate thing from man's soul, and all the facul- 
ties of it: yet such is the malice of our adversaries, that 
they cease not sometimes to calumniate us, as if we preach- 
ed up a natural light, or the light of man's natural con- 
science. Next, there are that lean to the doctrine of Socinus 
and Pelagius, who persuade themselves through mistake, 


and out of no ill design to injure us, as if this which we 

preach up were some natural power and faculty of the ^oul, 

and that we only differ in the wording of it, and not in the 

thing itself; whereas there can be no greater dilit-Mcnce 

than is betwixt us in that matter : for we certainly know 

that this light of which we speak is not only distinct, but 

of a dilferent nature from the soul of man, and its faculties. 

The facul- Indeed that man, as he is a rational creature, hath reason 
ties of . . . 

man's rea- as a natural faculty of his soul, by which he can discern 

^°"' things that are rational, we deny not ; for this is a [)ro])erty 

natural and essential to him, by which he can know and 
learn many arts and sciences, beyond what any other ani- 
mal can do by the mere animal principle. Neither do we 
deny but by this rational principle man may apprehend in 
his brain, and in the notion, a knowledge of God and spi- 
ritual things ; yet that not being the right organ, as in the 
second proposition hath more at length been signified, it 
cannot profit him towards salvation, but rather hindereth ; 
and indeed the great cause of the apostasy hath been, that 
man hath sought to fathom the things of God in and by this 
natural and rational principle, and to build up a religion in 
it, neglecting and overloo.king this principle and seed of 
God in the heart ; so that herein, in the most universal and 
Anti- catholic sense, hath Anti-Christ in every man set up him- 

the temple Self, and sitteth in the temple of God as God, and above 
of God. every thing that is called God. For men being the tem- 
ple of the Holy Ghost, as saith the apostle, 1 Cor. iii. 16, 
when the rational principle sets up itself there above the 
seed of God, to reign and rule as a prince in spiritual 
things, while the holy seed is wounded and bruised, there 
is Anti-Christ in every man, or somewhat exalted above 
and against Christ. Nevertheless we do not hereby affirm 
as if man had received his reason to no purpose, or to be 
of no service unto him, in no wise ; we look upon reason 
The divine as fit to Order and rule man in things natural. For as God 
r!atural"rea- S^^^ ^^^'^ great lights to rule the outward world, the sun 
son distin- and moon, the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser 
light to rule the night; so hath he given man the light of 


his Son, a spiritual divine light, to rule him in things spi- 
ritual, and the light of reason to rule him in things natural. 
And even as the moon borrows her light from the sun, so 
ought men, if they would be rightly and comfortably or- 
dered in natural things, to have their reason enlightened 
by this divine and pure light. Which enlightened reason, 
in those that obey and follow this true light, we confess 
may be useful to man even in spiritual things, as it is still 
subservient and subject to the other ; even as the animal 
life in man, regulated and ordered by his reason, helps 
him in going about things that are rational. We do fur- The light 
ther rightly distinguish this from man's natural conscience ; „uished 
for conscience being that in man which ariseth from the from man's 
natural faculties of man's soul, may be defiled and cor- conscience, 
rupted. It is said expressly of the impure, Tit. i. 15, 
" That even their mind and conscience is defiled ;" but 
this light can never be corrupted nor defiled ; neither did 
it ever consent to evil or wickedness in any : for it is said 
expressly, that it makes all things manifest that are re- 
provable, Eph. V. 13, and so is a faithful witness for God 
against every unrighteousness in man. Now conscience, Conscience 
to define it truly, comes from conscire, and is that know- ^ ' 
ledge which ariseth in man's heari from what agreeth, con- 
tradicteth, or is contrary to any thing believed by him, 
whereby he becomes conscious to himself that he trans- 
gresseth by doing that which he is persuaded he ought not 
to do. So that the mind being once blinded or defiled 
with a wrong belief, there ariseth a conscience from that 
belief, which troubles him when he goes against it. As 
for example: A Turk who hath possessed himself with a Example of 
false belief that it is unlawful for him to drink wine, if he ^ ^^ ' 
do it, his conscience smites him for it ; but though he keep 
many concubines, his conscience troubles him not, because 
his judgment is already defiled with a false opinion that it 
is lawful for him to do the one, and unlawful to do the 
other. Whereas if the light of Christ in him were minded, 
it would reprove him, not only for committing fornication, 
but also, as he became obedient thereunto, inform him that 


Mahomet was an impostor; as well as Socrates was in- 
formed by it, in his day, of the falsity of the heathen's 
Example of So if a Papist eat flesh in Lent, or be not diligent enough 
in adoration of saints and images, or if he should contemn 
images, his conscience would smite him for it, because his 
judgment is already blinded with a false belief concerning 
these tilings : whereas the light of Christ never consented 
to any of those abominations. Thus then man's natural 
conscience is sufficiently distinguished from it ; for con- 
science foUoweth the judgment, doth not inform it; but 
this light, as it is received, removes the blindness of the 
judgment, opens the understanding, and rectifies both the 
judgment and conscience. So we confess also, that con- 
science is an excellent thing, where it is rightly informed 
and enlightened ; wherefore some of us have fitly coni- 
The natural pared it to the lanthorn, and the light of Christ to a candle : 
compared^ a lanthorn is useful, when a clear candle burns and shines in 
to a Ian- jj; • |jq|; otherwise of no use. To the light of Christ then 

thorn, and . . , , . . 

the light of in the conscience, and not to man s natural conscience, it 
candIe/° ^ ''^ ^'^^^ ^^^ continually commend men ; this, not that, is it 
which we preach up, and direct people to, as to a most 
certain guide unto life eternal. 

Lastly, This light, seed, &c., appears to be no power or 
natural faculty of man's mind ; because a man that is in 
his health can, when he pleases, stir up, move, and exer- 
cise the faculties of his soul ; he is absolute master of them ; 
and except there be some natural cause or impediment in 
the way, he can use them at his pleasure : but this light 
and seed of God in man he cannot move and stir up 
when he pleaseth ; but it moves, blows, and strives with 
man, as the Lord seeth meet. For though there be a pos- 
sibility of salvation to every man during the day of his 
visitation, yet cannot a man, at any time when he pleaseth, 
The wait- or hath some sense of his misery, stir up that light and 
th^ "^o" grace, so as to procure to himself tenderness of heart ; but 
ings of the he must wait for it : which comes upon all at certain times 
groce. and seasons, wherein it works powerfully upon the soul, 


mightily tenders it, and breaks it ; at which time, if man 
resist it not, but closes with it, he comes to know salvation 
by it. Even as the lake of Bethesda did not cure all those 
that washed in it, but such only as washed first after the 
angel had moved upon the waters ; so God moves in love 
to mankind, in this seed in his heart, atsome singular times, 
setting his sins in order before him, and seriously inviting 
him to repentance, offering to him remission of sins and 
salvation ; which if man accept of, he may be saved. Now 
there is no man alive, and I am confident there shall be 
none to whom this paper shall come, who, if they will 
deal faithfully and honestly with their own hearts, will not 
be forced to acknowledge that they have been sensible of 
this in some measure, less or more ; which is a thing that 
man cannot bring upon himself with all his pains and in- 
dustry. This then, oh man and woman ! is the day of 
God's gracious visitation to thy soul, which if thou resist 
not, thou shalt be happy for ever. This is the day of the 
Lord, which, as Christ saith, is like the lightning, which Mat. xxiv. 
shineth from the east unto the west ; and the wind or spirit, ^^^^^^^ - g 
which blows upon the heart, and no man knows whither it 
goes, nor whence it comes. 

§ XVII. And lastly. This leads me to speak concerning Ques. 7. 
the manner of this seed or light's operation in the hearts 
of all men, which will show yet more manifestly, how 
widely we differ from all those that exalt a natural power 
or light in man ; and how our principle leads above all 
others to attribute our whole salvation to the mere power, 
spirit, .and grace of God. 

To them then that ask us after this manner, How do ye 
differ from the Pelagians and Arminians ? For if two men 
have equal sufficient light and grace, and the one be saved 
by it, and the other not; is it not because the one improves 
it, the other not .'' Is not then the will of man the cause 
of the one's salvation beyond the other .'' I say, to such 
we thus answer : That as the grace and light in all is suffi- The light's 
cient to save all, and of its own nature would save all ; so fn order"to 
it strives and wrestles with all in order to save them ; he salvation. 

13 T 


that resists its striving, is the cause of his own condemna- 
tion ; he that resists it not, it becomes his salvation : so that 
in him that is saved, the working is of the grace, and not 
of the man ; and it is a passiveness rather than an act ; 
thougii afterwards, as man is wrought upon, there is a will 
raised in him, by which he comes to be a co-worker with 
the grace: for according to that of Augustine, "He that 
made us without us, will not save us without us." So that 
the first step is not by man's working, but by his not con- 
trary working. And we believe, that at these singular sea- 
sons of every man's visitation above mentioned, as man is 
wholly unable of himself to work with the grace, neither 
can he move one step out of the natural condition, until 
the grace lay hold upon him ; so it is possible for him to 
be passive, and not to resist it, as it is possible for him to 
resist it. So we say, the grace of God works in and upon 
man's nature ; which, though of itself wholly corrupted 
and defiled, and prone to evil, yet is capable to be wrought 
upon by the grace of God ; even as iron, though a hard 
and cold metal of itself, may be warmed and softened by 
the heat of the fire, and wax melted by the sun. And as 
iron or wax, when removed from the fire or sun, returneth 
to its former condition of coldness and hardness; so man's 
heart, as it resists or retires from the grace of God, returns 
to its former condition again. I have often had the manner 
of God's working, in order to salvation towards all men, 
illustrated to my mind by one or two clear examples, 
which I shall here add for the information of others. 
The exam- The first is. Of a man heavily diseased ; to whom I 

pleofadis- Qompare man in his fallen and natural condition. I sup- 
eased man r ^ r 

and the pose God, who is the great physician, not only to give this 
man physic, after he hath used all the industry he can for 
his own health, by any skill or knowledge of his own ; as 
those that say. If a man improve his reason or natural fa- 
culties, God will superadd grace ; or, as others say, that 
he Cometh and maketh offer of a remedy to this man out- 
wardly, leaving it to the liberty of man's will either to re- 
ceive it or reject it. But He, even the Lord, this great 


physician, cometh and poureth the remedy into his mouth, 
and as it weie layeth him in his bed ; so that if the sick 
man be but passive, it will necessarily work the effect : but 
if he be stubborn and untoward, and will needs rise up 
and go forth into the cold, or eat such fruits as are hurtful 
to him, while the medicine should operate ; then, though 
of its nature it tendeth to cure him, yet it will prove de- 
structive to him, because of those obstructions which it 
meeteth with. Now as the man that should thus undo 
himself would certainly be the cause of his own death ; so 
who will say, that, if cured, he owes not his health 
wholly to the physician, and not to any deed of his own ; 
seeing his part was not any action, but a passiveness ? 

The second example is, Of divers men lying in a dark The exam- 
pit together, where all their senses are so stupified, that fyf^g g^!,". 

they are scarce sensible of their own misery. To this I ^^'^, '"^ ^ 

... , ,^ 1, ,• ■ -r dark pit, 

compare man m his natural, corrupt, lallen condition. I and their 

suppose not that any of these men, wrestling to deliver them- ^ i^^''^'^- 
selves, do thereby siir up or engage one able to deliver them 
to give them his help, saying within himself, I see one of 
these men willing to be delivered, and doing what in him 
lies, therefore he deserves to be assisted ; as say the Soci- 
nians. Pelagians, and Semi-Pelagians. Neither do I sup- 
pose that this deliverer comes to the top of the pit, and 
puts down a ladder, desiring them that will to come up ; 
and so puts them upon using their own strength and will to 
come up ; as do the Jesuits and Arminians : yet, as they 
say, such are not delivered without the grace ; seeing the 
grace is that ladder by which they were delivered. But I 
suppose that the deliverer comes at certain times, and fully 
discovers and informs them of the great misery and hazard 
they are in, if they continue in that noisome and pestiferous 
place ; yea, forces them to a certain sense of their misery, 
(for the wickedest men at times are made sensible of their 
misery by God's visitation,) and not only so, but lays hold 
upon them, and gives them a pull, in order to lift them out 
of their misery.; which if they resist not will save them; 
only they may resist it. This being applied as the former, 


doth the same way illustrate the matter. Neither is the 

grace of" God frustrated, tliough the etiect of it be diverse, 

according to its object, being the ministration of mercy and 

love in those that reject it not, but receive it, John i. 12, 

but the ministration of wrath and condemnation in those 

A sii.x.ilc af that do reject it, John iii. 19, even as the sun, by one act 

melfm'iand or Operation, melteth and softeneth the wax, and hardeneth 

hardening tJ^y clay. The nature of the sun is to cherish the creation, 

and therefore the living are refreshed by it, and the flowers 

send forth a good savour, as it shines upon them, and the 
fruits of the trees are ripened ; yet cast forth a dead car- 
cass, a thing without life, and the same reflection of the 
sun will cause it to stink, and putrefy it ; yet is not the sun 
said thereby to be frustrated of its proper efFect. So every 
man during the day of his visitation is shined upon by the 
sun of righteousness, and capable of being influenced by 
it, so as to send forth good fruit, and a good savour, and 
to be melted by it ; but when he hath sinned out his day, 
then the same sun hardeneth him, as it doth the clay, and 
makes his wickedness more to appear and putrefy, and send 
forth an evil savour. 
AUhave § XVIII. Lastly, As we truly affirm that God willeth no 

grace suffi- ^^r^^ ^q perish, and therefore hath mven to all o-race suf- 
cient tor . ' ' . " => . 

salvation ficient for salvation ; so we do not deny, but that in a 
given tliem • i i i ^i, • • u 

of God. special manner he worketh in some, in wriora grace so 

prevaileth, that they necessarily obtain salvation ; neither 
doth God suffer them to resist. For it were absurd to say, 
that God had not far otherwise extended himself towards 
the virgin Mary and the apostle Paul, than towards many 
others : neither can we afhrm that God equally loved the 
beloved disciple John and Judas the traitor ; yet so far, 
nevertheless, as none wanted such a measure of grace by 
which they might have been saved, all are justly inexcus- 
able. And also God working in those to whom this pre- 
valency of grace is given, doth so hide himself, to shut out 
all security and presumption, that such may be humbled, 
and the free grace of God magnified, and all reputed to be 
of the free gift ; and nothing from the strength of self. 


Those also who perish, when they remember those times 
of God's visitation towards them, wherein he wrestled with 
them by his Light and Spirit, are forced to confess, that 
there was a time wherein the door of mercy was open unto 
them, and that they are justly condemned, because they 
rejected their own salvation. 

Thus both the mercy and justice of God are established, 
and the will and strength of man are brought down and 
rejected ; his condemnation is made to be of himself, and 
his salvation only to depend upon God. Also by these 
positions two great objections, which often are brought 
against this doctrine, are well solved. 

The first is deduced from those places of scripture, Object. 
wherein God seems precisely to have decreed and pre- 
destinated some to salvation ; and for that end, to have 
ordained certain means, which fall not out to others ; as 
in the calling of Abraham, David, and others, and in the 
conversion of Paul ; for these being numbered among 
such to whom this prevalency is given, the objection is 
easily loosed. 

The second is drawn from those places, wherein God Predestina 
seems to have ordained some wicked persons to destruc- vThon, and 
tion ; and therefore to have obdured their hearts to force pre-ordina. 

tion to de- 

them unto great sins, and to have raised them up, that he struction, 
might show in them his power, who, if they be numbered ^"^^^^"^^ • 
amongst those men whose day of visitation is passed over, 
that objection is also solved ; as will more evidently ap- 
pear to any one that will make a particular application of 
those things, which I at this time, for brevity's sake, 
thought meet to pass over. 

§ XIX. Having thus clearly and evidently stated the 
question, and opened our mind and judgment in this mat- 
ter, as divers objections are hereby prevented, so will it 
make our proof both the easier and the shorter. 

The first thing to be proved is. That God hath given to Prop. i. 
every man a day or time of visitation, wherein it is possible ^^^'^^'^ 
for him to be saved. If we can prove that there is a day 
and time given, in which those might have been saved that 


actually perish, the matter is done : for none deny but 

Proof 1. those that are saved have a day of visitation. This then 

appears by the regrets and complaints which the Spirit of 

God throughout the whole scriptures makes, even to those 

Those ili;it that did perish ; sharply reproving them, for that they did 

a*day'ot' ' ^o^ accept of, nor close with God's visitation and offer of 

incrcy of- juercv to them. Thus tlie Lord expresses himself then 
lereu tliein. • r~« • /-i • 

first of all to Cain, Gen. iv. 6, 7, " And the Lord said unto 

Instances. Cain, Why art thou wroth ? and why is thy countenance 
1- Cain. fj^ii^.jjp If ihou Jost well, shalt thou not be accepted ? If 
thou dost not well, sin lieth at the door." This was said 
to Cain before he slew his brother Abel, when the evil 
seed began to tempt him, and work in his heart ; we see 
how God gave warning to Cain in season, and in the day 
of his visitation towards him, acceptance and remission if 
he did well : for this interrogation, " Shalt thou not be ac- 
cepted.'"' imports an affirmative, " Thou shalt be accepted, 
if thou dost well." So that if we may trust God Almighty, 
the fountain of all truth and equity, it was possible in a 
day, even for Cain to be accepted. Neither could God 
have proposed the doing of good as a condition, if he had 
not given Cain sufficient strength, whereby he was capable 
to do (rood. This the Lord himself also shows, even that 
2. The old he gave a day of visitation to the old world, Gen. vi. .3, 
"^^^ ' " And the Lord said, My Spirit shall not always strive in 
man ;" for so it ought to be translated. This manifestly 
implies, that his Spirit did strive with man, and doth strive 
with him for a season ; which season expiring, God ceaseth 
to strive with him, in order to save him : for the Spirit of 
God cannot be said to strive with man after the day of his 
visitation is expired ; seeing it naturally, and without any 
resistance, works its effect then, to wit, continually to judge 
and condemn him. From this day of visitation, that God 
r,(id is long hath given to every one, is it that he is said to << wait to be 
andTong' gracious," Isa. XXX. 18, and to be " long suffering," Exod. 
waiting to xxxiv. 6 : Numb. xiv. 18 ; Psal. Ixxxvi. 15 ; Jer. xv. 15. 

be graciou.s ' 

anto all— Here the prophet Jeremy, in his prayer, lays hold upon 
the " long suffering of God ;" and in his expostulating 


with God, he shuts out the objection of our adversaries in 
the 18th verse: "Why is my pain perpetual, and my 
wound incurable, which refuseth to be healed ? Wilt thou 
altogether be unto me as a liar, and as waters that fail ?" 
Whereas according to our adversaries' opinion, the pain 
of the most part of men is perpetual, and their wound alto- 
gether incurable ; yea, the offer of the gospel, and of sal- 
vation unto them, is as a lie, and as waters that fail, being 
never intended to be of any effect unto them. The apostle 
Peter says expressly, that this long suffering of God waited 
in the days of Noah for those of the old world, 1 Pet. iii. 
20, which, being compared with that of Gen, vi. 3, before 
mentioned, doth sufficiently hold forth our proposition. 
And that none may object that this long suffering or striv- 
ing of the Lord was not in order to save them, the same —I" order 
apostle saith expressly, 2 Pet. iii. 15, That the long suf- them, 
fering of God is to be accounted salvation ; and with 
this " long suffering," a little before in the 9th verse, he 
couples, " That God is not willing that any should perish." 
Where, taking him to be his own interpreter, as he is most 
fit, he holdeth forth. That those to whom the Lord is long 
suffering, which he declareth he was to the wicked of the 
old world, and is now to all, " not willing that any should 
perish," they are to account this long suffering of God to 
them salvation. Now how or in what respect can they 
account it salvation, if there be not so much as a possibility 
of salvation conveyed to them therein ? For it were not 
salvation to them, if they could not be saved by it. In 
this matter Peter further refers to the writings of Paul, 
holding forth this to have been the universal doctrine. 
Where it is observable what he adds upon this occasion, 
how there are some things in Paul's epistles hard to be Some 
understood, which the unstable and unlearned wrest to Paul's epia- 

their own destruction ; insinuating plainly this of those \}^^ ^j""*^ *** 
' _ o I J be under- 

expressions in Paul's epistles, as Rom. ix., &c., which stood, 
some, unlearned in spiritual things, did make to contradict 
the truth of God's long suffering towards all, in which he 
willeth not any of them should perish, and in which they 


all may be saved. Would to God many had taken more 
heed than they have done to this advertisement ! That 
place of the apostle Paul, which Peter seems here most 
particularly to hint at, doth much contribute also to clear 
the matter, Rom. ii. 4, " Despisest thou the riches of his 
goodness, and forbearance, and long suffering, not know- 
ing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance ?" 
Paul speaketh here to the unregenerate, and to the wicked, 
who, in the following verse he saith, '< Treasure up wrath 
unto the day of wrath ;" and to such he commends the 
riches of the forbearance and long suffering of God ; show- 
ing that the tendency of God's goodness leadeth to repent- 
ance. How could it necessarily tend to lead them to 
repentance, how could it be called riches or goodness to 
them, if there were not a time wherein they might repent 
by it, and come to be sharers of the riches exhibited in it? 
From all which I thus argue : 
Arg. ^ If God plead with the wicked, from the possibility of 

rit strives their being accepted ; if God's Spirit strive in them for a 
mthewick- season, in order to save them, who afterwards perish; if 
he wait to be gracious unto them ; if he be long suffering 
towards them; and if this long suffering be salvation to 
them while it endureth, during which time God willeth 
them not to perish, but exhibiteth to them the riches of his 
goodness and forbearance to lead them to repentance ; 
then there is a day of visitation wherein such might have 
been, or some such now may be saved, who have perished, 
and may perish, if they repent not : 

But the first is true ; therefore also the last. 
Pr. II. § XX. Secondly, This appeareth from the prophet 

Isaiah, v. 4, " What could I have done more to my vine- 
The vine- yard ?" For in verse 2, he saith : He had fenced it, and 
erbrou^X' gfithered out the stones thereof, and planted it with the 
forth witd choicest vine; and yet, saith he, "when I looked it 


should have brought forth grapes, it brought forth wild 
grapes." Wherefore he calleth the inhabitants of Jerusa- 
lem, and men of Judah, to judge betwixt him and his 
vineyard, saying ; " What could I have done more to my 


vineyard, than I have done in it? and yet," as is said, " it 
brought forth wild grapes :" which was appHed to many 
in Israel who refused God's mercy. The same example is 
used by Christ, Mat. xxi. 33 ; Mark xii. 1 ; Luke xx. 9, 
where Jesus shows, how to some a vineyard was planted, 
and all things given necessary for them, to get them fruit 
to pay or restore to their master ; and how the master many 
times waited to be merciful to them, in sending servants 
after servants, and passing by many offences, before he de- 
termined to destroy and cast them out. First then, this 
cannot be understood of the saints, or of such as repent 
and are saved ; for it is said expressly, " He will destroy 
them." Neither would the parable any ways have answered 
the end for which it is alleged, if these men had not been 
in a capacity to have done good ; yea, such was their 
capacity, that Christ saith in the prophet, " What could I 
have done more ?" So that it is more than manifest, that 
by this parable, repeated in three sundry evangelists, Christ 
holds forth his long suffering towards men, and their 
wickedness, to whom means of salvation being afforded, 
do nevertheless resist, to their own condemnation. To 
these also are parallel these scriptures, Pro. i. 24, 25, 26 ; 
Jer. xviii. 9, 10; Mat. xviii. 32, 33, 34; Acts xiii. 46. 

Lastly, That there is a day of visitation given to the Pe. III. 
wicked, wherein they might have been saved, and which 
being expired, they are shut out from salvation, appears 
evidently by Christ's lamentation over Jerusalem, expressed Christ's la- 
in three sundry places, Matth. xxiii. 37; Luke xiii. 34 ; o^,*g\. jj^y, 
and xix. 41, 42 ; " And when he was come near, he be- salem. 
held the city, and wept over it, saying : If thou hadst 
known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things which 
belong unto thy peace ; but now they are hid from thine 
eyes!" Than which nothing can be said more evident to 
prove our doctrine. For, First, he insinuates that there 
was a day wherein the inhabitants of Jerusalem might have 
known those things that belonged to their peace. Se- 
condly, That during that day he was willing to have 
gathered them, even as an " hen gathereth her chickens." 




hearts are 

The one 
talent was 

.A familiar example, yet very significative in this case; 
which shows that the offer of salvation made unto them 
was not in vain on his part, but as really, and with as great 
cheerfulness and willingness, as a '< hen gathereth her 
chickens." Such as is the love and care of the hen toward 
her brood, such is the care of Christ to gather lost men and 
women, to redeem them out of their corrupt and degene- 
rate state. Thirdly, That because they refused, the things 
belonging to their peace were hid from their eyes. Why 
were they hid .'' Because ye would not suffer me to gather 
you ; ye would not see those things that were good for 
you, in the season of God's love towards you ; and there- 
fore now, that day being expired, ye cannot see them : 
and, for a farther judgment, God suffers you to be harden- 
ed in unbelief. 

So it is, after real offers of mercy and salvation rejected, 
that men's hearts are hardened, and not before. Thus that 
saying is verified, " To him that hath, shall be given ; and 
from him that hath not, shall be taken away even that which 
he hath." This may seem a riddle, yet it is according to 
this doctrine easily solved. He hath not, because he hath 
lost the season of using it, and so to him it is now as no- 
thing ; for Christ uses this expression, Matth. xxv. 26, upon 
the occasion of the taking the one talent from the slothful 
servant, and giving it to him that was diligent ; which 
talent was no ways insufficient of itself, but of the same 
nature with those given to the others ; and therefore the 
Lord had reason to exact the profit of it proportionably, as 
well as from the rest : so I say, it is after the rejecting of 
the day of visitation, that the judgment of obduration is 
inflicted upon men and women, as Christ pronounceth it 
upon the Jews out of Isa, vi. 9, which all the four evange- 
lists make mention of, Matth. xiii. 14 ; Mark iv. 12 ; Luke 
viii. 10 ; John xii. 40 ; and last of all the apostle Paul, 
after he had made offer of the gospel of salvation to the 
Jews at Rome, pronounceth the same, Acts xxviii. 26, 
after that some believed not ; " Well spake the Holy Ghost, 
by Isaiah the prophet, unto our fathers, saying. Go unto 


this people, and say, Hearing ye shall hear, and shall not 
understand ; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive. 
For the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears 
are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they closed ; lest 
they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, 
and understand with their hearts, and should be converted, 
and I should heal them." So it appears, that God would 
have them to see, but they closed their eyes ; and there- 
fore they are justly hardened. Of this matter Cyrillus Cyril.Alex, 
Alexandrinus upon John, lib. 6, cap. 21, speaks well, an- 
swering to this objection. " But some may say, if Christ 
be come into the world, that those that see may be blinded, 
their blindness is not imputed unto them ; but it rather 
seems that Christ is the cause of their blindness, who saith, 
' He is come into the world, that those that see may be 
blinded.' But," saith he, "they speak not rationally, who 
object these things unto God, and are not afraid to call him 
the author of evil. For, as the sensible sun is carried upon 
our horizon, that it may communicate the gift of its clear- 
ness unto all, and make its light shine upon all ; yet if any 
one close his eyelids, or willingly turn himself from the The cause 
sun, refusing the benefit of its light, he wants its illumina- °g ™J-"in„ 
tion, and remains in darkness, not through the defect of in dark- 
the sun, but through his own fault. So that the true Sun, dosing hia 
who came to enlighten those that sat in darkness, and in ^^^^' 
the region of the shadow of death, visited the earth for this 
cause, that he mioht communicate unto all the gift of know- 
ledge and grace, and illuminate the inward eyes of all by 
a spiritual splendour: but many reject the gift of this hea- 
venly light freely given to them, and have closed the eyes 
of their minds, lest so excellent an illumination or irradia- 
tion of the eternal light should shine unto them. It is not 
then through defect of the true Sun that they are blinded, 
but only through their own iniquity and hardness ; < for,' 
as the wise man saith, Wisdom ii., ' their wickedness hath 
blinded them.' " 

From all which I thus argue : 

If there was a day wherein the obstinate Jews might have 



The obsti- 
nate Jews 
had 5 day. 

Pkop. II. 

Proof I. 

The light 
ing every 
man, &.c. 

Obs. 1. 

— Not to a 
number of 
men, but 
every man. 

known the things that belonged to their peace, which, be 
cause they rejected it, was hid from their eyes ; if there 
was a time wlierein Christ would have gathered them, who, 
because they refused, could not be gathered ; then such as 
might have been saved do actually perish, that slighted the 
day of God's visitation towards them, wherein they might 
have been converted and saved. 

But the first is true ; therefore also the last. 

§ XXI. Secondly, That which comes in the second place 
to be proved is. That whereby God offers to work this sal- 
vation during the day of every man's visitation ; and that 
is, That he hath given to every man a measure of saving, 
sufficient, and supernatural light and grace. This I shall 
do, by God's assistance, by some plain and clear testimo- 
nies of the scripture. 

First, From that of John i. 9 : '<■ That was the true light, 
which lighteth every man that cometh into the world." 
This place doth so clearly favour us, that by some it is 
called the Quaker's text ; for it doth evidently demonstrate 
our assertion ; so that it scarce needs either consequence 
or deduction, seeing itself is a consequence of two propo- 
sitions asserted in the former verses, from which it followeth 
as a conclusion in the very terms of our faith. The first 
of these propositions is, " The life that is in him is the light 
of men :" the second, " The light shineth in the darkness :" 
and from these two he infers, and " He is the true light, 
which lighteth every man that cometh into the world," 

From whence I do in short observe. That this divine 
apostle calls Christ the light of men, and giveth us this as 
one of the chief properties, at least considerably and espe- 
cially to be observed by us ; seeing hereby, as he is the 
light, and as we walk with him in that light which he com- 
municates to us, we come to have fellowship and commu- 
nion with him ; as the same apostle saith elsewhere, 1 John i. 
7. Secondly, That this light shineth in darkness, though 
the darkness comprehend it not. Thirdly, That this true 
light eiilighteneth every man that cometh into the world. 
Where the apostle, being directed by God's Sj)irit, hath 


carefully avoided their captiousness, that would have re- 
stricted this to any certain number : where every one is, 
there is none excluded. Next, should they be so obstinate, 
as sometimes they are, as to say that this [every man] is 
only every one of the elect ; these words following, " every 
man that cometh into the world," would obviate that objec- 
tion. So that it is plain there comes no man into the world, 
whom Christ hath not enlightened in some measure, and 
in whose dark heart this light doth not shine ; though the 
" darkness comprehend it not," yet it shineth there ; and 
the nature thereof is to dispel the darkness, where men 
shut not their eyes upon it. Now for what end this light The light 
is given, is expressed in verse 7, where John is said to daXneTs^ 

come for a " witness, to bear witness to the liffht, that all begets 

. . ^ . faith. 

men through it might believe ;" to wit, through the light, 

(5i (xutS, which doth very well agree with cponk. as being the 
nearest antecedent, though most translators have (to make 
it suit with their own doctrine) made it relate to John, as 
if all men w^ere to believe through John. For which, as 
there is nothing directly in the text, so it is contrary to the 
very strain of the context. For, seeing Christ hath lighted 
every man with this light. Is it not that they may come to 
believe through it ? All could not believe through John, 
because all men could not know of John's testimony ; 
whereas every man being lighted by this may come there- 
through to believe. John shined not in darkness ; but this 
light shineth in the darkness, that having dispelled the dark- 
ness, it may produce and beget faith. And lastly, We 
must believe through that, and become believers through 
that, by walking in which, fellowship with God is known 
and enjoyed ; but, as hath been above observed, it is by 
walking in this light that we have this communion and fel- 
lowship ; not by walking in John, which were nonsense. 
So that this relative Si kutS, must needs be referred to the 
light, whereof John bears witness, that through that light, 
wherewith Christ hath lighted every man, all men might 
come to believe. Seeing then this light is the light of Jesus 
Christ, and the light through which men come to believe, 


The light is I think it needs not to be doubted, but that it is a super- 
rairsavini, natural, saving, and sufficient hglit. If it were not super- 
and suffi- natural, it could not be properly called the light of Jesus ; 
for though all things be his, and of him, and from him; 
yet those things which are common and peculiar to our na- 
ture, as being a part of it, we are not said in so special a 
manner to have from Christ. Moreover, the evangelist 
is holding; out to us here the office of Christ as mediator, 
and the benefits which from him as such, do redound 
unto us. 
Obs. 2. Secondly, It cannot be any of the natural gifts or facul- 

ties of our soul, whereby we are said here to be enlight- 
ened, because this light is said to " shine in the darkness," 
The dark- and cannot be comprehended by it. Now this darkness is 
no other but man's natural condition and state ; in which 

ness IS 
man's natu 

ral state natural state he can easily comprehend, and doth compre- 

and condi- , , , i • i t i i • 

tion. hend, those things that are peculiar and common to nim as 

such. That man in his natural condition is called dark- 
ness, see Eph. v. 8 : " For ye were sometimes darkness, 
but now are ye light in the Lord." And in other places, 
as Acts xxvi. 18, Col. i. 13, 1 Thess. v. 5, where the con- 
dition of man in his natural state is termed darkness:, there- 
fore I say this light cannot be any natural property or fa- 
culty of man's soul, but a supernatural gift and grace of 
Obs. 3. Thirdly, It is sufficient and saving. 

Arg. 1. That which is given " that all men through it may be- 

lieve," must needs be saving and sufficient: that, by walk- 
ing in which, fellowship with the saints and the blood of 
Christ, " which cleanseth from all sin," is possessed, must 
be sufficient : 

But such is the Light, 1 John, i. 7. 
Therefore, &.c. 
Moreover ; 
Arg. 2. That which we are commanded to believe in " that we 

may become the children of the light," must be a super* 
natural, sufficient, and saving principle : 

But we are commanded to believe in this light: 


Therefore, &c. 

The proposition cannot be denied. The assumption is 
Christ's own words, John xii. 36 : " While ye have the 
light, believe in the light, that ye may be the children of 
the light." 

To this they object. That by light here is understood Object, 
Christ's outward person, in whom he would have them be- 

That they ought to have believed in Christ, that is, that Answ. 

he was the Messiah that was to come, is not denied ; but 

how they evince that Christ intended that here, I see not : Whether 

nay the place itself shows the contrary, by these words, outw^ard 

" While ye have the light ;" and by the verse going before, person was 

" Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness come upon 

you :" which words import, that when that light in which 

they w^ere to believe was removed, then they should lose 

the capacity or season of believing. Now this could not 

be understood of Christ's person, else the Jews might have 

believed in him ; and many did savingly believe in him, as 

all Christians do at this day, when the person, to wit, his 

bodily presence, or outward man, is far removed from 

them. So that this light in which they were commanded The light 

to believe must be that inward spiritual light that shines in notChHst's 

their hearts for a season, even during the day of man's outwatd 

... ,.,,.,. . , ° „ . . , man or per- 

Visitation ; which while it contmueth to call, invite and ex- son. 

hort, men are said to have it, and may believe in it ; but 
when men refuse to beheve in it, and reject it, then it ceas- 
eth to be a light to show them the way ; but leaves the 
sense of their unfaithfulness as a sting in their conscience ; 
which is a terror and darkness unto them, and upon them, 
in which they cannot know where to go, neither can work 
any ways profitably in order to their salvation. And there- 
fore to such rebellious ones the day of the Lord is said to 
be darkness, and not light, Amos v. 18. 

From whence it appears, that though many receive not 
the light, as many comprehend it not, nevertheless this 
saving light shines in all, that it may save them. Con- 
cerning which also Cyrillus Alexandrinus saith well, and 


nus upon 

defends our principle : <' With greiit diligence and watch- 
fulness," saith he, " doth the apostle John endeavour to 
John, lib. 1. anticipate and prevent the vain thoughts of men : for there 
is here a wonderful method of sublime things, and over- 
turning of objections. He had just now called the Son 
the true light, by whom he affirmed that every man coming 
into the world was enlightened ; yea, that he was in the 
world, and the world was made by him. One may then 
object, If the word of God be the light, and if this light 
enlighten the hearts of men, and suggest unto men piety 
and the understanding of things ; if he was always in the 
world, and was the creator or builder of the world, why 
was he so long unknown unto the world ? It seems rather 
to follow because he was unknown to the world, therefore 
the world was not enlightened by him, nor he totally light. 
Lest any should so object, he divinely infers, and the world 
knew him not. Let not the world," saith he, " accuse 
the word of God, and his eternal light, but its own weak- 
The son ness ; for the son enlightens, but the creature rejects the 
but'man"^' g^ace that is given unto it, and abuseth the sharpness of 

through understanding granted it, by which it might have naturally 

neo'hfence o o j j o j 

buries illu- known God ; and, as a prodigal, hath turned its sight to the 

creatures, neglecting to go forward, and through laziness 

and negligence buried the illumination, and despised this 

grace. Which that the disciple of Paul might not do, he was 

commanded to watch ; therefore it is to be imputed to their 

wickedness, who are illuminated, and not unto the light. 

For as albeit the sun riseth upon all, yet he that is blind 

receiveth no benefit thereby ; none thence can justly accuse 

the brightness of the sun, but will ascribe the cause of not 

seeing to the blindness ; so I judge it is to be understood 

of the only begotten Son of God : for he is the true light, 

and sendeth forth his brightness upon all ; but the god of 

this world, as Paul saith, hath blinded the minds of those 

that believe not, 2 Cor. iv. 4, that the light of the gospel 

shine not unto them. We say then that darkness is come 

upon men, not because they are altogether deprived of 

light, for nature retaineth still the strength of understand- 

buries ill 


ing divinely given it, but because man is dulled by an evil 
habit, and become worse, and hath made the measure of 
grace in some respect to languish. When therefore the 
like befalls man, the Psalmist justly prays, crying, < Open 
mine eyes, that I may behold the wonderful things of thy 
law.' For the law was given that this light might be kindled 
in us, the blearedness of the eyes of our minds being wiped 
away, and the blindness being removed which detained us 
in our former ignorance. By these w^ords then the world 
is accused as ungrateful and insensible, not knowing its 
author, nor bringing forth the good fruit of the illumination ; 
that it may now seem to be said truly of all, which was of 
old said by the prophet of the Jews, I expected that it 
should have brought forth grapes, but it brought forth wild 
grapes. For the good fruit of the illumination was the 
knowledge of the only Begotten, as a cluster hanging from 
a fruitful branch," &c. 

From which it appears Cyrillus believed that a saving Grace no 
illumination was given unto all. For as to what he speaks "^'"'■^' S'" 
of nature, he understands it not of the common nature of 
man by itself, but of that nature which hath the strength 
of understanding divinely given it: for he understands this 
universal illumination to be of the same kind with that grace 
of which Paul makes mention to Timothy, saying, " Neg- 
lect not the grace that is in thee." Now it is not to be 
believed that Cyrillus was so ignorant as to judge that grace 
to have been some natural gift. 

§ XXII. That this saving light and seed, or a measure Proof II 
of it, is given to all, Christ tells us expressly in the parable 
of the sower. Mat. xiii. from ver. 18; Mark iv., and Luke The seed-* 
viii. 11, he saith, That this seed sown in those several sorts doniis"owD 
of grounds is the word of the kingdom, which the apostle '" seveml 

o . '^ . ^ sorts of 

calls the word of faith, Rom. x. 8, James i. 21, o' Ao^oj: grounds 
sfxtpuloj, the " implanted ingrafted word, which is able to distinction.. 
save the soul ;" the words themselves declare that it is that 
which is saving in the nature of it, for in the good ground 
it fructified abundantly. 

Let us then observe, that this seed of the kingdom, this 
14* V 


saving, supernatural, and sufficient word, was really sown 
in the stony thorny ground, and by the wayside, where it 
did Jiot profit, but became useless as to these grounds : it 
was, I say, the same seed that was sown in the good ground. 
It is then the fear of persecution and deceitfulness of 
riches, as Christ himself interpreteth the parable, which 
hindereth this seed to grow in the hearts of many : not 
but that in its own nature it is sufficient, being the 
same with that which groweth up and prospereth in the 
hearts of those who receive it. So that though all are not 
saved by it, yet there is a seed of salvation planted and 
sown in the hearts of all by God, which would grow up 
and redeem the soul, if it were not choked and hindered. 
Concerning this parable Victor Antiochenus on Mark iv., 
as he is cited by Vossius, in his Pelagian History, book vii., 
saith, " That our Lord Christ hath liberally sown the divine 
seed of the word, and proposed it to all, without respect 
of persons ; and as he that soweth distinguisheth not be- 
twixt ground and ground, but simply casteth in the seed 
without distinction, so our Saviour hath offered the food 
of the divine word so far as was his part, although he was 
not ignorant what would become of many. Lastly, He so 
behaved himself, as he might justly say. What should I 
have done that I have not done ?" And to this answered 
the parable of the talents, Mat. xxv., he that had two ta- 
lents was accepted, as well as he that had five, because he 
used them to his master's profit : and he that had one 
might have done so ; his talent was of the same nature of 
the rest ; it was as capable to have proportionably brought 
forth its interest as the rest. And so though there be not 
a like proportion of grace given to all, to some five talents, 
to some two talents, and to some but one talent ; yet there 
is given to all that which is sufficient, and no more is re- 
quired than according to that which is given : " For unto 
whomsoever much is given, from him shall much be re- 
quired," Luke xii. 48. He that had the two talents was 
accepted for giving four, nothing less than he that gave the 
ten : so should he also that gave the one, if he had given 


two ; and no doubt one was capable to have produced 
two, as well as five to have produced ten, or two four. 

§ XXIII. Thirdly, This saving spiritual light is the gos- Proof III. 
pel, which the apostle saith expressly is preached " in every The light is 
creature under heaven ;" even that very '< gospel whereof [{jg^o^^gf' 
Paul was made a minister," Col. i. 23. For the gospel is of God 

, , . „ II- 1 • 1 preached in 

not a mere declaration or good things, being the " power every crea. 
of God unto salvation to alUhose that believe," Rom. i. 16. iZl^f^' 
Though the outward declaration of the gospel be taken 
sometimes for the gospel ; yet it is but figuratively, and by 
a metonymy. For to speak properly, the gospel is this in- 
ward powTr and life which preacheth glad tidings in the 
hearts of all men, offering salvation unto them, and seeking 
to redeem them from their iniquities, and therefore it is 
said to be preached " in every creature under heaven :" 
whereas there are many thousands of men and women to 
whom the outward gospel was never preached. Therefore 
the apostle Paul, Romans i., where he saith " the gospel 
is the power of God unto salvation," adds, that " therein 
is revealed the righteousness of God from faith to faith ;" 
and also the " wrath of God against such as hold the truth 
of God in unrighteousness :" for this reason, saith he, " be- 
cause that which may be known of God is manifest in them ; 
for God hath showed it unto them." Now that which may 
be known of God, is known by the gospel, which was 
manifest in them. For those of whom the apostle speaks 
had no outward gospel preached unto them ; so that it was 
by the inward manifestation of the knowledge of God in 
them, which is indeed the gospel preached in man, " that 
the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith ;" 
that is, it reveals to the soul that which is just, good, and 
righteous ; and that as the soul receiveth it and believes, 
righteousness comes more and more to be revealed from 
one degree of faith to another. For though, as the follow- 
ing verse saith, the outward creation declares the power 
of God ; yet that which may be known of him is manifest 
within : by which inward manifestation we are made capa- 
ble to see and discern the Eternal Power and Godhead in 



Tlio out- 
ward crea- 
tion may 

the outward creation ; so were it not for this inward prin- 
ciple, we could no more understand the invisible things of 
God by the outward visible creation, than a blind man can 
see and discern the variety of shapes and colours, or judge 
of the beauty of the outward creation. Therefore he saith, 
first, " That which may be known of God is manifest in 
them," and in and by that they may read and understand 
the power and Godliead in those things that are outward 
and visible. And though any might pretend that the out- 
ward creation doth of itself, without any supernatural or 
saving principle in the heart, even declare to the natural 
man that there is a God ; yet what would such a knowledge 
avail, if it did not also communicate to me what the will 
of God is, and how I shall do that which is acceptable to 
him ? For the outward creation, though it may beget a 
persuasion that there is some eternal power or virtue by 
beget aper- xvhich the world hath had its becjinnino:; yet it doth not 

suasion 111 . . ^ °. *^ 

man of an tell me, nor doth it inform me of that which is just, holy, 
power or ''"^ righteous; how I shall be delivered from my tempta- 
virtue. tions and evil affections, and come unto righteousness ; 
that must be from some inward manifestation in my heart. 
Whereas those Gentiles of whom the apostle speaks knew 
by that inward law and manifestation of the knowledge of 
God in them to distinguish betwixt good and evil, as in 
the next chapter appears, of which we shall speak hereafter. 
The prophet Micah, speaking of man indefinitely, or in 
general, declares this, Mic. vi. 8, "He hath showed thee, 
O man, what is good. And what doth the Lord require 
of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk 
humbly with God.-"' He doth not say God requires, till 
he hath first assured that he hath showed unto them. Now 
because this is showed unto all men, and manifest in them, 
therefore, saith the apostle, is the " wrath of God revealed 
against them, for that they hold the truth in unrighteous- 
ness ;" that is, the measure of truth, the light, the seed, the 
grace in them: for that they hide the talent in the earth , 
that is, in the earthly and unrighteous part in their hearts, 
and suffer it not to bring forth fruit, but to be choked with 


the sensual cares of this life, the fear of reproach, and the 

deceitfulness of riches, as by the parables above mentioned 

doth appear. But the apostle Paul opens and illustrates 

this matter yet more, Rom. x., where he declares, "That 

the word which he preached" (now the word which he 

preached, and the gospel which he preached, and whereof 

he was a minister, is one and the same) "is not far off, but 

nigh in the heart and in the mouth ;" which done, he frameth 

as it were the objection of our adversaries in the 14th and 

15th verses, " How shall they believe in him of whom they 

have not heard ? And how shall they hear w^ithout a 

preacher?" This he answers in the 18th verse, saying, 

" But, I say, have they not heard ? Yes, verily, their sound 

went into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of 

the world ;" insinuating that this divine preacher hath The divine 

sounded in the ears and hearts of all men: for of the out- jhe^vord 

w^ard apostles that saying was not true, neither then, nor "igh, hath 

1 J 1 r r 1 . 1 1 sounded in 

many hundred years alter ; yea, for aught we know, there the ears and 
may be yet great and spacious nations and kingdoms that ^q^^^^ ^ 
never have heard of Christ nor his apostles as outwardly. 
This inward and powerful word of God is yet more fully 
described in the epistle to the Hebrews, chap. iv. 12, 13: 
" For the word of God is quick and powerful, and sharper 
than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing 
asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, 
and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart." 
The virtues of this spiritual word are here enumerated : it 
is quick, because it searches and tries the hearts of all ; no 
man's heart is exempt from it: for the apostle gives this 
reason of its being so in the following verse : " But all Before 
things are naked and opened unto the eyes of him with things are 
whom we have to do : and there is not any creature that is man^f'^st. 
not manifest in his sight." Though this ultimately and me- 
diately be referred to God, yet nearly and immediately it 
relates to the word or light, which, as hath been before 
proved, is in the hearts of all, else it had been improper to 
have brought it in here. The apostle shows how "every 
intent and thought of the heart is discerned by the word of 



And every 
and inient 
of I he 

The faith- 
ful witness. 

A. leader 
and com- 

A two-edr 
ed sword. 

A fire and 
a hammer. 


God," because all things are naked before God ; which 
imports notliing else but it is in and by this word whereby 
God sees and discerns man's thoughts ; and so it must 
needs be in all men, because the apostle saith, "there is 
no creature that is not manifest in his sight." This then is 
that faithful witness and messenger of God that bears wit- 
ness for God, and for his righteousness in the hearts of all 
men : for he hath not left man without a witness, Acts 
xiv. 17, and he is said to be " given for a witness to the 
people," Isa. Iv. 4. And as this word beareth witness for 
God, so it is not placed in men only to condemn them : 
for as he is given for a " witness," so saith the prophet, 
he is given for a leader and commander. The light is 
given, that all through it may believe, John i. 7, " for 
faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God," 
which is placed in man's heart, both to be a witness for 
God, and to be a means to bring man to God through faith 
and repentance : it is therefore powerful, that it may divide 
betwixt the soul and the spirit : it is like a two-edged 
sword, that it may cut off iniquity from him, and separate 
betwixt the precious and the vile ; and because man's heart 
i? cold and hard like iron naturally, therefore hath God 
placed this word in him, which is said to be like a fire, and 
like a hammer, Jer. xxiii. 29, that like as by the heat of 
the fire the iron, of its own nature cold, is warmed, and 
softened, and by the strength of the hammer is framed ac- 
cording to the mind of the worker ; so the cold and hard 
heart of man is by the virtue and powerfulness of this word 
of God near and in the heart, as it resists not, warmed and 
softened, and receiveth a heavenly and celestial impression 
and image. The most part of the fathers have spoken at 
large touching this word, seed, light, and saving voice call- 
ing all unto salvation, and able to save. 

Clemens Alexandrinus saith, lib. 2, Stromat., "The 
divine word hath cried, calling all, knowing well those that 
will not obey ; and yet, because it is in our power either 
to obey or not to obey, that none may have a pretext of 
ignorance, it hath made a righteous call, and requireth but 


that which is according to the ability and strength of every 
one." The selfsame, in his warning to the Gentiles : 
"For Ls," saith he, "that heavenly ambassador of the 
Lord, 'the grace of God, that brings salvation, hath ap- 
peared unto all,' &c. This is the new song, coming and 
manifestation of the word, which now shows itself in us, 
which was in the beginning, and was first of all." And 
again, " Hear, therefore, ye that are afar off; hear, ye who 
are near ; the word is hid from none, the light is common 
to all, and shineth to all. There is no darkness in the 
word ; let us hasten to salvation, to the new birth, that we The gather- 
being many, may be gathered into the one alone love." oJre'and 
Ibid, he saith, " That there is infused into all, but princi- ^''^'^'^ '°^®- 
pally into those that are trained up in doctrine, a certain 
divine influence, Tig d-jroppoia Sala." And again he speaks 
concerning the innate witness, " worthy of belief, which 
of itself doth plainly choose that which is most honest." 
And again he saith, " That it is not impossible to come 
unto the truth, and lay hold of it, seeing it is most near to 
us, in our own houses, as the most wise Moses declareth, 
living in three parts of us, viz. in our hands, in our mouth, 
and in our heart. This," saith he, " is a most true badge 
of the truth, which is also fulfilled in three things, namely, 
in counsel, in action, in speaking." And again he saith 
also unto the unbelieving nations, " Receive Christ, receive 
light, receive sight, to the end thou mayest rightly know 
both God and man. The word that hath enlightened us The en- 
is more pleasant than gold, and the stone of great value." worch"'"* 
And again he saith, " Let us receive the light, that we may 
receive God ; let us receive the light, that we may be the 
scholars of the Lord." And again he saith to those infidel 
nations, " The heavenly Spirit helpeth thee ; resist and 
flee pleasure." Again, lib. 5, Strom., he saith, " God forbid 
that man be not a partaker of divine acquaintance, hsiag 
ivvoi'ag, who in Genesis is said to be a partaker of inspira- 
tion." And Pffid. lib. 1, cap. 3, "There is," saith he, 
" some lovely and some desirable thing in man, which is 
called the in-breathing of God, sfx^utfrjfjia ©sS." The same 


man, lib. 10, Stroin., directeth men unto the light and 
water in themselves, who have the eye of the soul darkened 
or dimmed throuMi evil education and learning:: let them 
enter in unto their own domestic liffht, or unto the lierht 
which is in their own house, iffilg to &ix5iov (pZc. ,^a(5i^;'Tw, unto 
the truth, which manifests accurately and clearly these 
things that have been written. 

J. Martyr. Justin Martyr, in his first Apology, saith, " That the 
word which was and is, is in all ; even that very same 
word which, through the prophets, foretold things to 

Auth. de The writer of the Calling of the Gentiles, saith, lib. 1, 

Voc. Gent. ^^^^ 2^ <( We believe according to the same, viz. scripture, 
and' most religiously confess, that God was never wanting 
in care to the generality of men ; who although he did lead 
by particular lessons a people gathered to himself unto 
godliness, yet he withdrew from no nation of men the 
gifts of his own goodness, that they might be convinced 
that they had received the words of the prophets, and legal 
commands in services and testimonies of the first prin- 
ciples." Cap. 7, he saith, "That he believes that the 
help of grace hath been wholly withdrawn from no man." 
Lib. 2, cap. 1, "Because, albeit salvation is far from sin- 
ners, yet there is nothing void of the presence and virtue 
of his salvation." Cap. 2, " But seeing none of that people 
over whom was set both the doctrines, were justified but 
through grace by the spirit of faith, who can question but 
that they, who of whatsoever nation, in whatsoever times, 
coidd please God, were ordered by the Spirit of the grace 
of God, which although in fore-time it was more sparing 
and hid, yet denied itself to no ages, being in virtue one, 
in quantity dififerent, in counsel unchangeable, in operation 

Prop III. § XXIV. The third proposition which ought to be 
'^°^^'^ proved is. That it is by this light, seed, or grace that God 
works the salvation of all men, and many come to partake 



vvrou<Tlit by gf ^j-^p benefit of Christ's death, and salvation purchased by 

the light in . . ' . ^ . "^ 

all. him. By the inward and etFectual operations of which, as 


many heathen have come to be partakers of the promises 
who were not of the seed of Abraham after the flesh, so 
may some now, to whom God hath rendered the know- 
ledge of the history impossible, come to be saved by 
Christ. Having already proved that Christ hath died for 
all, that there is a day of visitation given to all, during 
which salvation is possible to them, and that God hath 
actually given a measure of saving grace and light unto all, 
preached the gospel to and in them, and placed the word 
of faith in their hearts, the matter of this proposition may 
seem to be proved. Yet shall I a little, for the farther satis- 
faction of all who desire to know the truth, and hold it as 
it is in Jesus, prove this from two or three clear scripture 
testimonies, and remove the most common as well as the 
more strong objections usually brought against it. 

Our theme then hath two parts ; First, That those that i Part, 
have the gospel and Christ outwardly preached unto them, 
are not saved but by the working of the grace and light in 
their hearts. 

Secondly, That by the working and operation of this, 2 Part, 
many have been, and some may be saved, to whom the 
gospel hath never been outwardly preached, and who are 
utterly ignorant of the outward history of Christ. 

As to the first, though it be granted by most, yet because 1 Pan 
it is more in words than deeds, the more full discussing of ^™^^ * 
which will occur in the next proposition concerning justi- 
fication, I shall prove it in few words. And first from the 
words of Christ to Nicodemus, John iii. 3, " Verily, verily 
I say unto thee, except a man be born again, he cannot 
see the kingdom of God." Now this birth cometh not by The new 
the outward preaching of the gospel, or knowledge of peneratio^' 
Christ, or historical faith in him ; seeing many have that, cometh not 
and firmly believe it, who are never thus renewed. The ward know- 
apostle Paul also goes so far, while he commends the ne- ^u^*^,".* 
cessity and excellency of this new creation, as in a certain 
respect to lay aside the outward knowledge of Christ, or 
the knowledge of him after the flesh, in these words, 2 Cor. 
V. 16, 17, " Wherefore henceforth know we no man after 
15 w 


the flesh ; yea, though we have known Christ after the 
flesh, yet now henceforth know we him no more. There- 
fore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature ; old 
things are passed away, behold all things are become 
new." Whence it manifestly appears, that he makes the 
knowledge of Christ after the flesh but as it were the rudi- 
ments which young children learn, which after they are 
become better scholars, are of less use to them, because 
they have and possess the very substance of those first pre- 
cepts in their minds. As all comparisons halt in some 
part, so shall I not affirm this to hold in every respect ; yet 
so far will this hold, that as those that go no farther than 
the rudiments are never to be accounted learned, and as 
they grow beyond these things, so they have less use of 
them, even so such as go no farther than the outward 
knowledge of Christ shall never inherit the kingdom of 
heaven. But such as come to know this new birth, to be 
in Christ indeed, to be a new creature, to have " old things 
passed away, and all things become new," may safely say 
with the apostle, " Though we have known Christ after the 
but by the flesh, yet now henceforth know we him no more." Now 
h^ht and ^^^^ '^^^^^ creature proceeds from the work of this light and 
grace in the grace in the heart : it is that word which we speak of, that 
is sharp and piercing, that implanted word, able to save 
the soul, by which this birth is begotten ; and therefore 
Christ has purchased unto us this holy seed, that thereby 
this birth might be brought forth in us, which is therefore 
also called "the manifestation of the Spirit, given to every 
one to profit withal ;" for it is written, that <■<■ by one Spirit 
we are all baptized into one body." And the apostle Peter 
also ascribeth this birth to the seed and word of God, 
which we have so much declared of, saying, 1 Pet. i. 23, 
" Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incor- 
ruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth for 
ever." Though then this seed be small in its appearance, 
so that Christ compares it to a " grain of mustard-seed, 
which is the least of all seeds," Matth. xiii. 31, 32, and 
that it be hid in the earthly part of man's heart ; yet therein 


is life and salvation towards the sons of men wrapped up, 
which comes to be revealed as they give way to it. And 
m this seed in the hearts of all men is the kingdom of God, The kin^- 
as in a capacity to be produced, or rather exhibited, ac- is in the 
cordino- as it receives depth, is nourished, and not choked: f^^^^^ ^}^^ 

c _ _ ^ ' _ ' _ hearts oi all 

hence Christ saith, that the kingdom of God was in the men. 
very Pharisees, Luke xvii. 20, 21, who did oppose and 
resist hira, and were justly accounted as serpents, and a 
generation of vipers. Now the kingdom of God could be 
no otherways in them than in a seed, even as the thirty- 
fold and the hundred-fold is wrapt up in a small seed, lying 
in a barren ground, which springs not forth because it 
wants nourishment : and as the whole body of a great tree 
is wrapped up potentially in the seed of the tree, and so is 
brought forth in due season; and as the capacity of a man 
or woman is not only in a child, but even in the very em- 
bryo, even so the kingdom of Jesus Christ, yea Jesus 
Christ himself, Christ within, who is the hope of glory, and 
becometh wisdom, righteousness, sanctification and re- 
demption, is in every man's and woman's heart, in that 
little incorruptible seed, ready to be brought forth, as it is 
cherished and received in the love of it. For there can be 
no men worse than those rebellious and unbelieving Pha- 
risees were ; and yet this kingdom was thus within them, 
and they were directed to look for it there : so it is neither 
lo here, nor lo there, in this or the other observation, that 
this is known, but as this seed of God in the heart is 
minded and entertained. And certainly hence it is, even 
because this light, seed, and grace that appears in the heart 
of man is so little regarded, and so much overlooked, that 
so few know Christ brought forth in them. The one sort, Calvinists, 
to wit, the Calvinists, they look upon grace as an irresist- Arminmns 
ible power, and therefore neglect and despise this eternal ^"^, Socmi- 

, „ . , . . . ™ . 'ins errors 

seed of the kingdom in their hearts, as a low, insufficient, denying thfi 
useless thing as to their salvation. On the other hand, the saving!* 
Papists, Arminians, and Socinians, they go about to set 
up their natural power and will with one consent, denying 
that this little seed, this small appearance of the light, is 


that supernatural saving grace of God given to every man 

to save him. And so upon them is verified that saying of 

the Lord Jesus Christ, " This is the condemnation of the 

world, that light is come into the world, but men love 

darkness rather than light ;" the reason is added, " because 

their deeds are evil." All confess they feel this ; but they 

will not have it to be of that virtue. Some will have it to 

be reason ; some a natural conscience ; some, certain relics 

of God's image that remained in Adam. So that Christ, 

as he met with opposition from all kinds of professors in 

his outward appearance, doth now also in his inward. It 

The mean- was the meanncss of his outward man that made many 

cThris^'sap. ^^spisc him. Saying, " Is not this the son of the carpenter .-' 

pearancein Are not his brethren and sisters amons: us? Is not this a 
the flesh. . ' 

Galilean ? And came there ever a prophet out of Galilee?" 
And such like reasonings. For they expected an outward 
deliverer, who as a prince, should deliver them with great 
ease from their enemies, and not such a Messiah as should 
be crucified shamefully, and as it were lead them into 
many sorrows, troubles, and afflictions. So the meanness 
of this appearance makes the crafty Jesuits, the pretended 
rational Socinians, and the learned Arminians overlook it; 
desiring rather something that they might exercise their 
subtilty, reason, and learning about, and use the liberty of 
their own wills. And the secure Calvinists, they would 
have a Christ to save them without any trouble ; to destroy 
all their enemies for them without them, and nothing or 
little within, and in the mean while to be at ease to live in 
their sins secure. Whence, when all is well examined, the 
The nature causc IS plain; it is "because their deeds are evil," tha^. 
^ '°' ■ with one consent they reject this light: for it checks the 
wisest of them all, and the learnedest of them all in secret ; 
it reproves them ; neither can all their logic silence it, nor 
can the securest among them stop its voice from crying, 
and reproving them within, for all their confidence in the 
outward knowledge of Christ, or of what he hath suffered 
outwardly for them. For, as hath been often said, <' in a 
day it strives with all, wrestles with all ;" and it is the un- 


raortified nature, the first nature, the old Adam, yet alive 
in the wisest, in the learnedest, in the most zealous for the 
outward knowledge of Christ, that denies this, that despises 
it, that shuts it out, to their own condemnation. They 
come all under this description, " Every one that doth evil, 
hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds 
should be reproved," John iii. 20. So that it may be said 
now, and we can say from a true and certain experience, 
as it was of old. Psalm cxviii. 22 ; Mat. xxi. 42 ; Mark 
xii. 10; Luke xx. 17; Acts iv. 11, The stone which 
the builders of all kinds have rejected, the same is become 
unto us the head of the corner. Glory to God for ever! 
who hath chosen us as first fruits to himself in this day, 
wherein he is arisen to plead with the nations ; and there- 
fore hath sent us forth to preach this everlasting gospel unto 
all, Christ nigh to all, the light in all, the seed sown in the 
hearts of all, that men may come and apply their minds to 
it. And we rejoice that we have been made to lay down 
our wisdom and learning, such of us as have had some of 
it, and our carnal reasoning, to learn of Jesus ; and sit 
down at the feet of Jesus in our hearts, and hear him, who 
there makes all things manifest, and reproves all things by 
his light, Eph. v. 13. For many are wise and learned in The wise 
the notion, in the letter of the scripture, as the Pharisees f" the^no-^ 
were, and can speak much of Christ, and plead strongly ^'o"' cnici- 
against Infidels, Turks, and Jews, and it may be also Christ. 
against some heresies, who, in the mean time, are cruci- 
fying Christ in the small appearance of his seed in their 
hearts. Oh ! better were it to be stripped and naked of 
all, to account it as dross and dung, and become a fool 
for Christ's sake, thus knowing him to teach thee in thy 
heart, so as thou mayest witness him raised there, feel the 
virtue of his cross there, and say with the apostle, "I glory 
in nothing, save in the cross of Christ, whereby I am cru- 
cified to the world, and the world unto me." This is bet- 
ter than to write thousands of commentaries, and to preach 
many sermons. And it is thus to preach Christ, and direct 
people to his pure light in the heart, that God hath raised 


None are US up, and for which the wise men of this world account 
the know- us fools ; because by the operation of this cross of Christ 
hismry'im! "^ °"'' ^'6^'"^^) ^^'^ have denied our own wisdom and wills 
by the in muny things, and have forsaken the vain worships, 
oiihe Uglu fashions, and customs of this world. For these divers cen- 
Uie^mys-^ '" ^"^''^^ ^^^^ world hath been full of a dry, fruitless, and 
tery. barren knowledge of Christ, feeding upon the husk, and 

neglecting the kernel ; following after the shadow, but 
strangers to the substance. Hence the devil matters not 
how much of that knowledge abounds, provided he can 
but possess the heart, and rule in the will, crucify the ap- 
pearance of Christ there, and so keep the seed of the king- 
Conten- dom from taking root. For he has led them abroad, lo 
outward here, and lo there, and has made them wrestle in a false 

ohserva- 2eal SO much one against another, contendin": for this out- 

tions and , '=' ' o _ 

Lo heres. ward observation, and for the other outward observation, 
seeking Christ in this and the other external thing, as in 
bread and wine ; contending one with another how he is 
there, while some will have him to be present therein this 
way, and some the other way ; and some in scriptures, in 
books, in societies, and pilgrimages, and merits. But 
some, confiding in an external barren faith, think all is 
well, if they do but firmly believe that he died for their 
sins past, present, and to come ; while in the mean time 
Christ lies crucified and slain, and is daily resisted and 
The call of gainsayed in his appearance in their hearts. Thus, from a 
blhided Sense of this blindness and ignorance that is come over 
Christen- Christendom, it is that we are led and moved of the Lord 
so constantly and frequently to call all, invite all, request 
all, to turn to the light in them, to mind the light in them, 
to believe in Christ, as he is in them : and that in the 
name, power, and authority of the Lord, not in school- 
arguments and distinctions, for which many of tlie wise 
men of this world account us fools and mad men, we do 
charge and command them to lay aside their wisdom, to 
come down out of that proud, airy, brain-knowledge, and 
to stop that mouth, how eloquent soever to the worldly 
ear it may appear, and to be silent, and sit down as in the 



dus*^^, and to mind the light of Christ in their own con- 
sciences ; which, if minded, they would find as a sharp 
two-edged sword in their hearts, and as a fire and a hammer, 
that would knock against and burn up all that carnal, 
gathered, natural stufl", and make the stoutest of them all 
tremble, and become Quakers indeed ; which those that 
come not to feel now, and kiss not the Son while the day 
lasteth, but harden their hearts, will feel to be a certain 
truth when it is too late. To conclude, as saith the apostle, 
All ought to examine themselves, whether they be in the 
faith indeed ; and try their owaiselves : for except Jesus 
Christ be in them, they are certainly reprobates. 2 Cor. 
xiii. 5. 

§ XXV. Secondly, That which remains now to be proved 2 Part 
is. That by the operation of this light and seed some have That many 
been and may yet be saved, to whom the gospel is not out- ^ythe hght 

J J _ ' o t niay be 

wardly preached, nor the history of Christ outwardly known, saved, that 
To make this the easier, we have already shown how that the out- 
Christ hath died. for all men; and consequently these are ^^'"'^ , , 

' . . knowledge 

enlightened by Christ, and have a measure of saving light ol Christ. 
and grace ; yea, that the gospel, though not in any out- 
ward dispensation, is preached to them, and in them: so 
that thereby they are stated in a possibility of salvation. 
From which I may thus argue : 

To whom the gospel, the power of God unto salvation, Aro. 
is manifest, they may be saved, whatever outward know- 
ledge they want : 

But this gospel is preached in every creature ; in which 
is certainly comprehended many that have not the outward 
knowledge : 

Therefore of those many may be saved. 

But to those arguments, by which it hath been proved, 
That all men have a measure of saving grace, I shall add 
one, and that very observable, not yet mentioned, viz., that 
excellent saying of the apostle Paul to Titus, chap, ii., ver. 
11," The grace of God, that brings salvation, hath appear- 
ed to all men; teaching us, that denying ungodliness and 
worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and 



godly, in this present world :" than which there can oe no- 
thing more clear, it comprehending both the parts of the 
controversy. First, It testifies tliat it is no natural principle 
or light, but saith plainly. It brings salvation. Secondly, 
It says not, that it hath appeared to a few, but unto all 
men. The fruit of it declares also how efficacious it is, 
The saving Seeing it comprehends the whole duty of man : it both 
^mrteach- teacheth us, first, to forsake evil, to deny ungodliness and 

eth the worldly lusts ; and then it teacheth us our whole duty. 
whoiB duty J * J 

of man. First, to live soberly; that comprehends temperance, chas- 
tity, meekness, and those things that relate unto a man's 
self. Secondly, righteously ; that comprehends equity, 
justice, and honesty, and those things which relate to our 
neighbours. And lastly, godly ; which comprehends piety, 
faithfulness, and devotion, which are the duties relating to 
God. So then there is nothing required of man, or is need- 
ful to man, which this grace teacheth not. Yet I have heard 
a public preacher (one of those that are accounted zealous 
men) to evite the strength of this text, deny this grace to 
be saving, and say. It was only intended of common favours 
and graces, such as is the heat of the fire, and outward light 
of the sun. Such is the darkness and ignorance of those 
that oppose the truth ; whereas the text saith expressly, that 
The absur- it is saving. Others, that cannot deny but it is saving, allege, 
adversa-"'^ This all comprehends not every individual, but only all 

ries' com- kinds : but is a bare negation sufficient to overturn the 
mentupon , /. • • ■ ■, rr ^ ■ i 

the word Strength of a positive assertion ? It the scriptures may be 

grace "o'bf SO abuscd, what so absurd, as may not be pleaded for from 

saving, them ? or what so manifest, as may not be denied ? But 
Tit. ii. 2, 11. ^ J 

we have no reason to be staggered by their denying, so 

long as our faith is found in express terras of the scripture ; 

they may as w'ell seek to persuade us, that we do not intend 

that which we affirm, though we know the contrary, as 

make us believe, that when the apostle speaks forth our 

doctrine in plain words, yet he intends theirs, which is 

quite the contrary. And indeed, can there be any thing 

more absurd, than to say, where the word is plainly all, 

Jew is only intended ^ For they will not have all taken 


heie for the greater number. Indeed, as the case may be 
sometimes, by a figure all may be taken, of two numbers, 
for the greater number ; but let them show us, if they can, 
either in scripture, or profane or ecclesiastical writings, 
that any man that wrote sense did ever use the word all 
to express, of two numbers, the lesser. Whereas they 
affirm, that the far lesser number have received saving 
grace ; and yet will they have the apostle, by all^ to have 
signified so. Though this might suffice, yet, to put it fur- 
ther beyond all question, I shall instance another saying of 
the same apostle, that we may use him as his own com- 
mentator, Rom. V. 18: "Therefore as by the offence of 
one, judgment came upon all men to condemnation, even 
so by the righteousr\,ess of one, the free gift came upon all 
men unto justification of life." Here no man of reason, 
except he will be obstinately ignorant, will deny, but this 
similitive particle as makes the all which goes before, 
and comes after, to be of one and the same extent ; or else 
ict them show one example, either in scripture or else- 
where, among men that speak proper language, where it is 
otherwise. We must then either affirm that this loss, which 
leads to condemnation, hath not come upon all ; or say, 
that this free gift is come upon all by Christ. Whence I 
thus argue : 

If all men have received a loss from Adam, which leads Aro. 
to condemnation ; then all men have received a gift from 
Christ, which leads to justification : 

But the first is true ; therefore also the last. 

From all which it naturally follows, that all men, even Even tha 
the heathen, may be saved : for Christ was given as a niay be 
" light to enlighten the Gentiles," Isai. xlix. 6. Now, to say ^Hg^jf^^f 
that though they might have been saved, yet none were, is 
to judge too uncharitably. I see not what reason can be 
alleged for it ; yea, though it were granted, which never 
can be, that none of the heathen were saved ; it will not 
from thence follow, that they could not have been saved ; 
or that none now in their condition can be saved. For, 
A non esse ad non posse non datur sequela , i. e., That con- 



sequence is false, that concludes a thing cannot be, because 

it is not. 
Object. But if it be objected, which is the great objection, That 

there is no name under heaven, by which salvation is 

known, but by the name Jksus : 

Therefore they (not knowing this) cannot be saved : 
Answ. I answer ; Though they know it not outwardly, yet if 

they know it inwardly, by feeling the virtue and power of 
Tlie literal it, the name Jesus indeed, which signifies a Saviour, to 
of Chrisfis ^■''^^ them from sin and iniquity in their hearts, they are 
not saving, saved bv it : I confess there is no other name to be saved 

but the real , , • ,• , • , i- i , • i 

experimen- by : but salvation lieth not in the nteral, but in tlie experi- 
mental know-ledge ; albeit, those that have the literal know- 
ledge are not saved by it, without this real experimental 
knowledge : yet those that have the real knowledge may 
be saved without the external ; as by the arguments here- 
after brought will more appear. For if the outward distinct 
knowledge of him, by whose means I receive benefit, were 
necessary for me before I could reap any fruit of it ; then, 
by the rule of contraries, it would follow, that I could re- 
ceive no hurt, without I had also the distinct knowledge 
of him that occasioned it ; whereas experience proves the 
contrary. How many are injured by Adam's fall, that 
know nothing of there ever being such a man in the world, 
or of his eating the forbidden fruit ? Why may they not 
then be saved by the gift and grace of Christ in them, 
making them righteous and holy, though they know not 
distinctly how that was purchased unto them by the death 
and sufferings of Jesus that was crucified at Jerusalem ; 
especially seeing God hath made that knowledge simply 
impossible to them ? As many men are killed by poison 
infused into their meat, though they neither know what the 
poison was, nor who infused it ; so also on the other hand, 
how many are cured of their diseases by good remedies, 
who know not how the medicine is prepared, what the 
ingredients are, nor oftentimes who made it.-* The like 
may also hold in spiritual things, as we shall hereafter 


§ XXVI. First, If there were such an absolute necessity The out- 
for this outward knowledge, that it were even of the es- i^dU not^ 
sentials of salvation, then none could be saved without it ; es^fentiai to 

1 1-1 1 Ti ^ 1 salvation: 

whereas our adversaries deny not, but readily coniess, that instance in 
many infants and deaf persons are saved without it: so dea"per- 
that here they break that general rule, and make salvation so"s. 
possible without it. Neither can they allege, that it is be- 
cause such are free from sin ; seeing they also affirm, that 
all infants, because of Adam's sin, deserve eternal condem- 
nation, as being really guilty in the sight of God ; and of 
deaf people, it is not to be doubted, and experience shows 
us, that they are subject to many common iniquities, as well 
as other men. 

If it be said. That these children are the children of be- Obj. i. 
lieving parents : 

What then ? They will not say that they transmit grace Answ. 
to their children. Do they not affirm, that the children of 
believing parents are guilty of original sin, and deserve 
death as well as others ? How prove they that that makes 
up the loss of all explicit knowledge ? 

If they say. Deaf people may be made sensible of the Obj. 2. 
gospel by signs : 

All the signs cannot give them any explicit knowledge Answ, 
of the history of the death, sufferings, and resurrection of 
Christ. For what signs can inform a deaf man. That the 
Son of God took on him man's nature, was born of a vir- 
gin, and suffered under Pontius Pilate? 

And if they should further allege, That they are within Obj. 3, 
the bosom of the visible church, and partakers of the sa- 
craments : 

All that gives no certainty of salvation ; for, as the Pro- Answ. 
testants confess, they confer not grace ex opere operato. 
And will they not acknowledge, that many are in the bosom 
of the church, who are visibly no members of it ? But if 
this charity be extended towards such who are where the 
gospel is preached, so that they may be judged capable of 
salvation, because they are under a simple impossibility of 
distinctly knowing the means of salvation ; what reason 



A Chinese 
or Indian 
for not 
the hi^^to^y 
ofthe death 
of Christ, 

Ans. 2. 

God re- 
garded the 
prayera of 
stranger to 
the law. 

can be alleged why the like charity may not be had to such, 
as though they can hear, yet are under a simple impossibi- 
lity of hearing, because it is not spoken unto them ? Is not 
a man in China, or in India, as much to be excused lor 
not knowing a thing which he never heard of, as a deaf 
man here, who cannot hear ? For as the deaf man is not 
to be blamed, because God hath been pleased to suffer him 
to lie under this infirmity ; so is the Chinese or the Indian 
as excusable, because God hath withheld from him the op- 
portunity of hearing. He that cannot hear a thing, as being 
necessarily absent, and he that cannot hear it, as being na- 
turally deaf, are to be placed in the same category. 

Secondly, This manifestly appears by that saying of 
Peter, Acts x. 34 : " Of a truth I perceive that God is no 
respecter of persons ; but in every nation, he that feareth 
him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted of him." Peter 
was before liable to that mistake that the rest of the Jews 
were in ; judging that all were upclean, except themselves, 
and that no man could be saved, except they were prose- 
lyted to their religion and circumcised. But God showec 
Peter otherways in a vision, and taught him to call nothing 
common or unclean ; and therefore, seeing that God re- 
garded the prayers of Cornelius, who was a stranger to the 
law and to Jesus Christ as to the outward, yet Peter saw 
that God had accepted him ; and he is said to fear God 
before he had this outward knowledge : therefore Peter 
concludes that every one in every nation, without respect 
of persons, that feareth God and worketh righteousness, is 
accepted of him. So he makes the fear of God and the 
working of righteousness, and not an outward historical 
knowledge, the qualification : they then that have ihis, 
wherever they be, they are saved. Now we have already 
proved, that to every man that grace is given, whereby he 
may live godly and righteously : and we see, that by this 
grace Cornelius did so and was accepted, and his prayers 
came up for a memorial before God, before he had this out- 
ward knowledge. Also, Was not Job a perfect and up- 
right man, that feared God, and eschewed evil .' Who 


taught Job this ? How knew Job Adam's fall ? And from 
what scripture learned he that excellent knowledge he had, From what 
and that faith, by which he knew his Redeemer lived ? ^'id Job^ 
For many make him as old as Moses. Was not this by learn his 
an inward grace in the heart? Was it not that inward knowledge? 
grace that taught Job to eschew evil, and to fear Go.d ? 
And was it not by the workings thereof that he became a 
just and upright man? How doth he reprove the wicked- 
ness of men, chap, xxiv, ? And after he hath numbered 
up their wickedness, doth he not condemn them, verse 13, 
for rebelling against this light, for not knowing the way 
thereof, nor abiding in the paths thereof? It appears then 
Job believed that men had a light, and that because they 
rebelled against it, therefore they knew not its ways, and 
abode not in its paths ; even as the Pharisees, who had the 
scriptures, are said to err, not knowing the scriptures. And 
also Job's friends, though in some things wrong; yet who Job's 
taught them all those excellent sayings and knowledge ,i,gjr excel- 
which they had? Did not God ofive it them, in order to lent say- 

•> _ 'J ' ings. 

save them ? or was it merely to condemn them ? Who 
taught Elihu, That << the inspiration of the Almighty giveth 
understanding; that the Spirit of God made him, and the 
breath of the Almighty gave him life ?" And did not the 
Lord accept a sacrifice for them ? And who dare say that 
they are damned ? But further, the apostle puts this con- 
troversy out of doubt ; for, if we may believe his plain 
assertions, he tells us, Rom. ii., "That the heathen did 
the things contained in the law." From whence I thus 
argue : 

In every nation, he that feareth God, and worketh right- Aru. 
eousness, is accepted : 

But many of the heathen feared God, and wrought 
righteousness : 

Therefore they were accepted. 

The minor is proved from the example of Cornelius ; but 
I shall further prove it thus ; 

He that doth the things contained in the law, feareth 
God, and worketh righteousness ^ 


But the heathen did the things contained in the law : 
Therefore they feared God, and wrought righteousness. 
Can there be any thinjj more clear ? For if to do the 
things contained in the law, be not to fear God, and work 
righteousness, then what can be said to do so, seeing the 
apostle calls the law spiritual, holy, just, and good? But 
this appears manifestly by another medium, taken out of 
the same chapter, verse 13; so that nothing can be more 
clear : the words are, << The doers of the law shall be jus- 
tified." From which I thus argue, without adding any 
word of my own ; 
Ars. The doers of the law shall be justified : 

But the Gentiles do the things contained in the law : 
The Gen- All, that know but a conclusion, do easily see what fol- 
fiecfdofnty* lows from these express words of the apostle. And indeed, 
the law. jjg through that whole chapter labours, as if he were con- 
tending now with our adversaries, to confirm this doctrine, 
verses 9, 10, 11, "Tribulation and anguish upon every 
soul of man that doth evil, to the Jew first, and also to the 
Gentile : for there is no respect of persons with God." 
Where the apostle clearly homologates, or confesses to the 
sentence of Peter before mentioned ; and shows that Jew 
and Gentile, or as he himself explains in the following 
verses, both they that have an outward law and they that 
have none, when they do good shall be justified. .And to 
put us out of all doubt, in the very following verses he tells. 
That " the doers of the law are justified ;" and that the 
" Gentiles did the law." So that except we think he spake 
not what he intended, we may safely conclude, that such 
Gentiles were justified, and did partake of that honour, 
glory, and peace, which comes upon every one that doth 
good ; even the Gentiles, that are without the law, when 
they work good ; seeing with God there is no respect of 
persons. So as we see, that it is not the having the out- 
ward knowledge that doth save, without the inward ; so 
neither doth the want of it, to such to whom God hath 
made it impossible, who have the inward, bring condem- 
nation. And many that have wanted the outward, have 


nad a knowledge of this inwardly, by virtue of that inward 

grace and light given to every man, working in thera, by 

which they forsook iniquity, and became just and holy, as 

is above proved ; who, though they knew not the history 

of Adam's fall, yet were sensible in themselves of the loss Many 

that came by it, feeling their inclinations to sin, and the history^* ^*^ 

body of sin in them : and though they knew not the coming ^;ere sensi- 

•' _ . . '^ ble of the 

of Christ, yet were sensible of that inward power and sal- loss by 
vation which came by him, even before as well as since s^ivanmi 
his appearance in the flesh. For I question whether these <7nie by 
men can prove, that all the patriarchs and fathers before them- 
Moses had a distinct knowledge either of the one or the ^^'^^®- 
other, or that they knew the history of the tree of know- 
ledge of good and evil, and of Adam's eating the forbidden 
fruit ; far less that Christ should be born of a virgin, should 
be crucified, and treated in the manner he was. For it is 
justly to be believed, that what Moses wrote of Adam, and 
of the first times, was not by tradition, but by revelation ; 
yea, we see that not only after the writing of Moses, but 
even of David and all the prophets, who prophesied so 
much of Christ, how little the Jews, that were expecting How little 
and wishing for the Messiah, could thereby discern him j.'|fg^^^^ 
when he came, that they crucified him as a blasphemer, Christ, 

Ti/T • 1 1 • 1 • 1 1 • • mistaking 

not as a Messiah, by mistaking the prophecies concerning the pro- 
him ; for Peter saith expressly. Acts iii. 17, to the Jews, p'^*^'^- 
That both they and their rulers did it through ignorance. 
And Paul saith, 1 Cor. ii. 8, " That had they known it, 
they would not have crucified the Lord of Glory." Yea, 
Mary herself, to whom the angel had spoken, and who had 
laid up all the miraculous things accompanying his birth 
in her heart, she did not understand how, when he dis- 
puted with the doctors in the temple, that he was about his 
father's business. And the apostles that had believed him, 
conversed daily with him, and saw his miracles, could not 
understand, neither believe those things which related to 
his death, sufferings, and resurrection, but were in a certain 
respect stumbled at them. 

§ XXVII. So we see how that it is the inward work, 


and not the outward history and scripture, that gives the 

true knowledge ; and by this inward light many of the 

'I'lio he:i- heatiien philosophers were sensible of the loss received by 

sensibirof Adam, though they knew not the outward history : hence 

the loss ro- Plato asserted, That "man's soul was fallen into a dark 

ceived bv , . , i • i i i n t> i 

Adam. ' cave, where it only conversed with shadows. rytiiagoras 
saith, " Man wandereth in this world as a stranger, banished 
Huatlieii from the presence of God." And Plotinus compareth 
phers''di- " im^n's soul, fallen from God, to a cinder, or dead coal, 
vine know- ^^^ of which the fire is extinguished." Some of them said, 

ledge. ° . ' 

Plato. That "the wings of the soul were clipped or fallen off, so 
pfo'tin" that they could not flee unto God." All which, and many 
more such expressions, that might be gathered out of their 
writings, show, that they were not without a sense of this 
loss. Also they had a knowledge and discovery of Jesus 
Christ inwardly, as a remedy in them, to deliver them from 
that evil seed, and the evil inclinations of their own hearts, 
though not under that particular denomination. 

Some called him a Holy Spirit, as Seneca, Epist. 41, 

who said, " There is a Holy Spirit in us, that treateth us 

Cicero calls as we treat him." Cicero calleth it an " innate light," in 

light. his book De Republica, cited by Lactantius, 6 Inst., where 

Lactan. m ^^ ggj|g ^^j^jg u rioht reason, piven unto all, constant and 

Soot. t5 ? fc> ? 

eternal, calling unto duty by commanding, and deterring 
from deceit by forbidding." Adding, "That it cannot be 
abrogated, neither can any be freed from it, neither by 
senate nor people ; that it is one eternal, and the same al- 
ways to all nations ; so that there is not one at Rome, and 
another at Athens : Whoso obeys it not, must llee from 
himself, and in this is greatly tormented, although he should 
escape all other punishments." Plotinus also calls him 
light, saying. That " as the sun cannot be known but by 
its own light, so God cannot be known but with his own 
light: and as the eye cannot see the sun but by receiving 
its image, so man cannot know God but by receiving his 
image ; and that it behoveth man to come to purity of 
heart before he could know God ;" calling him also Wis- 
dom, a name frequently given him in scripture ; see Prov. 


i. 20, to the end ; and Prov. viii. 9, 34, where Wisdom is 
said to cry, entreat, and invite all to come unto her, and 
learn of her : and what is this Wisdom but Christ ? Hence 
such as came among the heathen, to forsake evil, and 
cleave to righteousness, were called philosophers, that is, Philoso- 
lovers of wisdom. They knew this wisdom was nigh unto wlience so 
them, and that "the best knowledge of God, and divine called? 
•nysteries, was by the inspiration of the wisdom of God." 
Phocylides affirmed, that "the word of the wisdom of Phocylides. 
God was best." His words in the Greek are, T^jg (5s 
©so'ffvsug'rjg aoipiag \!)yoc. tV'v li^ig'oc:. 

And much more of this kind might be instanced, by 
which it appears they knew Christ ; and by his working in 
them were brought from unrighteousness to righteousness, 
and to love that power by which they felt themselves re- 
deemed ; so that, as saith the apostle, " They show the 
work of the law written in their hearts, and did the things 
contained in the law ;" and therefore, as all doers of the 
law are, w^ere no doubt justified, and saved thus by the 
power of Christ in them. And as this was the judgment 
of the apostle, so was it of the primitive Christians. Hence 
Justin Martyr stuck not to call Socrates a Christian, saying, Socrates a 
that "all such as lived according to the divine word in &,c. ' 
them, which was in all men, were Christians, such as So- 
crates and Heraclitus, and others among the Greeks," &c. 
"That such as live with the word, are Christians without 
fear or anxiety." 

Clemens Alexandrinus saith, Apol. ii., Strom, lib. i,, Clem. Alex. 
That " this wisdom or philosophy was necessary to the 
Gentiles, and was their schoolmaster to lead them unto 
Christ, by which of old the Greeks were justified." 

" Nor do I think," saith Augustine, in his book of the Augustin. 
City of God, lib. xviii., cap. 47, " that the Jews dare affirm 
that none belonged unto God but the Israelites." Upon 
which place Ludovicus Vives saith. That " thus the Gen- Lud. Vives. 
tiles, not having a law, were a law unto themselves ; and 
the light of so living is the gift of God, and proceeds from 
16* Y 


the Son ; of whom it is written, that he ' enlighteneth ever)i 

man that cometh into tlie world.' " 
Tlic Plato- Augustine also testifies in iiis confessions, lib. i., cap. 9, 
"hu wo1-d in 1'^^^^ " he had read in the writings of the Platonists, though 
tlif ijegin- fiQt ifi iIjj. yg,.y same words, yet that which by many and 

mug; wliicli . '' . ' •' . ... 

was light, multiplied reasons did persuade, that ' in the beginning was 
the word, and the word was with God ; this was In the 
beginning with God, by which all things were made, and 
without which notliing was made tliat was made : in him 
was life, and the life was the light of men : and the light 
shined in the darkness, and the darkness did not compre- 
hend it.' And, albeit the soul gives testimony concerning 
the light, yet it is not the light, but the word of God ; for 
' God is the true Light, which enlighteneth every man that 
Cometh into the world ;' " and so repeats to verse 14, of 
John i., adding, " These things have I there read." 

Yea, there is a book translated out of the Arabic, which 
Hai Eben gives an account of one Hai Eben Yokdan ; who living in 
an island alone, without converse or man, attained to such 
a profound knowledge of God, as to have immediate con- 
verse with him, and to affirm, " That the best and most 
certain knowledge of God is not that which is attained by 
The su- premises premised, and conclusions deduced ; but that 
teTlec;*t en- which is enjoyed by conjunction of the mind of man with 
joyed bythe (i^g supreme intellect, after the mind is purified from its 

mind ot '. . ' ^ , , 

man. corruptions, and is separated from all bodily images, and 

is gathered into a profound stillness." 

§ XXVIII. Seeing then it is by this inward gift, grace, 
and light, that both those that have the gospel preached 
unto them, come to have Jesus brought forth in them, and 
to have the saving and sanctified use of all outward helps 
and advantages ; and also by this same light, that all may 
come to be saved ; and that God calls, invites, and strives 
with all, in a day, and saveth many, to whom he hath not 
The day of seen meet to convey this outward knowledge ; therefore 
proclaimed, '^^e, having the experience of the inward and powerful 
work of this light in our hearts, even Jesus revealed in us, 
cannot cease to proclaim the day of the Lord that is arisen 


in it, crying out with the woman of Samaria ; " Come and 
see one that hath told me all that ever I have done ; Is not 
this the Christ ?" That others may come and feel the same 
in themselves, and may know, that that little small thing 
that reproves them in their hearts, however they have 
despised and neglected it, is nothing less than the gospel 
preached in them ; Christ, the wisdom and power of God, 
being in and by that seed seeking to save their souls. 

Of this light therefore Augustine speaks in his confes- 
sions, lib. xi., cap. 9: "In this beginning, God! thou 
madest the heavens and the earth, in thy word, in thy Son, Augustine 
in thy virtue, in thy wisdom, wonderfully saying, and [h^e"in-shin- 
wonderfully doing. Who shall comprehend it ? Who ings of the 

1111 1 • ^ TTTi -1 I'll- 1 • light unto 

shall declare it.-* What is that which shineth in unto me, him, and 
and smites my heart without hurt, at which I both tremble, "^"y • 
and am inflamed ? I tremble, in so far as I am unlike unto 
it ; and I am inflamed in so far as I am like unto it : it is 
wisdom, wisdom which shineth in unto me, and dispelleth 
my cloud, which had again covered me, after I was de- 
parted from it, with darkness and the heap of my punish- 
ments." And again he saith, lib. x., cap. 27, " It is too 
late that I have loved thee, thou beautifulness, so ancient 
and so new ! late have I loved thee, and behold thou wast 
within, and I was without, and there was seeking thee ! 
thou didst call, thou didst cry, thou didst break my deaf- 
ness, thou glancedst, thou didst shine, thou chasedst away 
my darkness." 

Of this also our countryman George Buchanan speaketh Buchanan 
thus in his book, De Jure regni apud Scotos : " Truly I {f^g fc"^*** 
understand no other thing at present than that light which 
is divinely infused into our souls: for when God formed 
man, he not only gave him eyes to his body, by which he 
might shun those things that are hurtful to him, and follow 
those things that are profitable ; but also hath set before 
his mind as it were a certain light, by which he may dis- 
cern things that are vile from things that are honest. 
Some call this power ' nature,' others the ' law of nature ;' 
I truly judge it to be divine, and am persuaded that naturfe 


and wisdom never say diflerent things. Moreover, God 
hath given us a compend of the law, which in few words 
comprehends the wiiole ; to wit, that we should love him 
from our hearts, and our neighbours as ourselves. And of 
this law all the books of the holy scriptures, which pertain 
to the forming of manners, contain no other but an expli- 

This is that universal evangelical principle, in and by 
Jew and which this salvation of Christ is exhibited to all men, both 
Scyihiii'ii Jew and Gentile, Scythian and Barbarian, of whatsoever 
and Burba- country or kindred he be : and therefore God hath raised 

nan par- •' _ 

takers of up unto himself, in this our age, faithful witnesses and 
tion of evangelists to preach again his everlasting gospel, and to 
Christ. direct all, as well the high professors, who boast of the 
law and the scriptures, and the outward knowledge of 
Christ, as the infidels and heathen that know not him that 
way, that they may all come to mind the light in them, 
and know Christ in them, "the just one, rov Aixaiov, whom 
they have so long killed, and made merry over, and he 
hath not resisted," James v. 6, and give up their sins, ini- 
quities, false faith, professions, and outside righteousness, 
to be crucified by the power of his cross in them, so as 
they may know Christ within to be the hope of glory, and 
may come to walk in his light and be saved, who is that 
" true light that enlighteneth every man that cometh into 
the world." 


Concerning Justification. 

As many as resist not this light, but receive the same, it 
becomes in them a holy, pure, and spiritual birth, 
bringing forth holiness, righteousness, purity, and all 
those other blessed fruits which are acceptable to God: 
by which holy birth, to wit, Jesus Christ formed within 
us, and working his works in us, as we are sanctified, 
so are we justified in the sight of God, according to the 
apostle's words ; " But ye are washed, but ye are sane- 


tified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, 
and by the Spirit of our God," 1 Cor. vi. 11. There- 
fore it is not by our works wrought in our will, nor yet 
by good works considered as of themselves ; but by 
Christ, who is both the gift and the giver, and the cause 
producing the efTects in us ; who, as he hath reconciled 
us while we were enemies, doth also in his wisdom save 
us and justify us after this manner, as saith the same 
apostle elsewhere ; " According to his mercy he saved 
us, by the washing of regeneration, and the renewing 
of the Holy Ghost," Tit. iii. 5. 

§ I. The doctrine of justification comes well in order 
after the discussing of the extent of Christ's death, and of 
the grace thereby communicated, some of the sharpest con- 
tests concerning this having from thence their rise. Many 
are the disputes among those called Christians concerning 
this point ; and indeed, if all were truly minding that 
which justifieth, there would be less noise about the no- 
tions of justification. I shall briefly review this controversy 
as it stands among others, and as I have often seriously 
observed it ; then in short state the controversy as to us, 
and open our sense and judgment of it ; and lastly prove 
it, if the Lord will, by some scripture testimonies, and the 
certain experience of all that ever were truly justified. 

§ IL That this doctrine of justification, hath been and Observat. 
is greatly vitiated in the church of Rome, is not by us ^j^^j ^j^j^g. 
questioned ; though our adversaries, who for want of better tification 
arguments do often make lies their refuge, have not spared the church 
in this respect to stigmatize us with popery, but how un- ° °"*®" 
truly will hereafter appear. For to speak little of their 
meritum ex condigno, which was no doubt a very common 
doctrine of the Romish church, especially before Luther, 
though most of their modern writers, especially in their 
controversies with Protestants, do partly deny it, partly 
qualify it, and seem to state the matter only as if they were 
propagators and pleaders for good works by the others 
denied ; yet if we look to the effects of this doctrine among 


them, as they appear in the generality of their church mem- 
bers, not in things disapproved, but highly approved and 
The pope's commended by their father the pope and all his clients, 

doctrine of 

merits, the as the most beneficial casualty of ail his revenue, we shall 
ficial of au' ^^^ ^^^'^^ Luther did not without great ground oppose hira- 
his re- self to them in this matter: and if he had not run himself 


into another extreme, of which hereafter, his work would 
have stood the better. For in this, as in most otiier things, 
he is more to be commended for what he pulled down of 
Babylon, than for what he built of his own. Whatever 
then the Papists may pretend, or even some good men 
among them may have thought, experience showeth, and 
it is more than manifest by the universal and approved 
practice of their people, that they place not their justifica- 
tion so much in works that are truly and morally good, 
and in the being truly renewed and sanctified in the mind, 
as in such things as are either nor good nor evil, or may 
truly be called evil, and can no otherways be reckoned 
Papists' good than because the pope pleases to call them so. So 
(lepends'°" ^^^^^ if the matter be well sifted, it will be found, that the 
upon the greatest part of their justification depends upon the authority 
bulls. of his bulls, and not upon the power, virtue, and grace of 

Christ revealed in the heart, and renewing of it, as will ap- 
Proof I. pear. First, From their principle concerning their sacra- 
crament^s' '^ti'^ts, which they say confer grace ex opere operato. So 
that if a man partake but of them, he thereby obtains 
remission of sin, though he remains as he was ; the virtue 
of the sacraments making up the want that is in the man. 
So that this act of submission and faith to the laws of the 
church, and not any real inward change, is that which 
justifieth him. As for example ; if a man make use of the 
Papists' sacrament, as they call it, of penance, so as to tell over 
penance, j^j^ ^-^^ ^^ ^ priest, though he have not true contrition, 
which the Lord hath made absolutely necessary for peni- 
tent sinners, but only attrition, a figment of their own, that 
is, if he be sorry he hath sinned, not out of any love to 
God, or his law which he hath transgressed, but for fear 
of punishment, yet doth the virtue of the sacrament, as 


they affirm, procure to him remission of sins ; so that being 
absolved by the priest, he stands accepted and justified in 
the sight of God. This man's justification then proceedeth 
not from his being truly penitent, and in any measure in- 
wardly changed and renewed by the working of God's 
grace in his heart, but merely from the virtue of the sacra- 
ment, and authority of the priestj who hath pronounced 
him absolved ; so that his justification is from somewhat 
without him, and not within him. 

Secondly, This will yet more appear in the matter of Proof II. 
indulgences, where remission of all sins, not only past but p,, ; ^ • . 
for years to come, is annexed to the visiting such and such dulgences. 
churches and relics, saying such and such prayers ; so 
that the person that so doth is presently cleared from the 
guilt of his sin, and justified and accepted in the sight of 
God. As for example : he that in the great jubilee will 
go to Rome, and present himself before the gate of Peter 
and Paul, and there receive the pope's blessing ; or he that 
will go a pilgrimage to James's sepulchre in Spain, or to 
Mary of Loretto, is upon the performance of those things 
promised forgiveness of sins. Now if we ask them the 
reason how such things as are not morally good in them- 
selves come to have virtue, they have no other answer 
but " because of the church and pope's authority," who 
being the great treasurer of the magazine of Christ's 
merits, lets them out upon such and such conditions. Thus 
also the invention of saying mass is made a chief instru- Papist 

. mass ' 

ment of justification ; for in it they pretend to offer Christ what 'it is. 
daily to the Father a propitiatory sacrifice for the sins of 
the living and dead : so that a man for money can procure 
Christ thus to be offered for him when he pleases ; by which 
offering he is said to obtain remission of sins, and to stand 
justified in the sight of God. From all which, and much 
more of this nature which might be mentioned, it doth 
appear, that the Papists place their justification, not so 
much in any work of holiness really brought forth in them, 
and real forsaking of iniquity, as in the mere performance 
of some ceremonies, and a blind belief which their teachers 


have begotten in them, that the church and (he pope 
having the absolute dispensation of the merits of Christ, 
have power to make these merits elfectual for the remission 
of sins, and justification of sucli as will f)erform these cere- 
monies. This is the true and real method of justification 
taken by the generality of the churcii of Rome, and highly 
commended by their public preachers, especially the monks, 
in their sermons to the people, of which I myself have been 
an ear and an eye-witness ; however some of their modern 
writers have laboured to qualify it in their controversies. 
Luther and This doctrine Luther and the Protestants then had grood 

1 p o 

testants'op- rt^^^son to deny and oppose ; though many of them ran into 
posing the another extreme, so as to deny o;ood works to be necessary 

pope s doc- . ._ . , . . "^ 

trine of to justification, and to preach up not only remission of 
imothe*^ sins, but justification by faith alone, without all works, 
other ex- however ffood. So that men do not obtain their justifica- 

treine ot no . ° . . . •' 

good works tion according as they are inwardly sanctified and renewed, 
To'jus'tiHca- ^^t ^'"^ justified merely by believing that Christ died for 
tion. them ; and so some may be perfectly justified, though they 

be lying in gross wickedness ; as appears by the example 
of David, who they say was fully and perfectly justified 
while he w'as lying in the gross sins of murder and adult- 
ery. As then the Protestants have sufficient ground to 
quarrel and confute the Papists concerning these many 
abuses in the matter of justification, showing how the doc- 
trine of Christ is thereby vitiated and overturned, and the 
word of God made void by many and useless traditions, 
the law of God neglected, while foolish and needless cere- 
monies are prized and followed, through a false opinion of 
being justified by the performance of them ; and the merits 
and suflerings of Christ, which is the only sacrifice ap- 
pointed of God for remission of sins, derogated from, by 
Papists' de- the Setting up of a daily sacrifice never appointed by God, 
money ^°' ^^^^ chiefly devised out of covetousness to get money by ; 
so the Protestants on the other hand, by not rightly estab- 
lishing and holding forth the doctrine of justification ac- 
cording as it is delivered in the holy scriptures, have opened 
a door for the Papists to accuse them, as if they were 


neglecters of good works, enemies to mortification and holi- 
ness, such as esteem themselves justified while lying in 
great sins : by which kind of accusations, for which too 
great ground hath been given out of the writings of some 
rigid Protestants, the reformation hath been greatly defamed 
and hindered, and the souls of many ensnared. Whereas, 
whoever will narrowly look into the matter, may observe 
these debates to be more in specie than in genere, seeing 
both do upon the matter land in one ; and like two men in 
a circle, who though they go sundry ways, yet meet at last 
in the same centre. 

For the Papists say, "They obtain remission of sins. Papists' be- 
and are justified by the merits of Christ, as the same are i^cadori"^ '" 
applied unto them in the use of the sacraments of the meets in the 

■* -^ . . same centre 

church, and are dispensed in the performance of such and with the— 
such ceremonies, pilgrimages, prayers, and performances, 
though there be not any inward renewing of the mind, nor 
knowing of Christ inwardly formed ; yet they are remitted 
and made righteous ex opere operato, because of the power 
and authority accompanying the sacraments and the dis- 
pensers of them." 

The Protestants say, " That they obtain remission of — Protest- 
sins, and stand justified in the sight of God by virtue of ^'"® behef. 
the merits and sufferings of Christ, not by infusing right- Sosaiththe 
eousness into them, but by pardoning their sins, and by minster 
accounting and accepting their persons as righteous, they Confession 
resting on him and his righteousness by faith ; which faith, chap. xi. 
the act of believing, is not imputed unto them for right- 

So the justification of neither here is placed in any in- 
ward renewing of the mind, or by virtue of any spiritual 
birth, or formation of Christ in them ; but only by a bare 
application of the death and sufferings of Christ outwardly 
performed for them : whereof the one lays hold on a faith 
resting upon them, and hoping to be justified by them 
alone ; the other by the saying of some outward prayers 
and ceremonies, which they judge makes the death of 
Christ effectual unto them. I except here, being unwill- 
17 z 


ing to wrong any, what things have been said as to the ne- 
cessity of inward holiness, either by some modern Papists, 
or some modern Protestants, who in so far as they have 
laboured after a midst betwixt these two extremes have 
come near to the truth, as by some citations out of them 
hereafter to be mentioned will appear: though this doctrine 
hath not since the apostasy, so far as ever I could observe, 
been so distinctly and evidently held forth according to 
the scripture's testimony, as it hath pleased God to reveal 
it and preach it forth in this day, by the witnesses of his 
truth whom he hath raised to that end ; which doctrine, 
though it be briefly held forth and comprehended in the 
State ot iti« thesis itself, yet I shall a little more fully explain, and show 
vers™' the state of the controversy as it stands betwixt us and those 

that now oppose us. 
ExpL. 1. § III. First then, as by the explanation of the former 

thesis appears, we renounce all natural power and ability 
in ourselves, in order to bring us out of our lost and fallen 
condition and first nature ; and confess, that as of our- 
selves we are able to do nothing that is good, so neither 
can we procure remission of sins or justification by any 
act of our own, so as to merit it, or draw it as a debt from 
Justifica- God due unto us ; but we acknowledge all to be of and 
of and from fi'oni his love, which is the original and fundamental cause 
G*^d°^^ °^ °^ °"^' 'i^'Ceptance. 

ExpL. 2. Secondly, God manifested this love towards us, in the 

sending of his beloved Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, into the 
Christ giv- world, who gave himself for us an offering and a sacrifice 
a"sacrifice ^^ God, for a " sweet-smelling savour;" and having made 
for us. peace through the blood of his cross, that he might recon- 
cile us unto himself, and by the Eternal Spirit offered him- 
self without spot unto God, and suffered for our sins, the 
just for the unjust, that he might bring us unto God. 
EiPL. 3. Thirdly then. Forasmuch as all men who have come to 

man's estate (the man Jesus only excepted) have sinned, 
therefore all have need of this Saviour, to remove the wrath 
of God from them due to their offTences ; in this respect he 
is truly said to have borne the iniquities of us all in his 


body on the tree, and therefore is the only Mediator, hav- 
ing qualified the wrath of God towards us ; so that our 
former sins stand not in our way, being by virtue of his 
most satisfactory sacrifice removed and pardoned. Neither 
do we think that remission of sins is to be expected, sought, To remis- 
or obtained any other way, or by any works or sacrifice ^"^'" ° ^'"®' 
whatsoever ; though, as has been said formerly, they may 
come to partake of this remission that are ignorant of the 
history. So then Christ by his death and sufferings hath Tlie only 
reconciled us to God, even while we are enemies ; that is, betwixt 
he offers reconciliation unto us ; we are put into a capacity ^^"^ ^"<^ 
of being reconciled ; God is willing to forgive us our ini- 
quities, and to accept us, as is well expressed by the apos- 
tle, 2 Cor. V. 19: "God was in Christ, reconciling the 
world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them, 
and hath put in us the word of reconciliation." And 
therefore the apostle, in the next verses, entreats them in 
" Christ's stead to be reconciled to God ;" intimating that 
the wrath of God being removed by the obedience of Christ 
Jesus, he is willing to be reconciled unto them, and ready 
to remit the sins that are past, if they repent. 

We consider then our redemption in a two-fold respect A two-fold 
or state, both which in their own nature are perfect, though |fon."^^' 
in their application to us the one is not, nor cannot be, 
without respect to the other. 

The first is the redemption performed and accomplished 1. 
by Christ for us in his crucified body without us : the other demption 

is the redemption wrought by Christ in us, which no less of Christ 

^ o J ■> without ua 

properly is called and accounted a redemption than the 

former. The first then is that whereby man, as he stands 
in the fall, is put into a capacity of salvation, and hath con- 
veyed unto him a measure of that power, virtue, spirit, 
life, and grace that was in Christ Jesus, which, as the free 
gift of God, is able to counterbalance, overcome, and root 
out the evil seed, wherewith we are naturally, as in the fall, 

The second is that whereby we witness and know this 
pure and perfect redemption in ourselves, purifying, cleans- 


ir. ing, and redeeming us from the power of corruption, and 
dempilon bringing us into unity, favour, and friendship with God. 
wrought by By the first of these two, we that were lost in Adam, 

Christ in y , i • ^ y r 

U8. plunged into the bitter and corrupt seed, unable of our- 

selves to do any good thing, but naturally joined and 
united to evil, forward and propense to all iniquity, ser- 
vants and slaves to the power and spirit of darkness, are, 
notwithstanding all this, so far reconciled to God by the 
death of his Son, while enemies, that we are put into a 
capacity of salvation, having the glad tidings of the gospel 
of peace offered unto us, and God is reconciled unto us 
in Christ, calls and invites us to himself, in which respect 
*Eph. ii.1.5. we understand these scriptures; * He slew the enmity in 
10. Ezck. himself. He loved us first ; seeing us in our blood, he 

^^ ^l: „\ said unto us, Live ; he who did not sin his own self, bare 

Pet. 11. 22, ... . 

24, & iii. our sins in his own body on the tree ; and he died for our 

sins, the just for the unjust. 

By the second, we witness this capacity brought into 
act, whereby receiving and not resisting the purchase of 
his death, to wit, the light, spirit, and grace of Christ re- 
vealed in us, we witness and possess a real, true, and in- 
ward redemption from the power and prevalency of sin, 
and so come to be truly and really redeemed, justified, and 
made righteous, and to a sensible union and friendship 
with God. Thus he died "for us, that he might redeem 
Tit. ii. 14. us from all iniquity ;" and thus " we know him and the 
Phil. 111. 10. pp^ygp Qf j^jg resurrection, and the fellowship of his suffer- 
iiiors, beintr made conformable to his death." This last 
follows the first in order, and is a consequence of it, pro- 
ceeding from it, as an effect from its cause : so as none 
could have enjoyed the last, without the first had been, 
such being the will of God ; so also can none now partake 
ot the first, but as he witnesseth the last. Wherefore as 
to us, they are both causes of our justification ; the first the 
procuring efficient, the other the formal cause. 
EiPL. 4 Fourthly, We understand not by this justification by 

Christ, barely the good works even wrought by the Spirit 
of Christ ; for they, as Protestants truly affirm, are rather 


an effect of justification than the cause of it ; but we under- 
stand the formation of Christ in us, Christ born and ^, ^. 

1 he lorma- 
brought forth in us, from which good works as naturally tion of 

proceed as fruit from a fruitful tree. It is this inward begets good 
birth in us, bringing forth righteousness and holiness in us, ^^oiks. 
that doth justify us ; which having removed and done 
away the contrary nature and spirit that did bear rule and 
bring condemnation, now is in dominion over all in our 
hearts. Those then that come to know Christ thus formed 
in them, do enjoy him wdiolly and undivided, who is " the 
LORD our RIGHTEOUSNESS," Jer. xxiii. 6. This is 
to be clothed with Christ, and to have put him on, whom 
God therefore truly accounteth righteous and just. This 
is so far from being the doctrine of Papists, that as the ge- 
nerality of them do not understand it, so the learned among 
them oppose it, and dispute against it, and particularly 
Bellarmine. Thus then, as I may say, the formal cause of 
justification is not the works, to speak properly, they being 
but an effect of it ; but this inward birth, this Jesus brought 
forth in the heart, who is the well-beloved, whom the 
Father cannot but accept, and all those who thus are 
sprinkled wqth the blood of Jesus, and washed with it. By 
this also comes that communication of the goods of Christ 
unto us, " by which w^e come to be made partakers of the 
divine nature," as saith Peter, 2 Pet. i. 4, and are made 
one with him, as the branches w-ith the vine, and have a 
title and right to what he hath done and suffered for us ; so Christ's 
that his obedience becomes ours, his righteousness ours, °io.hteo"ur-' 
his death and sufferings ours. And by this nearness we ness, death, 

, „ . . rr ■ 1 rr -i ^^^ suffer- 

come to have a sense ot his surienngs, and to sutler with ings are 
his seed, that yet lies pressed and crucified in the hearts of °^^^^' 
the ungodly, and so travail with it, and for its redemption, 
and for the repentance of those souls that in it are cruci- 
fying as yet the "Lord of Glory." Even as the apostle 
Paul, who by his sufferings is said to " fill up that which 
is behind of the afflictions of Christ for his body, which is 
the church." Though this be a mystery sealed up from 
all the wise men that are yet ignorant of this seed in them- 


selves, and oppose it, nevertheless some Protestants speaK 
of this justification by Christ inwardly put on, as shall here- 
after be recited in its place. 
ExPL. 5. Lastly, Though we place remission of sins in the right- 

eousness and obedience of Christ performed by him in the 
flesh, as to what pertains to the remote procuring cause, 
and that we hold ourselves formally justified by Christ 
Jesus formed and brought forth in us, yet can we not, as 
Good some Protestants have unwarily done, exclude works from 

noTexdud- j^istification. For though properly we be not justified for 

edjustifica- them, yet are we justified in ihem ; and they are necessary, 
tion. . . . . 

even as causa sine qua Jioii, i. e., the cause, without which 

none are justified. For the denying of this, as it is con- 
trary to the scripture's testimony, so it hath brought a great 
scandal to the Protestant religion, opened the mouths of 
Papists, and made many too secure, while they have 
believed to be justified without good works. Moreover, 
though it be not so safe to say they are meritorious, yet 
seeing they are rewarded, many of those called the Fathers 
have not spared to use the word merit, which some of us 
have perhaps also done in a qualified sense, but no ways 
to infer the Popish abuses above mentioned. And lastly, 
if we had that notion of good works which most Protest- 
ants have, we could freely agree to make them not only 
not necessary, but reject them as hurtful, viz. : That the 
best works even of the saints are defiled and polluted. 
For though we judge so of the best works performed by 
man, endeavouring a conformity to the outward law by 
his own strength, and in his own will, yet we believe that 
such works as naturally proceed from this spiritual birth 
and formation of Christ in us are pure and holy, even as 
the root from which they come ; and therefore God accepts 
them, justifies us in them, and rewards us for them of his 
own free grace. The state of the controversy being thus 
laid down, these following positions do from hence arise in 
the next place to be proved. 
Posit. I. § IV. First, That the obedience, sufferings, and death 

of Christ is that by which the soul obtains remission ot 


sins, and is the procuring cause of that grace, by whose 
inward workings Christ comes to be formed inwardly, and 
the soul to be made conformable unto him, and so just and 
justified. And that therefore, in respect of this capacity 
and offer of grace, God is said to be reconciled ; not as 
if he were actually reconciled, or did actually justify, or 
account any just, so long as they remain in their sins really 
impure and unjust. 

Secondly, That it is by this inward birth of Christ in Posir. li.. 
man that man is made just, and therefore so accounted by 
God : wherefore, to be plain, we are thereby, and not till 
ihat be brought forth in us formally, if we must use that 
word, justified in the sight of God; because jusiijicatioii 
is both more properly and frequently in scripture taken in 
its proper signification for making one just, and not reput- 
ing one merely such, and is all one with sandijication. 

Thirdly, That since good works as naturally follow from Posit. Ill, 
this birth as heat from fire, therefore are they of absolute 
necessity to justification, as causa sine qua non, i. e. though Good 
not as the cause for which, yet as that in which we are, '^''^^^^ ^J^ 

'' , , ' causa sine 

and without which we cannot be justified. And though ?«« «o«— 

they be not meritorious, and draw no debt upon God, yet "ioi"^ ' 

he cannot but accept and reward them : for it is contrary 

to his nature to deny his own, since they may be perfect in 

their kind, as proceeding from a pure holy birth and root. 

Wherefore their judgment is false and against the truth 

that say ; that the holiest works of the saints are defiled 

and sinful in the sight of God : for these good works are 

not the works of the law, excluded by the apostle from 


§ V. As to the first, I prove it from Rom. iii. 25 : Posit. I. 
" Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through pj^p^p j 
faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the The effi- 
remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of c'hnst'^s 
God." Here the apostle holds forth the extent and efficacy death to re 
of Christ's death, showing that thereby, and by faith out of evil, 
therein, remission of sins that are past is obtained, as being 
that wherein the forbearance of God is exercised towards 



mankind. So that though men for the sins they daily 
commit deserve eternal death, and that the wrath of God 
should lay hold upon them ; yet, by virtue of that most 
satisfactory sacrifice of Christ Jesus, the grace and seed 
of God moves in love towards them, during the day 
of their visitation ; yet not so as not to strike against the 
evil, for that must be burnt up and destroyed, but to redeem 
man out of the evil. 

Proof II. Secondly, If God were perfectly reconciled with men, 
and did esteem them just while they are actually unjust, 
and do continue in their sins, then should God have no 
controversy with them ;* how comes he then so often to 
complain, and to expostulate so much throughout the 
whole scripture with such as our adversaries confess to be 
justified, telling them << that their sins separate betwixt him 
and them ?" Isai. lix. 2. For where there is a perfect and 
full reconciliation, there is no separation. Yea, from this 
doctrine it necessarily follows, either that such for whom 
Christ died, and whom he hath thus reconciled, never sin, 
or that when they do so, they are still reconciled, and their 
sins make not the least separation from God ; yea, that 
they are justified in their sins. From whence also would 
follow this abominable consequence, that the good works 
and greatest sins of such are alike in the sight of God, 
seeing neither the one serves to justify them, nor the other 
to break their reconciliation, which occasions great security, 
and opens a door to every lewd practice. 

Proof III. Thirdly, This would make void the whole practical doc- 
trine of the gospel, and make faith itself needless. For 
if faith and repentance, and the other conditions called for 
throughout the gospel, be a qualification upon our part 
necessary to be performed, then, before this be performed 

• I do not only speak concerning men before conversion, who after- 
wards are converted, wliom yet some of our antagonists, c^alled Anti- 
nomians, do aver were justified from tlie l)Pi:innin£;: but also touching 
those who, according to the common opinion of Protestants, have been 
converted ; whom albeit they confess they persist always in some 
misdeeds, and sometimes in heinous sins, as is manifest in David's 
adultery and murder, yet tliey assert to be perfectly and wholly justi- 



by us, we are either fully reconciled to God, or but in a 
capacity of being reconciled to God, he being ready to 
reconcile and justify us as these conditions are performed; 
which latter, if granted, is according to the truth we pro- 
fess. And if we are already perfectly reconciled and justi- 
fied before these conditions are performed, (which con- 
ditions are of that nature that they cannot be performed at 
one time, but are to be done all one's lifetime,) then can 
they not be said to be absolutely needful ; which is con- 
trary to the very express testimony of scripture, which is 
acknowledged by all Christians : '* For without faith it is Heb. xi. 6. 
impossible to please God." "They that believe not are Lu]^" xlii. 3! 
condemned already, because they believe not in the only Rom- viii. 
begotten Son of God." Except ye repent, ye cannot be 
saved : " for if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die." And 
of those that were converted ; I will remove your can- Apoc. ii. 5. 
dlestick from you, unless ye repent. Should I mention 
all the scriptures that positively and evidently prove this, I 
might transcribe much of all the doctrinal part of the Bible. 
For since Christ said, " It is finished," and did finish 
his work sixteen hundred years ago and upwards ; if he 
so fully perfected redemption then, and did actually recon- 
cile every one that is to be saved, not simply opening a A door of 
door of mercy for them, ofTering the sacrifice of his body, ^enTd by 

Dv which they may obtain remission of their sins when Christ upon 
•' . . repentance, 

they repent, and communicating unto them a measure of 

his grace, by which they may see their sins, and be able to 

repent ; but really making them to be reputed as just, 

either before they believe, as say the Antinomians, or after The Ami- 

they have assented to the truth of the history of Christ, or "pi^ion^of 

are sprinkled with the baptism of water, while nevertheless leconciha- 

'■ . -^ ' _ tion and 

they are actually unjust, so that no part of their redemp- justifica- 
tion is to be wrought by him now, as to their reconciliation ^°"' 
and justification ; then the whole doctrinal part of the bible ' 

is useless, and of no profit : in vain were the apostles sent 
forth to preach repentance and remission of sins ; and in 
vain do all the preachers bestow their labour, spend their 
breath, and give forth writings; yea, much more in vain 


cession for 


do the people spend their money which they give them for 
preaching ; seeing it is all but actum agere, but a vain and 
inetlectual essay, to do that which is already perfectly done 
without them. 
I'Roor IV. But lastly, To pass by their human labours, as not worth 
the disputing whether they be needful or not, since, as we 
shall hereafter show, themselves confess the best of them is 
sinful ; this also makes void the present intercession of 
Christ for men. What will become of that great article of 
Christ's faith, by which we affirm, " That he sits at the right hand 
ing inter- of God, daily making intercession for us ; and for which 
end the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groan- 
ings which cannot be uttered .'"' For Christ maketh not 
intercession for those that are not in a possibility of salva- 
tion ; that is absurd. Our adversaries will not admit that 
he prayed for the world at all ; and to pray for those that 
are already reconciled, and perfectly justified, is to no pur- 
pose : to pray for remission of sins is yet more needless, 
if all be remitted, past, present, and to come. Indeed 
there is not any solid solving of this, but by acknowledg- 
ing according to the truth. That Christ by his death 
removed the wrath of God, so far as to obtain remission 
of sins for as many as receive that grace and light that he 
communicates unto them, and hath purchased for them by 
his blood ; which, as they believe in, they come to know 
remission of sins past, and power to save them from sin, 
and to wipe it away, so often as they may fall into it by 
unwatchfulness or weakness, if, applying themselves to this 
grace, they truly repent ; for " to as many as receive him, 
he gives power to become the sons of God :" so none are 
sons, none are justified, none reconciled, until they thus 
receive him in that little seed in their hearts : And life 
eternal is offered to those, who by patient continuance in 
well-doing, seek for glory, honour, and immortality: for 
if the righteous man depart from his righteousness, his 
righteousness shall be remembered no more. And there- 
fore on the other part, none are longer sons of God, and 
justified, than they patiently continue in righteousness and 


well-doing. And therefore Christ lives always making 
intercession, during the day of every man's visitation, that 
they may be converted : and when men are in some mea- 
sure converted, he makes intercession that they may con- 
tinue and go on, and not faint, nor go back again. Much 
more might be said to confirm this truth ; but T go on to 
take notice of the common objections against it, which are 
the arguments made use of to propagate the errors con- 
trary to it, 

§ VI. The first and chief is drawn from that saying of 
the apostle before mentioned, 2 Cor. v. 18, 19, <<God 
hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ : God was in 
Christ reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing 
their trespasses unto them." 

From hence they seek to infer, That Christ fully per- Obj. l. 
fected the work of reconciliation, while he was on earth. 

I answer; If by reconciliation be understood the re- Answ. 
moving of wrath, and the purchase of that grace by which 
we may come to be reconciled, we agree to it ; but that 
that place speaks no more, appears from the place itself: 
for when the apostle speaks in the perfect time, saying, 
" He hath reconciled us," he speaks of himself and the 
saints ; who having received the grace of God purchased The differ- 
by Christ, weie through faith in him actually reconciled, tween re- 
But as to the world, he saith reconcilins[ not reconciled ; '1°!^"^''^ ^° , 

. . . . Christ, and 

which reconciling^ though it denotes a time somewhat past, reconciling. 
yet it is by the imperfect time, denoting that the thing be- 
gun was not perfected. For this work Christ began towards 
all in the days of his flesh, yea, and long before ; for He 
was the mediator from the beginning, and the lamb slain 
from the foundation of the world : but in his flesh, after 
he had perfectly fulfilled the law, and the righteousness 
thereof, had rent the veil, and made way for the more clear 
and universal revelation of the gospel to all, both Jew and 
Gentile ; he gave up himself a most satisfactory sacrifice 
for sin ; which becomes effectual to as many as receive 
him in his inward appearance, in his light in the heart. 
Again, this very place showeth that no other reconciliation 


IS intended, but the opening of a door of mercy upon 
God's part, and a removing of wrath for sins that are past; 
so as men, notwithstanding their sins, are stated in a capa- 
city of salvation: for the apostle, in the following verse, 
saith, " Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though 
God did beseech you by us ; we pray you in Christ's stead 
be ye reconciled to God." For if their reconciliation had 
already been perfectly accomplished, what need any en- 
treating then to be reconciled? Ambassadors are not sent 
after a peace already perfected, and reconciliation made, 
to entreat for a reconciliation ; for that implies a manifest 
Obj. 2. Secondly, They object, verse 21st of the same chapter, 

" For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no 
sin, that we might be made the righteousness of God in 
him." From whence they argue, That as our sin is im- 
puted to Christ, who had no sin ; so Christ's righteousness 
is imputed to us, without our being righteous. 
A.NSW. But this interpretation is easily rejected ; for though 

"Christ bare our sins," and "suffered for us," and was 
among men " accounted a sinner," and " numbered among 
transgressors ;" yet that God reputed him a sinner, is no- 
Heb.vii.26. where proved. For it is said. He was found before him 
e .u. „^. ]^Q]y^ harmless, and undefiled, neither was there found any 
guile in his mouth. That we deserved these things, and 
much more for our sins, which he endured in obedience to 
the Father, and according to his counsel, is true ; but that 
Men's im- ever God reputed him a sinner, is denied : neither did he 
teousnefs'* s^'^'' '^^^ ^^^^^ ^^'^ should be reputed righteous, though no 
Folidly re- more really such than he was a sinner, as hereafter appears. 
For indeed, if this argument hold, it might be stretched to 
that length, as to become very pleasing to wicked men that 
love to abide in their sins : for if we be made righteous, 
as Christ was made a sinner, merely by imputation ; then 
as there was no sin, not in the least in Christ, so it would 
follow, that there needed no more righteousness, no more 
holiness, no more inward sanctification in us, than there 
was sin in him. So then, by his "being made sin for us" 


must be understood his suffering for our sins, that we 
might be made partakers of the grace purchased by him ; 
by the workings whereof we are made the righteousness 
of God in him. For that the apostle understood here a 
being made really righteous, and not merely a being re- 
puted such, appears by what follows, seeing in vers. 14, 
15, 16, of the following chapter, he argues largely against 
any supposed agreement of light and darkness, righteous- 
ness and unrighteousness ; which must needs be admitted, 
if men are to be reckoned engrafted in Christ, and real 
members of him, merely by an imputative righteousness, 
wholly without them, while they themselves are actually 
unrighteous. And indeed it may be thought strange, how 
some men have made this so fundamental an article of 
their faith, which is so contrary to the whole strain of the 
gospel : a thing which Christ in none of all his sermons 
and gracious speeches ever willed any to rely upon ; al- 
ways recommending to us works, as instrumental in our 
justification. And the more it is to be admired at, because 
that sentence or term, so frequently in their mouths, and 
so often pressed by them, as the very basis of their hope 
and confidence, to wit. The imputed righteousness of Christ's 
Christ, is not to be found in all the bible, at least as to my nXeous- 
observation. Thus have I passed throuattf the first part, "''ss not 

1 , , 1 • n , , , • found in all 

and that the more brieny, because many, who assert this the bible, 
justification by bare imputation, do nevertheless confess, 
that even t.=he elect are not justified until they be converted ; 
that is, not until this imputative justification be applied to 
them by the Spirit. 

§ VII. I come then to the second thing proposed by Posit. II. 
me, which is ; That it is by this inward birth, or Christ By Christ 
formed within, that we are, so to speak, formally justified within we 
in the sight of God. 1 suppose I have said enough already ?'^V'*^*'' 
to demonstrate how much we ascribe to the death and 
sufferings of Christ, as that whereby satisfaction is made 
to the justice of God, remission of sins obtained, and this 
grace and seed purchased, by and from which this birth 
proceeds. The thing now to be proved is. That by Christ 


Jesus formed in us, we are justified, or made just. Let it 
be marked, I use justification in this sense upon this oc- 
Pkoof 1. First then, I prove this by that of the apostle Paul, 1 
Cor. vi. 11, "And such were some of you; but ye are 
Justiiicd, washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the 
ijiudej'ust name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God." 

really, not pirst This justified here understood, must needs be t be- 
by imputa- . ' , , . , , . , . , 
tion. mg really made just, and not a bemg merely unputed 

such ; else sanctified and washed might be reputed a being 
esteemed so, and not a being really so ; and then it quite 
overturns the whole intent of the context. For the apostle 
showing them in the preceding verses, how the " un- 
righteous cannot inherit the kingdom of God," and des- 
cending to the several species of wickedness, subsumes, 
That they were sometimes such, but now are not any 
more such. Wherefore, as they are now washed and 
sanctified, so are they justified: for if this justification 
were not real, then it might be alleged that the Corinthians 
had not forsaken these evils ; but, though they still con- 
tinued in them, were notwithstanding justified : which as 
in itself it is most absurd, so it very clearly overturneth the 
very import and intent of the place ; as if the Corinthians 
turning Christians had not wrought any real change in 
them, but had only been a belief of some barren notions, 
which had wrought no alteration in their afTections, will, 
or manner of life. For my own part, I neither see any 
thing, nor could ever yet hear or read any thing, that with 
any colour of reason did evince justified in this place to be 
understood any other ways than in its own proper and 
The dcri- genuine interpretation of being made just. And for the 
yaiioiiot j-fjore clear understanding hereof, let it be considered, that 

tlie word o ' ^ 

justified this word justify is derived either from the substantive 
dtc. ' justice^ or the adjective jws<; both which words import the 

substantive, that true and real virtue in the soul, as it is in 
itself; to wit, it signifies really^ and not suppositivcly, that 
excellent quality expressed and understood among men by 
the word justice ; and the adjective jM^i as applied signi- 


fies a man or woman who is just, that is, in whom this 

quality of justice is stated: for it would not only be great 

impropriety, but also manifest falsity, to call a man just, 

merely by supposition ; especially if he were really unjust. 

Now this word justify formed from justice, or just, doth 

beyond all question signify a making just ; it being nothing 

else but a composition of the verb facio, and the adjective 

Justus, which is nothing else than ihus, justijico, i. e.,jus- 

tum facio, I make just ; and justified of Justus and fio, as 

Justus fio, I become just, and justificatus, i. e. Justus fac- 

tus, I am made just. Thus also is it with verbs of this 

kind, as sandifico, from sanctus, holy, and facio ; honori- 

fico, from honor and facio ; sacrifico, from sacer and facio: 

all which are still understood of the subject really and truly 

endued with that virtue and quality from which the verb is 

derived. Therefore, as none are said to be sanctified that Justified 

are really unholy, while they are such ; so neither can any w°hUeThey 

be truly said to be iustified, while they actually remain un- actually re 

/~w 1 1 • 1 . •/> 1 1 • 1-1 mam un- 

just. Only this verb justify hath, m a metaphorical and just. 

figurative sense, been otherwise taken, to wit, in a law 

sense ; as when a man really guilty of a crime is freed from 

the punishment of his sin, he is said to be justified ; that 

is, put in the place as if he were just. For this use of the 

w^ord hath proceeded from that true supposition. That none 

ought to be acquitted, but the innocent. Hence also that 

manner of speaking, I will justify such a man, or I will 

justify this or that, is used from the supposition that the 

person and thing is really justifiable : and where there is 

an error and abuse in the matter, so far there is also in the 


This is so manifest and apparent, that Paraeus, a chief Pareeus de 

Protestant, and a Calvinist also in his opinion, acknow- jgg^' f*'"/ 

ledges this; "We never at anytime said," saith he, "nor c.vii.p.469 

thought, that the righteousness of Christ was imputed to 

us, that by him we should be named formally just, and not 

be so, as we have divers times already showed ; for that 

would no less soundly fight with right reason, than if a 

guilty man absolved in judgment should say, that he him- 


self was formally just by the clemency of the judge grant- 
ing him his life." Now is it not strange, that men should 
be so facile in a matter of so great concernment, as to 
build the stress of their acceptance with God upon a mere 
borrowed and metaphorical signification, to the excluding, 
Holiness or at least esteeming that not necessary, without which the 
the/eibre Scripture saith expressly, " No man shall ever see God .^" 
good works For if holiness be requisite and necessary, of which this is 
said, then must good works also ; unless our adversaries 
can show us a holy man without good works. But, more- 
over, j(is//^cr/ in this figurative sense is used for approved; 
and indeed for the most part, if not always in scripture, 
when the word justify is used, it is taken in the w'orst part; 
that is, that as the use of the word that way is a usurpa- 
tion, so it is spoken of such as usurp the thing to them- 
selves, while it properly doth not belong unto them ; as 
will appear to those that will be at the pains to examine 
these places : Exod. xxiii. 7 ; Job. ix. 20, and xxvii. 5 ; 
Prov. xvii. 15; Isai. v. 23; Jer. iii, 11 ; Ezek. xvi. 51, 
52 ; Luke x. 29, and xvi. 15, which are all spoken of men 
"justifying the wicked," or of "wicked men justifying 
themselves ;" that is, approving themselves in their wicked- 
ness. If it be at any time in this signification taken in good 
part, it is very seldom, and that so obvious and plain by 
the context, as leaves no scruple. But the question is not 
so much of the use of the word, where it is passingly or 
occasionally used, as where the very doctrine of justifica- 
tion is handled. Where indeed to mistake it, viz. in its 
proper place, so as to content ourselves with an imaginary 
justification, w'hile God requires a real, is of most danger 
ous consequence. For the disquisition of which, let it be 
considered, that in all these places to the Romans, Co- 
rinthians, GaJatians, and elsewhere, where the apostle 
handles this theme, the word may be taken in its own pro- 
per signification without any absurdity. As, where it is 
often asserted in the above-mentioned epistles to the Ro- 
mans and Galatians, That " a man cannot be justified by 
the law of Moses, nor by the works of the law ;" there is 


no absurdity nor danger in understanding it according to Justified, 
its own piipjper signification, to wit, that a man cannot be g'jgn^iiica-''^^ 
made just by the law of Moses ; seeing this so well agrees ^i°"- 
with that saying of the same apostle. That " the law makes 
nothing perfect." And also where it is said, " We are 
justified by faith," it may be very well understood of be- 
ing made just; seeing it is also said, That "faith purifies 
the heart ;" and no doubt the pure in heart are just ; and 
" the just live by faith." Again, where it is said, We are 
justified by grace, we are justified by Christ, we are justi- 
fied by the Spirit ; it is no ways absurd to understand it 
of being made just, seeing by his Spirit and grace he doth 
make men just. But to understand it universally the other 
way, merely for acceptance and imputation, would infer 
great absurdities, as may be proved at large ; but because 
I judged it would be acknowledged, I forbear at present 
for brevity's sake. But further, in the most weighty places 
where this word justify is used in scripture, with an im- 
mediate relation to the doctrine of justification, our adver- Justifica- 
saries must needs acknowledge it to be understood of fie"amak- 
making just, and not barely in the legal acceptation: as mgjust. 
first, in that of 1 Cor. vi. 11, "But ye are washed, but 
ye are sanctified, but ye are justified," as I before have 
proved ; which also many protestants are forced to acknow- 
ledge. "Neither diffide we," saith Thysius, "because of Thysius 
the most great and strict connexion, that justification doth just. Thes. 
sometimes seem also to comprehend sanctification as a ^• 
consequence, as in Rom. viii. 30 ; Tit. iii. 7 ; 1 Cor. vi. 
11, ' And such sometimes were ye, but ye are washed,' " 
&c. Zanchius, having spoken concerning this sense of Zanchiusin 
justification, adds, saying : " There is another signification j^^JiJ ^\ 
of the word, viz : for a man from unjust to be made just, loc. de J4ist. 
even as sanctified signifies from unholy to be made holy : 
in which signification the apostle said, in the place above 
cited, 'And such were some of you,' &c., that is, of un- 
clean ye are made holy, and of unjust ye are made just by 
the Holy Spirit, for Christ's sake, in whom ye have be- 
lieved. Of this signification is that. Rev. xxii. 11, < Let 
18* 2b 


him that is just, be just still ;' that is, really from just be- 
come more just, even as from unjust he became just. And 
according to this signification the Fathers, and especially 
Augustine, have interpreted this word." Thus far he, 
H. Bulling. H. Bullinger, on the same place, 1 Cor. vi., speaketh thus, 
"By divers words," saith he, "the apostle signifies the 
same thing, when he saith, ' Ye are washed, ye are sancti- 
fied, ye are justified.' " 
Proof II. Secondly, In that excellent saying of the apostle, so 
much observed, Rom. viii. 30, " Whom he called, them 
he also ju.stified, and whom he justified, them he also glori- 
fied:" this is commonly called the golden chain, as being 
acknowledged to Comprehend the method and order of 
salvation. And therefore, {{justified were not understood 
here in its proper signification of being made just, sancti- 
fication would be excluded out of this chain. And truly 
it is very worthy of observation, that the apostle, in this 
succinct and compendious account, makes the word justi- 
fied to comprehend all betwixt calling and glorifying ; 
Righteous- thereby clearly insinuating, that the being really righteous 
only me- is that only medium by which from our calling we pass to 
which 1mm glorification. Almost all do acknowledge the word to be 
our calling gg taken in this place ; and not only so, but most of those 

we pass to ^^ i i i i i i • • i 

glorifica- who oppose are lorced to acknowledge, that as this is the 
^'°"' most proper, so the most common signification of it : thus 

divers famous Protestants acknowledge. " We are not," 
D. Cham, saith D. Chamierus, " such impertinent esteemers of words, 
S^ict."! x.^ as to be ignorant, nor yet such importunate sophists, as to 
c- 1- deny that the v^ ox diS justification and sanctification do infer 

one another ; yea, we know that the saints are chiefly for 
this reason so called, because that in Christ they have re- 
ceived remission of sins : and we read in the revelations, 
' Let him that is just, be just still ;' which cannot be under- 
stood, except of the fruit of inherent righteousness. Nor 
do we deny, but perhaps in other places they may be pro- 
miscuously taken, especially by the Fathers." " I take," 
Beza in c. saith Beza, " the name of justification largely, so as it com- 
ver.^7. '' prehends whatsoever we acquire from Christ, as well by 


imputation, as by the efficacy of the Spirit in sanctifying 
us. So likewise is the word justi/icaiio7i taken, Rom. viii. 
30." Melancthon saith, "That to be justified by faith, Melanct. in 
signifies in scripture not only to be pronounced just, but ^^g " 
also of unrighteous to be made righteous." Also some 
chief Protestants, though not so clearly, yet in part, hinted 
at our doctrine, whereby we ascribe unto the death of 
Christ remission of sins, and the work of justification unto 
the grace of the Spirit acquired by his death. Martinus 
Borai^us, explaining that place of the apostle, Rom. iv. 25 : Boraeus, in 
" Who was given for our sins, and rose again for our justi- Credidit 
fication," saith : " There are two things beheld in Christ, Oeo^'^^iei 
which are necessary to our justification; the one is his 
death, the other is his arising from the dead. By his death, 
the sins of this world behoved to be expiated : by his rising 
from the dead, it pleased the same goodness of God to give 
the Holy Spirit, whereby both the gospel is believed, and 
the righteousness, lost by the fault of the first Adam, is re- 
stored." And afterwards he saith: " The apostle express- 
eth both parts in these words, ' Who was given for our 
sins,' &.C. In his death is beheld the satisfaction for sin ; 
in his resurrection, the gift of the Holy Spirit, by which our 
justification is perfected." And again, the same man saith 
elsewhere : " Both these kinds of righteousness are there- Idem, lib. 
fore contained in justification, neither can the one be cap. ix. v. 
separate from the other. So that in the definition o^ justi- ^' P- ^®^' 
Jication, the merit of the blood of Christ is included, both 
with the remission of sins, and with the gift of the Holy 
Spirit of justification and regeneration." Martinus Bucerus Bucerus, in 
saith: "Seeing by one sin of Adam the world was lost, verifier ^ 
the grace of Christ hath not only abolished that one sin, 
and death which came by it ; but hath together taken away 
those infinite sins, and also led into full justification as 
many as are of Christ ; so that God now not only remits Righteous- 
unto them Adam's sin, and their own, but also gives them formity to" 
therewith the Spirit of a solid and perfect righteousness, ^\^^^^^\ 
which renders us conform unto the image of the first- begotten. 
begotten." And upon these words, by Jesus Christ, he 



saith : " We always judge that the whole benefit of Christ 

tends to this, that we might be strong tlirough the gift of 

righteousness, being rightly and orderly adorned with all 

virtue, that is, restored to the image of God." And lastly, 

W. Forbes William Forbes, our countryman, bishop of Edinburgh, 

Modest, de saith : << Whensoever the scripture makes mention of the 

Just.,lib.ii. justification before God, as speaketh Paul, and from him 

sect. c. •' ' ' ' 

(besides others) Augustine, it appears that the word justify 
necessarily signifies not only to pronounce just in a law 
sense, but also really and inherently to make just; because 
that God doth justify a wicked man otherwise than earthly 
How God judges. For he, when he justifies a wicked or unjust man, 

justifies the . . J > 

wicked. doth indeed pronounce him as these also do ; but by pro- 
nouncing him just, because his judgment is according to 
truth, he also makes him really of unjust to become just." 
And again, the same man, upon the same occasion, an- 
swering the more rigid Protestants, who say. That God first 
justifies, and then makes just; he adds: "But let them 
have a care, lest by too great and empty subtilty, unknown 
both to the scriptures and the fathers, they lessen and 
diminish the weight and dignity of so great and divine a 
benefit, so much celebrated in the scripture, to wit, justi- 
fication of the wicked. For if to the formal reason of 
justification of the ungodly doth not at all belong his justi- 
fication (so to speak), i. e., his being made righteous, then 
in the justification of a sinner, although he be justified, yet 
the stain of sin is not taken away, but remains the same in 
his soul as before justification ; and so, notwithstanding the 
benefit of justification, he remains as before, unjust and a 
sinner ; and nothing is taken away, but the guilt and obli- 
gation to pain, and the oflfence and enmity of God through 
non-imputation. But both the scriptures and fathers do 
affirm, that in the justification of a sinner, their sins are not 
only remitted, forgiven, covered, not imputed, but also 
taken away, blotted out, cleansed, washed, purged, and 
very far removed from us, as appears from many places of 
the holy scriptures." The same Forbes shows us at 
length, in the following chapter. That this was the con- 


fessed judgment of the fathers, out of the writings of those 
who hold the contrary opinion; some whereof, out of him, 
I shall note. As, first, Calvin saith : " That the judgment Caly. inst. 
of Augustine, or at least his manner of speaking, is not sect.'i5. 
throughout to be received ; who although he took from 
man all praise of righteousness, and ascribed all to the 
grace of God, yet he refers grace to sanctification, by which 
we are regenerate through the Spirit unto newness of life." 
Chemnitius saith : That they " do not deny, but that the Chemnit. 
fathers take the wovd justify for renewing, by which works Conc.^Trid. 
of righteousness are wrought in us by the Spirit." And ^| •^'^^'•' P- 
p. 130 : " I am not ignorant, that the fathers indeed often 
use the wovd jicstify in this signification, to wit, of making 
just." Zanchius saith: "That the fathers, and chiefly Zanchius 
Augustine, interpret the word justify according to this Ep*|^ ver 4 
signification, to wit, of making just; so that, according to foc.deJust, 
them, to be justified was no other than of unjust to be made 
just, through the grace of God for Christ." He men- 
tioneth more, but this may suffice to our purpose. 

§ VIII. Having thus sufficiently proved, that by justifi- Asser. I. 
cation is to be understood a really being made righteous, 
I do boldly affirm, and that not only fifnn a notional know- 
ledge, but from a real, inward experimental feeling of the 
thing. That the immediate, nearest, or formal cause (if we Christ re- 
must in condescendence to some use this word) of a man's foi^'ed^n 
justification in the sisfhtof God, is, the revelation of Jesus the soul of 

•' . . . . . a man, is 

Christ in the soul, changing, altering, and renewing the the formal 
mind, by whom (even the author of this inward work) thus man'^sj'usti- 
formed and revealed, we are truly justified and accepted fixation. 
in the sight of God. For it is as we are thus covered and PRoor I. 
clothed with him, in whom the Father is always well 
pleased, that we may draw near to God, and stand with 
confidence before his throne, being purged by the blood 
of Jesus inwardly poured into oyr souls, and clothed with 
his life and righteousness therein revealed. And this is 
that order and method of salvation held forth by the apostle 
in that divine saying, Rom. v. 10 : " For if when we were 
enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his 


Son ; much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by 
his life." For the apostle first holding forth the reconci- 
liation wrought by the death of Christ, wherein God is 
near to receive and redeem man, holds forth his salvation 
and justification to be by the life of Jesus. Now, that this 
life is an inward, spiritual thing revealed in the soul, 
whereby it is renewed and brought forth out of death, 
where it naturally has been by the fall, and so quickened 
and made alive unto God, the same apostle shows, Eph. 
ii. 5 : " Even when we were dead in sins, he hath quick- 
ened us together with Christ (by whose grace ye are saved) 
and hath raised us up together." Now this none will 
deny to be the inward work of renovation, and therefore 
the apostle gives that reason of their being saved by t: • ; 
which is the inward virtue and power of Christ in the soul : 
but of this place more hereafter. Of the revelation of this 
inward life the apostle also Speaketh, 2 Cor. iv. 10 : " That 
the life also of Jesus might ne made manifest in our body ;" 
and ver. 11 : << That the life also of Jesus might be made 
manifest in our mortal flesh," Now this inward life of 
Jesus is that whereby, as is before observed, he said, " we 
are saved." 
Pkoof II. Secondly, That it is by this revelation of Jesus Christ, 
and the new creation in us, that we are justified, doth evi- 
dently appear from that excellent saying of the apostle 
included in the proposition itself, Tit. iii. 5: <' According 
to his mercy he hath saved us, by the washing of regene- 
ration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost," &c. Now that 
whereby we are saved, that we are also no doubt justified 
by ; which words are in this respect synonymous. Here 
The imme- the apostle clearly ascribes the immediate cause of justifi- 
orjusdrtciT- cation to this inward work of regeneration, which is Jesus 
tion IP the Christ revealed in the soul, as beins; that which formally 

mwnrd . . . ° . . '' 

work of re- states US in a capacity of. bemg reconciled with God ; the 
genera ion. ^^j^gj^j^g Qf regeneration being that inward power and vir- 
tue, whereby the soul is cleansed, and clothed with the 
righteousness of Christ, so as to be made fit to appear 
before God. 


Thirdly, This doctrine is manifest from 2 Cor. xiii. 5 : Pr. III. 
"Examine your ownselves, whether ye be in the faith; 
prove your ownselves : know ye not your ownselves, how 
that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye be reprobates ?" 
First, It appears here how earnest the apostle was that they 
should know Christ in them ; so that he presses this exhort- 
ation upon them, and inculcates it three times. Secondly, The cause 
He makes the cause of reprobation, or not-justification, the °iJ^^fJ'* 

want of Christ thus revealed and known in the soul : Chnst not 

known by 
whereby it necessarily follows, by the rule of contraries, inward re- 

where the parity is alike (as in this case it is evident), that ^"^ ^''°"" 
where Christ is inwardly known, there the persons sub- 
jected to him are approved and justified. For there can 
be nothing more plain than this. That if we must know 
Christ in us, except we be reprobates, or unjustified per- 
sons ; if we know him in us, we are not reprobates, and 
consequently justified ones. Like unto this is that other 
saying of the same apostle. Gal. iv. 19: "My little chil- 
dren, of whom I travail in birth again, until Christ be formed 
in you ;" and therefore the apostle terms this, " Christ 
within, the hope of glory," Col. i. 27, 28. Now that 
which is the hope of glory, can be no other than that which 
we immediately and most nearly rely upon for our justifi- 
cation, and that whereby we are really and truly made just. 
And as we do not hereby deny, but the original and fun- 
damental cause of our justification is the love of God mani- 
fested in the appearance of Jesus Christ in the flesh, who Christ by 
by his life, death, sufferings, and obedience, made a way anj suffer 
for our reconciliation, and became a sacrifice for the remis- ^"ss has 

' . opened a 

sion of sins that are past, and purchased unto us this seed wayforoui 
and grace, from which this birth arises, and in which Jesus ,-o^n_ 
Christ is inwardly received, formed, and brought forth in 
us, in his own pure and holy image of righteousness, h^ 
which our souls live unto God, and are clothed with him, 
and have put him on, even as the scripture speaks, Eph. 
iv. 23, 24 ; Gal. iii. 27, we stand justified and saved in 
and by him, and by his Spirit and grace ; Rom. iii. 24 ; 1 
Cor. vi. 11 ; Tit. iii. 7. So again, reciprocally, we are 


hereby made partakers of the fulness of his merits, and his 
cleansing blood is near, to wash away every sin and infir- 
mity, and to heal all our backslidings, as often as we turn 
towards liim by unfeigned repentance, and become renewed 
by his Spirit. Those then that find him thus raised, and 
ruling in them, have a true ground of hope to believe that 
they are justified by his blood. But let not any deceive 
themselves, so as to foster themselves in a vain hope and 
confidence, that by the death and sufferings of Christ they 
are justified, so long as "sin lies at their door," Gen. iv. 
7, iniquity prevails, and they remain yet unrenewed and 
unregenerate ; lest it be said unto them, " I know you not." 
Let that saying of Christ be remembered, " Not every one 
that saith Lord, Lord, shall enter, but he that doth the will 
of my father," Matt. vii. •2L To which let these excellent 
sayings of the beloved disciple be added ; " Little chil- 
dren, let no man deceive you ; he that doth righteousness 
is righteous, even as he is righteous. He that committeth 
sin is of the devil ; for if our heart condemn us, God is 
greater than our heart and knoweth all things," 1 John iii. 
7 and 20. 

Many famous Protestants bear witness to this inward 

justification by Christ inwardly revealed and formed in 

BowBus in man. As M. Borgeus : " In the imputation," saith he. 

Gen. p. 161. ^j wherein Christ is ascribed and imputed to believers for 

righteousness, the merit of his blood, and the Holy Ghost 

given unto us by virtue of his merits, are equally included. 

And so it shall be confessed, ' that Christ is our riarhteous- 
\ . . . ? . 

J he testi- ness,' as well from his merit, satisfaction, and remission of 

monies OI . ' • i i i • -r n ^ c^ • r 

famous Sins obtamed by him, as from the gifts of the Spirit of 
o/inward"^ righteousness. And if we do this, we shall consider the 
justifica- whole Christ proposed to us for our salvation, and not any 
single part of him." The same man, p. 169, " In our 
justification then Christ is considered, who breathes and 
lives in us, to wit, by his Spirit put on by us ; concerning 
which putting on the apostle saith, 'Ye have put on Christ."' 
And again, p. 171, " We endeavour to treat in justification, 
not of part of Christ, but him wholly, in so far as he is our 


righteousness every way." And a little after: "As tnen 
blessed Paul, in our justification, when he saith, ' Whom he 
justified, them he glorified,' comprehends all things which 
pertain to our being reconciled to God the Father, and our 
renewing, which fits us fiDr attaining unto glory, such as 
faith, righteousness, Christ, and the gift of righteousness 
exhibited by him, whereby we are regenerated, to the ful- 
filling of the justification which the law requires ; so we 
also will have all things comprehended in this cause, which 
are contained in the recovery of righteousness and inno- 
cency.'' And p. 181 : " The form," saith he, " of our justi- 
fication is the divine righteousness itself, by which we are 
formed just and good. This is Jesus Christ, who is 
esteemed our righteousness, partly from the forgiveness of 
sins, and partly from the renewing and the restoring of 
that integrity, which was lost by the fault of the first Adam : 
so that this new and heavenly Adam being put on by us, 
of which the apostle saith, 'Ye have put on Christ,' ye have 
put him on, I say, as the form, so the righteousness, wis- 
dom, and life of God." So also affirmeth Claudius Albe- 
rius Tnuncunanus, see his Orat. Jipodict. Lausanicn Inuncunan. 
Excus., 1587. Orat. ii., p. 86, 87. Zuinglius also, in Zuinglius. 
his epistle to the princes of Germany, as cited by Himelius, 
c. vii., p. 60, saith, "That the sanctlfication of the Spirit 
is true justification, which alone suffices to justify." Estius, Estius. 
upon 1 Cor. vi. 11, saith, " Lest Christian righteousness 
should be thought to consist in the washing alone, that is, 
in the remission of sins, he addeth the other degree or 
part, ' but ye are sanctified ;' that is, ye have attained to 
purity, so that ye are now truly holy before God. Lastly, 
expressing the sum of the benefit received in one word, 
which includes both the parts, ' But ye are justified,' the 
aposde adds, ' in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ,' that 
is, by his merits, and in the Spirit of our God, that is, the 
Holy Spirit, proceeding from God, and communicated to 
us by Christ." And lastly, Richard Baxter, a famous ^ Baxter 
English preacher, in his book called Aphorisms of Justi- 
fication, p. 80. saith " That some ignorant wretches gnash 
19 2 c 


their teeth at this doctrine, as if it were flat Popery, not 
understanding the nature of the righteousness of the new 
covenant ; which is all out '' Christ in ourselves, though 
wrought by the power of the S[)irit of Christ in us." 

Pos. III. § IX. The tiiird thing proposed to be considered is, 

concerning the necessity of good works to justification. I 
suppose there is enough said before to clear us from any 
imputation of being popish in this matter. 

Object. But if it be queried, Whether we have not said, or will 

not affirm, that a man is justified by works? 

Answ. I answer ; I hope none need, neither ought to take 

offence, if in this matter we use the plain language of the 
holy scripture, which saith expressly in answer hereunto, 

Thai works James ii. 24, "Ye see then how that by works a man is 

earvTo jus- justified, and not by faith only." I shall not offer to prove 

tification. the truth of this saying, since what is said in this chapter 
by the apostle is sufficient to convince any man that will 
read and believe it ; I shall only from this derive this one 
argument : 

Aes- If no man can be justified without faith, and no faith be 

living, nor yet available to justification without works, then 
works are necessary to justification. 
But the first is true ; therefore the last. 
For this truth is so apparent and evident in the scrip- 
tures, that for the proof of it we might transcribe most of 
the precepts of the gospel. I shall instance a few, which 
of themselves do so clearly assert the thing in question, 
that they need no commentary, nor farther demonstration 
And then I shall answer the objections made against this 
which indeed are the arguments used for the contrary opi 
nion, Heb. xii. 14, " Without holiness no man shall se* 

Not the God." Mat. vii. 21, "Not every one that saith unto me. 

thrJoer^"* Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven, but 

are blessed, he that doth the will of ray Father which is in heaven." 
John xiii. 17, " If ye know these things, happy are ye if 
ye do them." 1 Cor. vii. 19, " Circumcision is nothing, 
and uncircumcision is nothing, but the keeping of the 
commandments of God." Rev. xxii. 14, '< Blessed are 


they that do his commandments, that they may have righi 
to the tree of Hfe, and may enter in through the gates into 
the city :" and many more that might be instanced. From 
all which I thus argue : 

If those only can enter into the kingdom that do the Akg. 
will of the Father ; if those be accounted only the wise 
builders and happy that do the sayings of Christ ; if no 
observation avail, but only the keeping of the command- 
ments ; and if they be blessed that do the commandments, 
and thereby have right to the tree of life, and entrance 
through the gates into the city ; then works are absolutely 
necessary to salvation and justification: 

But the first is true ; and therefore also the last. 

The consequence of the antecedent is so clear and evi- 
dent, that I think no man of sound reason will call for a 
proof of it. 

§ X. But they object. That works are not necessary to Obj. l. 
justification : First, because of that saying of Christ, Luke 
xvii, 10, " When ye shall have done all these things Unprofit- 
that are commanded you, say, we are unprofitable ser- yants?^' 
vants," &c. 

Answer ; As to God we are indeed unprofitable, for he Answ. 
needeth nothing, neither can we add any thing unto him : eth nothing 
but as to ourselves, we are not unprofitable ; else it might 
be said, that it is not profitable for a man to keep God's 
commandments ; which is most absurd, and would con- 
tradict Christ's doctrine throughout. Doth not Christ, 
Mat. v., through all those beatitudes, pronounce men 
blessed for their purity, for their meekness, for their 
peaceableness, &c. ? And is not then that for which Christ 
pronounceth men blessed, profitable unto them ? More- Those that 
over, Mat. xxv. 21, 23, Doth not Christ pronounce the JroVed" 
men "good and faithful servants" that improved their ta- their ta- 

l6nts wcrG 

lents.-* Was not their doing of that then profitable unto called good 
them ? And ver. 30, it is said of him that hid his talent, servami!^"* 
and did not improve it, " Cast ye the unprofitable servant 
into utter darkness." If then not improving of the talent 
made the man unprofitable, and he was therefore cast inio 


utter darkness, It will follow by the rule of contraries, so 
far at least that the improving made the other profitable ; 
seeing, if our adversaries will allow us to believe Christ's 
words, this is made a reason, and so at least a cause in- 
strumental of their acceptance ; " Well done, good and 
faithful servant, thou hast been faithful over a few things, 
I will make thee ruler over many things ; enter thou into 
the joy of thy Lord." 

Obj. 2. Secondly, They object those sayings of the apostle, 

where he excludes the deeds of the law from justification ; 
as first, Rom. iii. 20, << Therefore by the deeds of the law 
there shall no flesh be justified in his sight." And verse 
28, " Therefore we conclude, that a man is justified by 
faith, without the deeds of the law." 

A^js. 1. Answer: We have shown already what place we give to 

works, even to the best of works, in justification ; and how 
we ascribe its immediate and formal cause to the worker 
brought forth in us, but not to the works. But in answer 
to this objection, I say, there is a great difiference betwixt 

The works tlic works of the law, and those of grace, or of the gospel. 

°*^l'or^race "^'^^ ^'"^^ ^^^ excluded, the second not, but are necessary. 

distinguish- The first are those which are performed in man's own will, 

those of the find by his strength, in a conformity to the outward law 

'*^' and letter ; and therefore are man's own imperfect works, 

or works of the law, which makes nothing perfect : and to 
this belong all the ceremonies, purifications, washings, and 
traditions of the Jews. The second are the works of the 
Spirit of grace in the heart, wrought in conformity to the 
inward and spiritual law ; which works are not wrought in 
man's will, nor by his power and ability, but in and by the 
power and Spirit of Christ in us, and therefore are pure 
and perfect in their kind, as shall hereafter be proved, and 
may be called Christ's works, for that he is the immediate 
author and worker of them : such works we affirm abso- 
lutely necessary to justification, so that a man cannot be 
justified without them ; and all faith without them is dead 
and useless, as the apostle James saith. Now, that such 
a distinction is to be 3dmitted, and that the works excluded 


by the apostle in the matter of justification are of the first 
kind, will appear, if we consider the occasion of the 
apostle's mentioning this, as well here, as throughout his 
epistle to the Galatians, where he speaks of this matter and 
to this purpose at large : which was this, That whereas 
many of the Gentiles, that were not of the race or seed of 
Abraham, as concerning the flesh, were come to be con- 
verted to the Christian faith, and to believe in him, some 
of those, that were of the Jewish proselytes, thought to 
subject the faithful and believing Gentiles to the legal 
ceremonies and observations, as necessary to their justifi- 
cation : this gave the apostle Paul occasion at length, in The occa- 
his epistle to the Romans, Galatians, and elsewhere, to apTstle's ^ 
show the use and tendency of the law, and of its works, speakm^o; 

. . •' . . ■" the works 

and to contra-distmaruish them from the faith of Christ, and of the law 
the righteousness thereof; showing how the former was e^xcluded^ 
ceased and become ineffectual, the other remaining, and 
yet necessary. And that the works excluded by the apostle 
are of this kind of works of the law, appears by the whole 
strain of his epistle to the Galatians, chap, i., ii., iii., and 
iv. For after, in chap, iv., he upbraideth them for their 
returning unto the observation of days and times, and that, 
in the beginning of chap, v., he showeth them their folly, 
and the evil consequence of adhering to the ceremonies of 
circumcision, then he adds, ver. 6, '' For in Christ Jesus 
neither circumcision nor uncircumcision availeth, but faith, 
which worketh by love ;" and thus he concludes again, 
chap. vi. ver. 15, " For in Christ Jesus neither circumci- 
sion availeth, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature." 
From which places appeareth that distinction of works be- 
fore mentioned, whereof the one is excluded, the other 
necessary to justification. For the apostle showeth here, 
that circumcision, w'hich word is often used to compre- 
hend the whole ceremonies and legal performances of the 
Jews, is not necessary, nor doth avail. Here then are the 
works which are excluded, by which no man is justified ; 
but faith, which worketh by love, but the new creature, 
this is that which availeth, which is absolutely necessary : 


for faith, that worketh by love, cannot be without works ; 

for, as it is said in the same 5th chapter, ver. 22, love 

is a work of the Spirit ; also the new creature, if it avail 

and be necessary, cannot be without works; seeing it is 

natural for it to bring forth works of righteousness. Again, 

that the apostle no ways intends to exclude such good 

works appears, in that in the same epistle he exhorts the 

The useful- Gahitiaiis to them, and holds forth the usefulness and ue- 

necessUy cessity of them, and that very plainly, chap. vi. ver. 7, 8, 

of good 9; uBe not deceived," saith he, "God is not mocked; 

works. ' ^ 

for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap : for 
he that soweth to the flesh, shall of the flesh reap corrup- 
tion ; but he that soweth to the Spirit, shall of the Spirit 
reap life everlasting. And let us not be weary in well- 
doing, for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not. " 
Doth it not hereby appear, how necessary the apostle would 
have the Galatians know that he esteemed good works to 
be ? To wit, not the outward ceremonies and traditions 
of the law, but the fruits of the Spirit, mentioned a little 
before ; by which Spirit he would have them to be led, and 
walk in those good works : as also, how much he ascribed 
to these good works, by which he affirms life everlasting is 
reaped. Now, that cannot be useless to man's justifica- 
tion, which capacitates him to reap so rich a harvest. 
Ans. 2. But lastly ; For a full answer to this objection, and for 

the establishing of this doctrine of good works, I shall 
instance another saying of the same apostle Paul, which 
our adversaries also in the blindness of their minds make 
use of against us ; to wit. Tit. iii. 5 : " Not by works of 
Justified righteousness which we have done, but according to his 
leeal'pe"-'^ mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and 
formanres, renewing of the Holy Ghost." It is generally granted by 
fruit of the all, that saved is here all one as if it had been said justl- 
Spint. ^g^_ Now there are two kinds of works here mentioned : 
one by which we are not saved, that is, not justified ; and 
another by which w^e are saved, or justified. The first, the 
works of righteousness which we have wTought, that is, 
which we in our first fallen nature, by our own strength, 


have wrought, our own legal performances, and therefore 
may truly and properly be called ours, whatever specious 
appearances they may have. And that it must needs and 
ought to be so understood, doth appear from the other 
part : <' By the washing of regeneration, and renewing of 
the Holy Ghost ;" seeing regeneration is a work, compre- 
hensive of many good works, even of all those which are 
called the fruits of the Spirit. 

Now in case it should be objected, That these may also Object. 
be called ours, because wrought in us, and also by us 
many times as instruments ; 

I answer ; It is far otherwise than the former : for in the Answ. 
first we are yet alive in our own natural state, unrenewed, 
working of ourselves, seeking to save ourselves, by imi- 
tating and endeavouring a conformity to the outward letter 
of the law; and so wrestling and striving in the carnal 
mind, that is enmity to God, and in the cursed will not yet 
subdued. But in this second we are " crucified with 
Christ," we are become " dead with him," have " par- 
taken of the fellowship of his sufferings," are made " con- 
formable to his death ;" and our first man, our <' old man 
with all his deeds," as well the openly wicked as the seem- 
ingly righteous, our legal endeavours and foolish wrestlings, 
are all buried and nailed to the cross of Christ ; and so 
it is no more we, but Christ alive in us, the worker in Not we,but 
us. So that though it be we in a sense, yet it is accord- is the work- 
ing to that of the apostle to the same Galatians, ch. ii., ver. ^^ °^ "^ht 
20 : " I am crucified with Christ, nevertheless I live, yet not 
I, but Christ liveth in me ;" not I, but the grace of Christ in 
me. These works are especially to be ascribed to the Spirit 
of Christ, and the grace of God in us, as being immediately 
thereby acted and led in them, and enabled to perform 
them. And this manner of speech is not strained, but 
familiar to the apostles, as appears. Gal. ii. 8 : " For he 
that wrought effectually in Peter to the apostleship of the 
circumcision, the same was mighty in me," &c. Phil. ii. 
13 : " For it is God which worketh in you, both to will 
and to do," &c. So that it appears by this place, that 




Since the washing of regeneration is necessary to justifi- 
cation, and that regeneration comprehends works, works 
are necessary ; and that these works of the law that are 
exchided, are different from these that are necessary and 
Obj. 3. § XI. Thirdly, They object that no works, yea, not the 

works of Christ in us, can have place in justification, be- 
cause nothing that is impure can be useful in it ; and all 
the works wrought in us are inipure. For this they allege 
that saying of the prophet Isaiah, Ixiv. 6 : " All our 
righteousnesses are as filthy rags ;" adding this reason, 
" That seeing we are impure, so must our works be ; which 
though good in themselves, yet as performed by us, they 
receive a tincture of impurity, even as clean w^ater passing 
through an unclean pipe is defiled." 
Ans. 1. That no impure works are useful to justification is con- 

fessed ; but that all the works wrought in the saints are 
such is denied. And for answer to this, the former dis- 
tinction will serve. We confess, that the first sort of works 
above mentioned are impure ; but not the second : because 
the first are wrought in the unrenewed state, but not the 
other. And as for that of Isaiah, it must relate to the first 
What sort kind ; for though he saith, " All our righteousnesses are as 
Lusiiess is filthy rags," yet that will not comprehend the righteousness 
as filthy of Christ in us, but only that which we work of and by 

mora f J J 

ourselves. For should we so conclude, then it would fol- 
low, that we should throw away all holiness and righteous- 
ness ; since that which is as filthy rags, and as a menstru- 
ous garment, ought to be thrown away ; yea, it would fol- 
low, that all the fruits of the Spirit, mentioned Gal. v., 
were as filthy rags: whereas, on the contrary, some of the 
works of the saints are said to have a " sweet savour in 
the nostrils of the Lord ;" are said to be an " ornament of 
great price in the sight of God ;" are said to " prevail with 
him," and to be " acceptable to him ;" which filthy rags 
and a menstruous garment cannot be. Yea, many famous 
Protestants have acknowledged, that this place is not there- 
fore so to be understood. Calvin upon this place saith, 



<' That it is ised to be cited by some, that they may prove Calvin and 
there is so Httle merit in our works, that they are before sense^con^-"^ 
God filthy and defiled ; but this seems to me to be differ- cermnglsa. 
ent from the prophet's mind, saith he, '< seemg he speaks our right- 
not here of all mankind." Musculus upon this place saith, ^°"®"'^®^- 
"That it was usual for this people to presume much of Musculus 
their legal righteousness, as if thereby they were made 
clean ; nevertheless, they had no more cleanness than the 
unclean garment of a man. Others expound this place 
concerning all the righteousness of our flesh ; that opinion 
indeed is true ; yet I think that the prophet did rather ac- 
commodate these sayings to the impurity of that people in 
legal terms." The author (commonly supposed Bertius), Benius, 
speaking concerning the true sense of the 7th chapter of pr^fixae* 
the epistle to the Romans, hath a digression touching this dissert. 
of Isaiah, saying ; " This place is commonly corrupted by 
a pernicious wresting : for it is still alleged, as if the 
meaning thereof inferred the most excellent works of the 
best Christians," &l. James Coret, a French minister in Jas. Coret, 
the church of Basil, in his Apology concerning Justification press., ™" 

against Alescales, saith : " Nevertheless, according: to the Paris, ann. 
° . ' . ° 1597, p. 7ft 

counsel of certain good men, I must admonish the reader, 

that it never came into our minds to abuse that saying of 

Isaiah, Ixiv. 6, against good works, in which it is said^ 

that ' all our righteousnesses are as filthy rags,' as if we 

would have that which is good in our good works, and 

proceedeth from the Holy Spirit, to be esteemed as a filthy 

and unclean thing." 

§ XII. As to the other part. That seeing the best of 

men are still impure and imperfect, therefore their works 

must be so; it is to. beg the question, and depends upon 

a proposition denied; and which is to be discussed at 

farther length in the next proposition. But though we 

should suppose a man not thoroughly perfect in all respects, 

yet will not that hinder, but good and perfect works in 

their kind may be brought forth in him by the Spirit of 

Christ : neither doth the example of water going through 

an unclear, pipe hit the matter ; because though water maj 




be capable to be tinctured with undeanness, yet the Spirit 

of God cannot, whom we assert to be the immediate author 

of those works that avail in justification : and therefore 

Jesus Christ's works in his children are pure and perfect, 

and he worketh in and through that pure thing of his own 

forming and creating in them. Moreover, if this did hold, 

according to our adversaries' supposition, That no man ever 

was or can be perfect, it would follow, that the very mira- 

Were the cles and works of the apostles, which Christ wrought in 

miracles them, and they wrought in and by the power. Spirit and 

of the grace of Christ, were also impure and imperfect; such as 

wrouglft by their converting of the nations to the Christian faith ; their 

*'iy?°^'^''. gathering of the churches, their writing of the holy scrip- 
of Christ m *= o . '. ° . . "^ K 

them, im- tures ; yea, and their offering up and sacrificing of their 

fmp^ed"ect? li^'^s for the testimony of Jesus. What may our adver- 
saries think of this argument, whereby it will follow, that 
the holy scriptures, whose perfection and excellency they 
seem so much to magnify, are proved to be impure and 
imperfect, because they came through impure and imper- 
fect vessels ? It appears by the confessions of Protestants, 
that the Fathers did frequently attribute unto works of this 
kind that instrumental work, which we have spoken of in 
justification, albeit some ignorant persons cry out it is 
Popery, and also divers, and that famous Protestants, do 
A. Polan. of themselves confess it. Amandus Polanus, in his Sym- 
phonia Catholica, cap. 27, de Remissione Peccatorum^ p. 
Our doc- 651, places this thesis as the common opinion of Protest- 
tificatbi"^" ^"^S' '"O'^t agreeable to the doctrine of the Fathers: " We 
and works obtain the remission of sins by repentance, confession, 
IS not Po- T /. r • 1 , 1 • 

pery. prayers, and tears, proceeding from faith, but do not merit, 

to speak properly; and therefore we obtain remission of 
sins, not by the merit of our repentance and prayers, but 
Gentiletus by the mercy and goodness of God." Innocentius Gen- 
ex Impress, tiletus, a lawyer of great fame among Protestants, in his 
Gen. 1516. j j b & ? 

Examen of the Council of Trent, p. 66, 67, of justifica- 
tion, having before spoken of faith and works, adds these 
words : " But seeing the one cannot be without the other, 
we call them both conjunctly instrumental causes." Zan- 


chius, in his fifth book, De JVaturd Dei, saith ; " We do Zanchius. 
not simply deny, that good works are the cause of salva- 
tion, to wit, the instrumental, rather than the efficient cause, 
which they call siiie qua wo?i." And afterwards, " Good 
works are the instrumental cause of the possession of life 
eternal ; for by these, as by a means and a lawful way, 
God leads unto the possession of life eternal." G. Ame- g. Ames, 
sius saith, " That our obedience, albeit it be not the prin- g Theolo- 

cipal and meritorious cause of life eternal, is nevertheless gia^. 1- "• 

. .... c. 1 Thes. 

a cause in some respect, administering, helping, and advan- xxx. 

cing towards the possession of the life." Also Richard R. Baxter. 
Baxter, in his book above cited, p. 155, saith, "That we 
are justified by works in the same kind of causality as by 
faith, to wit, as being both causes sine qua non, or con- 
ditions of the new covenant on our part requisite to justi- 
fication." And p. 195, he saith, " It is needless to teach 
any scholar, who hath read the writings of Papists, how 
this doctrine differs from them." 

But lastly. Because it is fit here to say something of the Of the me- 
merit and reward of works, I shall add something in this ^ard of ^' 
place of our sense and belief concerning that matter. We works. 
are far from thinking or believing, that man merits any thing 
by his works from God, all being of free grace ; and there- 
fore do we, and always have denied that Popish notion of 
meritum ex condigno. Nevertheless we cannot deny, but 
that God, out of his infinite goodness wherewith he hath 
loved mankind, after he communicates to him his holy 
Grace and Spirit, doth, according to his own will, recom- God re- 
pense and reward the good works of his children ; and ^^^^ works 
therefore this merit of congruity or reward, in so far as the *?* '^'® '^^^^' 
scripture is plain and positive for it, we may not deny ; 
nehher wholly reject the word, in so far as the scripture 
makes use of it. For the same Greek a^iov, which signifies 
merit, is also in those places where the translators express 
it worth, or worthy, as Mat. iii. 8 ; 1 Thess. ii. 12 ; 2 Thess. 
i. 5, 11. Concerning which R. Baxter saith, in the book 
above cited, p. 8, "But in a larger sense, as promise is an 
obligation, and the thing promised is said to be debt, so 


the performers of the conditions are called worthy, and that 
which they perform merit; although properly all be of 
grace, and not of debt." Also those, who are called the 
Fathers of the church, frequently used this word of merit, 
whose sayings concerning this matter I think not needful 
to insert, because it is not doubted, but evident, that many 
Protestants are not averse from this word, in the sense that 
we use it. The apology for the Augustan confession, art. 
. 20, hath these words ; " We agree that works are truly 
meritorious, not of remission of sins, or justification ; but 
they are meritorious of other rewards corporal and spiritual, 
which are indeed as well in this life, as after this life." 
And further, " Seeing works are a certain fulfilling of the 
law, they are rightly said to be meritorious ; it is rightly 
said, that a reward is due to them." 
Conference In the acts of the conference of Oldenhurgh, the electoral 
burgh. * divines, p. 110 and 265, say, "In this sense our churches 
also are not averse from the word merit used by the Fathers ; 
neither therefore do they defend the Popish doctrine of 
G. Vossius, G. Vossius, in his theological thesis concerning the 
merit. merits of good works, saith ; " We have not adventured to 

condemn the word merit wholly, as being vhat which both 
many of the ancients use, and also the reformed churches 
have used in their confessions. Now that God judgeth and 
accepteth men according to their works, is beyond doubt 
to those that seriously will read and consider these scrip- 
tures," Mat. xvi. 27; Rom. ii. 6, 7, 10; 2 Cor. v. 10; 
James i. 25 ; Heb. x. 35 ; 1 Pet. i. 17 ; Rev. xxii. 12. 

§ XIII. And to conclude this proposition, let none be 
so bold as to mock God, supposing themselves justified 
and accepted in the sight of God, by virtue of Christ's 
death and sufferings, while they remain unsanctified and 
Job. viii. unjustified in their own hearts, and polluted in their sins, 
lest their hope prove that of the hypocrite, which perisheth. 
Neither let any foolishly imagine, that they can by their 
own works, or by the performance of any ceremonies or 
traditions, or by the giving of gold or money, or by afflict- 



ing their bodies in will-worship and voluntary humility, or The hope 
foolishly striving to conform their way to the outward letter pocrhe ^' 
of the law, flatter themselves that they merit before God, or ^'^^11, , 

' •' perish, bii: 

draw a debt upon him, or that any man or men have power grace is to 
to make such kind of things effectual to their justification, ^^*^ ""' **' 
lest they be found foolish boasters and strangers to Christ 
and his righteousness indeed. But blessed for ever are 
they, that having truly had a sense of their own unworthi- 
ness and sinfulness, and having seen all their own endea- 
vours and performances fruitless and vain, and beheld their 
own emptiness, and the vanity of their vain hopes, faith, 
and confidence, while they remained inwardly pricked, 
pursued, and condemned by God's holy witness in their 
hearts, and so having applied themselves thereto, and suf- 
fered his grace to work in them, are become changed and 
renewed in the spirit of their minds, passed from death to 
life, and know Jesus arisen in them, working both the will 
and the deed ; and so having <■<■ put on the Lord Jesus 
Christ," in effect are clothed with him, and partake of his 
righteousness and nature ; such can draw near to the Lord 
with boldness, and know their acceptance in and by him ; 
in whom, and in as many as are found in him, the Father 
is well pleased. 


Concerning Perfection. 

In whom this pure and holy birth is fully brought forth, 
the body of death and sin comes to be crucified and 
removed, and their hearts united and subjected to the 
truth ; so as not to obey any suggestions or temptations 
of the evil one, but to be free from actual sinning and 
transgressing of the law of God, and in that respect per- 
fect : yet doth this perfection still admit of a growth ; 
and there remaineth always in some part a possibility of 
sinning, where the mind doth not most diligently and 
watchfully attend unto the Lord. 


5 I. Since we have placed justification in the revelation 
of Jesus Christ formed and brought forth in the heart, 
there working his works of righteousness, and bringing 
forth the fruits of the Spirit, the question is. How far he 
may prevail in us while we are in this life, or we over our 
souls, enemies, in and by his strength? Those that plead 
for justification wholly without them, merely by imputative 
righteousness, denying the necessity of being clothed with 
real and inwaid righteousness, do consequently affirm. 
These are " That it is impossible for a man, even the best of men, to 

oftheWest- ^^ ^""^^ °^ ^^^ ^" ^^^'^ ^'^*^» ^hich, they say, no man ever 
minster was ; but on the contrary, that none can, neither of him- 
chisin. self, nor by any grace received in this life, [0 wicked say- 
ing against the power of God's grace,] keep the command- 
ments of God perfectly ; but that every man doth break 
the commandments in thought, word and deed ;" whence 
WheTherit they also affirm, as was a little before observed, "That 
to k?ep the ^^^ '^'^^Y ^^^^ actions of the saints, their prayers, their wor- 
command- ships are impure and polluted." We on the contrary, 
God? though we freely acknowledge this of the natural fallen 

man, in his first state, whatever his profession or pretence 
may be, so long as he is unconverted and unregenerate, 
yet we do believe, that to those in whom Christ comes to 
Part I. be formed, and the new man brought forth, and born of 
the incorruptible seed, as that birth, and man in union 
therewith, naturally doth the will of God, it is possible so 
far to keep to it, as not to be found daily transgressors of 
Controver- the law of God. And for the more clear stating of the 
sy state . controversy, let it be considered : 

Notional § II. First, That we place not this possibility in man's 

nowiedge. ^^^,^ ^^-jj ^^^ capacity, as he is a man, the son of fallen 
Adam, or as he is in his natural state, however wise or 
knowing, or however much endued with a notional and 
literal knowledge of Christ, thereby endeavouring a con- 
formity to the letter of the law, as it is outward. 
The new Secondly, That we attribute it wholly to man, as he is 
born again, renewed in his mind, raised by Christ, know- 
ing Christ alive, reigning and ruling in him, and guiding 


and leading him by his Spirit, and revealing in hinri the 
law of the Spirit of life ; which not only manifests and re- 
proves sin, but also gives power to come out of it. 

Thirdly, That by this we understand not such a perfec- Growth in 
tion as may not daily admit of a growth, and consequently ^^^ ^'^ '°"' 
mean not as if we were to be as pure, holy, and perfect as 
God in his divine attributes of wisdom, knowledge, and 
purity ; but only a perfection proportionable and answer- 
able to man's measure, whereby we are kept from trans- 
gressing the law of God, and enabled to answer what he 
requires of us ; even as he that improved his two talents He that im- 
so as to make four of them, perfected his work, and was I'vv'J'^alent^ 
so accepted of his Lord as to be called a " good and faith- wasnothmg 

^ . ° . less accept 

ful servant," nothing less than he that made his five ten. able than 
Even as a little gold is perfect gold in its kind, as well as ^yeJ' 
a great mass, and a child hath a perfect body as well as a 
man, though it daily grow more and more. Thus Christ 
is said, Luke ii. 52, to have " increased in wisdom and 
stature, and in favour with God and man ;" though before 
that time he had never sinned, and was no doubt perfect, 
in a true and proper sense. 

Fourthly, Though a man may witness this for a season, 
and therefore all ought to press after it ; yet we do not 
affirm but those that have attained it in a measure may, by 
the wiles and temptations of the enemy, fall into iniquity, Wiles of 
and lose it sometimes, if they be not watchful, and do not ' '^ enemy 
diligently attend to that of God in the heart. And we 
doubt not but many good and holy men, who have arrived Every sin 
to everlasting life, have had divers ebbings and flowings man^irThis 
of this kind ; for though every sin weakens a man in his spiritual 

. . condition, 

spiritual condition, yet it doth not so as to destroy him but doth 
altogether, or render him incapable of rising again, j""^, aUo'^*'^ 

Lastly, Though I affirm, that after a man hath arrived at gather. 
such a state, in which he may be able not to sin, yet he Righteous 
may sin : nevertheless, I will not affirm that a state is not "^^^^ ^^^ 
attainable in this life, in which to do righteousness may be ^'^'"'i^- 
so natural to the regenerate soul, that in the stability of 
that condition he cannot sin. Others may speak more 


certainly of this state, if they have arrived at it. With 
respect to myself, I speak modestly, because I ingenuously 
confess that I have not yet attained it; but I cannot deny 
that there is such a state, as it seems to be so clearly as- 
serted by the apostle, 1 John iii. 9, " Whosoever is born 
of God doth not commit sin ; for his seed remaineth in 
him : and he cannot sin, because he is born of God." 
Part II. The controversy being thus stated, which will serve to 

Sect. 1. obviate objections, I shall proceed. First, to show the ab- 
surdity of that doctrine that pleads for sin for term of life, 
even in the saints. 
Sect. 2. Secondly, To prove this doctrine of perfection from 

many pregnant testimonies of the holy scripture. 
Sect. 3. And, Lastly, To answer the arguments and objections 

of our opposers. 
Sect. I. § III. First then, This doctrine, viz. : That the saints nor 

Proof 1. can nor ever will be free of sinning in this life, is incon- 
trine of " sistent with the wisdom of God, and with his glorious 
pleading for power and majesty, " who is of purer eyes than to behold 

ein lor term ' j ./ ' i j 

oflifcab- iniquity;"* who having purposed in himself to gather to 
•Hab.i. 13. ^i'""^ ^hat should worship him, and be witnesses for him on 
earth, a chosen people, doth also no doubt sanctify and 
purify them. For God hath no delight in iniquity, but 
abhors transgression ; and though he regard man in trans- 
gression so far as to pity him, and afford him means to 
come out of it ; yet he loves him not, neither delights in 
him, as he is joined thereunto. Wherefore if man must be 
always joined to sin, then God would always be at a 
distance with him ; as it is written, Isa. lix. 2, " Your ini- 
quities have separated between you and your God, and 
your sins have hid his face from you ;" whereas on the 
contrary, the saints are said to partake, even while here, 
" of the divine nature," 2 Pet. i. 4, and to be one spirit 
with the Lord, 1 Cor. vi. 17. Now no uncle^.r. thing 
can be so. It is expressly written, that there is no com- 
munion betwixt light and darkness, 2 Cor. vi. 14 ; but 
God is light, and every sin is darkness in a measure. 
What greater stain then can there be than this upon God's 


wisdom, as if he had been wanting to prepare a means Hath God's 
whereby his children might perfectly serve and worship been°want 
him, or had not provided a way whereby they might serve ^"g topre- 
him in any thing, but that they must withal still serve the means to 
devil no less, yea more than himself? For "he that sinneth ^orsliip 
is the servant of sin," Rom. vi. 16, and every sin is an act him per- 

. . . . fectly ? 

of service and obedience to the devil. So then if the samts 
sin daily in thought, word, and deed, yea, if the very service 
they offer to God be sin, surely they serve the devil more 
than they do God : for besides that they give the devil 
many entire services, without mixture of the least grain to 
God, they give God not the least service in which the 
devil hath not a large share ; and if their prayers and all 
their spiritual performances be sinful, the devil is as much 
served by them in these as God, and in most of them much 
more, since they confess that many of them are performed 
without the leadings and influence of God's Spirit. Now 
who would not account him a foolish master among men, 
who being able to do it, and also desirous it might be so, 
yet would not provide a way whereby his children and 
servants might serve him more entirely than his avowed 
enemy ; or would not guard against their serving of him, 
but be so imprudent and unadvised in his contrivance, that 
whatever way his servants and children served him, they 
should no less, yea, often much more, serve his enemy ? 
What may we then think of that doctrine that would infer 
this folly upon the Omnipotent and Only Wise God ? 

§ IV. Secondly, It is inconsistent with the justice of Phoof II. 
God. For since he requires purity from his children, and its incon- 
commands them to abstain from every iniquity, so fre- ^jl^Th^e 
quently and precisely as shall hereafter appear, and since justice of 
his wrath is revealed against all ungodliness and unright- 
eousness of men, it must needs follow, that he hath capa- 
citated man to answer his will, or else that he requires more 
than he has given power to perform ; which is to declare 
him openly unjust, and with the slothful servant to be a 
hard master. We have elsewhere spoken of the injustice 
these men ascribe to God, in making him to damn the 
20* 2e 


wicked, to whom they allege he never afforded any means 
of being good; but this is yet an aggravation more irra- 
tional and inconsistent, to say that God will not afford to 
those, whom he hath chosen to be his own, whom they 
confess he loveth, the means to please him. What can 
follow then from so stranjje a doctrine ? 

This imperfection in the saints either proceeds from God 
or from themselves : If it proceeds from them, it must be 
because they are short in improving or making use of the 
power given them, whereby they are capable to obey ; and 
so it is a thing possible to them, as indeed it is by the help 
of that power : but this our adversaries deny : they are 
then not to be blamed for their imperfection and con- 
tinuing in sin, since it is not possible for them to do other- 
wise. If it be not of themselves, it must be of God, who 
hath not seen meet to allow them j^race in that dejjree to 
produce that effect: and what is this but to attribute to 
God the height of injustice, to make him require his chil- 
dren to forsake sin, and yet not to afford them sufficient 
means for so doing? Surely this makes God more un- 
W ho shall righteous than wicked men, who if, as Christ saith, 
ch^hJren a their children require bread of them, will not give them 
stone in- r^ f^^gne ; or instead of a fish a serpent. But these men 

stead ot ^ 

bread? confess we Ought to seek of God power to redeem us from 
sin, and yet believe they are never to receive such a power ; 
such prayers then cannot be in faith, but are all vain. Is 
not this to make God as unjust to his children as Pharoah 
was to the Israelites, in requiring brick and not giving them 
straw ? But blessed be God, he deals not so with those 
that truly trust in him, and wait upon him, as these men 
vainly imagine ; for such faithful ones find of a truth that 
his grace is sufficient for them, and know how by his power 
and spirit to overcome the evil one. 

Proof III. § V. Thirdly, This evil doctrine is highly injurious 1o 
Jesus Christ, and greatly derogates from the power and 
virtue of his sacrifice, and renders his coming and ministry, 
as to the great end of it, ineffectual. For Christ, as for 
other ends, so principally he appeared for the removing of 


sin, for the gathering a righteous generation, that might The great 
serve the Lord in purity of mind, and walk before him in p"[ e^nd"of* 
fear, and to brinsr in everlasting righteousness, and that Christ's 

T 1 n ■ 1 • 1 1 f 1 1 I TT coming and 

evangelical pertection which the law could not do. Hence appearance 
he is said, Tit. ii. 14, " to have given himself for us, that ,^,ioving^of 
he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto him- ^m, and to 

redeem us 

self a peculiar people, zealous of good works." This is from all 
certainly spoken of the saints while upon earth ; but, con- '"'^i^'^y* 
trary thereunto, these men affirm, that we never are re- 
deemed from all iniquity, and so make Christ's giving of 
himself for us void and ineffectual, and give the apostle 
Paul the lie plainly, by denying that " Christ purifieth to 
himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works." How 
are they zealous of good works, who are ever committing 
evil ones ? How are they a purified people, that are still 
in impurity, as they are that daily sin, unless sin be ac- 
counted no impurity ? Moreover, it is said expressly, 
1 John iii. 5, 8, That " for this purpose the Son of God 
was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the 
devil ; and ye know that he was manifested to take away 
our sins." But these men make this purpose of none 
effect ; for they will not have the Son of God to destroy 
the W'Orks of the devil in his children in this world, neither 
wilKthey at all believe that he was manifest to take away 
our sins, seeing they plead a necessity of always living in 
them. And lest any should wrest this place of the apostle, 
as if it were spoken only of taking away the guilt of sin, 
as if it related not to this life, the apostle, as if of pur- 
pose to obviate such an objection, adds in the following 
verses, " Whosoever abideth in him sinneth not," &c. 
I hope then they sin not daily in thought, word, and deed. 
" Let no man deceive you ; he that doth righteousness is 
righteous; even as he is righteous; he that committeth 
sin is of the devil ;"* but he that sinneth daily in thought, * Wohniii. 
word, and deed, committeth sin ; how comes such a one ' 
then to be the child of God? And if Christ was manifest 
to take away sin, how strangely do they overturn the doc- 
trine of Christ that deny that it is ever taken away here ? 


And how injurious are they to the efficacy and power of 
Christ's; appearance ? Came not Christ to gather a people 
out of sin into righteousness ; from the kingdom of Satan 
into tlie kintrdom of llie dear Son of God? And are not 
they that are thus gatliered by him his servants, his chil- 
dren, his brethren, his friends? wiio as he was, so are they 
to be in this world, holy, pure, and undefded. And doth 
not Christ still watch over them, stand by them, pray for 
them, and preserve them by his power and Spirit, walk in 
Tfie devil them, and dwell among them ; even as the devil on the 
among the Other hand doth among the reprobate ones ? How comes 
reprobates, it then that the servants of Christ are less his servants than 
the devil's are his? Or is Christ unwilling to have his ser- 
vants thoroughly pure ? Which were gross blasphemy to 
assert, contrary to many scriptures. Or is he not able by 
his power to preserve and enable his children to serve him ? 
Which were no less blasphemous to affirm of him, con- 
cerning whom the scriptures declare. That he has over- 
come sin, death, hell, and the grave, and triumphed over 
them openly, and that all power in heaven and earth is 
given to him. But certainly if the saints sin daily in 
thought, word and deed, as these men assert, they serve 
the devil daily, and are subject to his power ; and so he 
prevails more than Christ doth, and holds the servants of 
Christ in bondage, whether Christ will or not. But how 
greatly then doth it contradict the end of Christ's coming ? 
as it is expressed by the apostle, Eph. v. 25, 26, 27, 
" Even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself 
for it, that he might sanctify and cleanse it with the wash 
ing of water by the word : that he might present it to him- 
self a glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle, or any 
such thing, but that it should be holy, and without blem- 
ish." Now if Christ hath really thus answered the thing 
he came for, then the members of his church are not al- 
ways sinning in thought, word, and deed, or there is no 
diffisrence betwixt being sanctified and unsanctified, clean 
and unclean, holy and unholy, being daily blemished with 
sin, and being without blemish. 


§ VI. Fourthly, This doctrine renders the work of the Proof IV, 
ministry, the preaching of the word, the writing of the 
scripture, and the prayers of holy men altogether useless 
and ineffectual. As to the first, Eph. iv. 11, 12, 13, Pas- Pastors, 
tors and teachers are said to be " given for the perfection amf scrfp- 
of the saints," &c., " until we all come in the unity of the ^^^^^ ^re 
faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfecting 
perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness saints, 
of Christ," Now if there be a necessity of sinning daily, 
and in all things, then there can be no perfection ; for such 
as do so cannot be esteemed perfect. And if for effec- 
tuating this perfection in the saints the ministry be appointed 
and disposed of God, do not such as deny the possibility 
hereof render the ministry useless, and of no profit.'* 
Seeing there can be no other true use assigned, but to lead 
people out of sin into righteousness. If so be these min- 
isters assure us that we need never expect to be delivered 
from it, do not they render their own work needless? 
What needs preaching against sin, for the reproving of 
which all preaching is, if it can never be forsaken ? Our 
adversaries are exalters of the scriptures in words, much 
crying up their usefulness and perfection : now the apostle 
tells us, 2 Tim. iii. 17, That the " scriptures are for making 
the man of God perfect ;" and if this be denied to be 
attainable in this life, then the scriptures are of no profit ; 
for in the other life we shall not have use for them. It 
renders the prayers of the saints altogether useless, seeing 
themselves do confess they ought to pray daily that God 
would deliver them from evil, and free them from sin, by 
the help of his Spirit and grace, while in this world. But 
though we might suppose this absurdity to follow, that 
their prayers are without faith, yet were not that so much, 
if it did not infer the like upon the holy apostles, who 
prayed earnestly for this end, and therefore no doubt 
believed it attainable. Col. iv, 12, "Labouring fervently 
for you in prayers, that ye may stand perfect," &c., 
1 Thess. iii. 13 ; and v, 23, &c, 

§ VII. But Fifthly, This doctrine is contrary to common Proof ^, 


Darkness reason and sense. For the two opposite principles, 
sill anV ' whereof the one rules in the children of darkness, the other 

righteous- j^ jj^g children of lidht, are sin and righteousness ; and as 

ness incon- . 

sisteiu to- they are respectively leavened and actuated by them, so 

^^ ^" they are accounted either as reprobated or justified, seeing 
Prov. xvii. it is abomination in the sight of God, either to justify 
the wicked, or condemn the just. Now to say that men 
cannot be so leavened by the one as to be delivered from 
the other, is in plain words to affirm, that sin and right- 
eousness are consistent ; and that a man may be truly 
termed righteous, though he be daily sinning in everything 
he doth ; and then what difference betwixt good and evil ? 
Is not this to fall into that great abomination of putting 
light for darkness, and calling good evil, and evil good ? 
Since they say the very best actions of God's children are 
defiled and polluted, and that those that sin daily in 
thought, word, and deed are good men and women, the 
saints and holy servants of the holy pure God. Can there 
be any thing more repugnant than this to common reason ? 
Since the subject is still denominated from that accident 
that doth most influence it ; as a wall is called white when 
there is much whiteness, and black when there is much 
blackness, and such like ; but when there is more unright- 
eousness in a man than righteousness, that man ought 
rather to be denominated unrighteous than righteous. 
If all daily Then surely if every man sin daily in thought, word, and 
is the deed, and that in his sins there is no righteousness at all, 

righteous g^j ^^i^^ j,|| j^|g righteous actions are polluted and mixed 

man then _ _ => _ , ^ . 

spoken of with sin, then there is in every man more unrighteousness 

ture ? than righteousness ; and so no man ought to be called 

righteous, no man can be said to be sanctified or washed. 
Where are then the children of God ? Where are the 
purified ones? Where are they who were sometimes un- 
holy, but now holy ; that sometimes were darkness, but 
now are light in the Lord ? There can none such be found 
then at this rate, except that unrighteousness be esteemed 
so : and is not this to fall into that abomination above 
mentioned of justifying the ungodly ? This certainly 


lands in that horrid blasphemy of the Ranters, that affirm The ])la9- 
there is no difference betwixt good and evil, and that all fhlRamers 
is one in the sight of God. 1 could show many more °.'" Liber- 

® _ , "' tines. 

gross absurdities, evil consequences, and manifest contra- 
dictions implied in this sinful doctrine ; but this may suffice 
at present, by which also in a good measure the proof of 
the truth we affirm is advanced. Yet nevertheless, for the 
further evidencing of it, I shall proceed to the second 
thing proposed by me, to wit, to prove this from several 
testimonies of the holy scriptures. 

§ VIII. And first, I prove it from the peremptory posi- Sect. II. 
tive command of Christ and his apostles, seeing this is a Pkoof I. 
maxim engraven in every man's heart naturally, that no 
man is bound to do that which is impossible : since then Be ye per- 
Christ and his apostles have commanded us to keep all the ^f' ^' 
commandments, and to be perfect in this respect, it is pos- command- 
sible for us so to do. Now that this is thus commanded 
without any commentary or consequence, is evidently ap- 
parent from these plain testimonies. Matt. v. 48, and vii. 
21 ; John xiii. 17 ; 1 Cor. vii. 19 ; 2 Cor. xiii. 11 ; 1 John 
ii. 3, 4, 5, 6, and iii. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. These 
scriptures intimate a positive command for it ; they declare 
the absolute necessity of it ; and therefore, as if they had 
purposely been written to answer the objections of our 
opposers, they show the folly of those that will esteem 
themselves children or friends of God, while they do other- 

Secondly, It is possible, because we receive the gospel Proof II. 
and law thereof for that effect ; and it is expressly promised bijity^of ft 
to us, as we are under grace, as appears by these scrip- 
tures, Rom. vi. 14: "Sin shall not have dominion over 
you ; for ye are not under the law, but under grace :" and 
Rom. viii. 3 : " For w'hat the law could not do, in that it 
was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son," 
&c., "that the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled 
in us," &c. For if this were not a condition both re- The differ 
quisite, necessary, and attainable under the gospel, there faw^nd'^^ 
"were no difference betwixt the bringing in of a better hope, gospel. 

240 PROPosiTiox nil. 

and the law which made nothing perfect ; neither betwixt 
those which are under the gospel, or who under the law 
enjoyed and walked in the life of the gospel and mere 
legalists. Whereas the apostle, throughout the whole sixth 
to the Romans, argues not only the possibility but the 
necessity of being free from sin, from their being under the 
gospel, and under grace, and not under the law ; and there- 
fore states himself and those to whom he wrote in that 
condition in these verses, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ; and therefore 
in the 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18 verses he argues both the 
possibility and necessity of this freedom from sin almost 
in the same manner we did a little before ; and in the 22d 
he declares them in measure to have attained this condition 
in these words, "But now being made free from sin, and 
become servants to God, ye have your fruit unto holiness. 
Perfection and the end everlasting life." And as this perfection or 
dom from freedom from sin is attained and made possible where the 
sin attained crospel and inward law of the Spirit is received and known, 

and made . '■ . . 

possible by SO the ignorance hereof has been and is an occasion of 
e gospe . QppQgjpg ^j^jg truth. For man, not minding the light oi 
law within his heart, which not only discovers sin but leads 
out of it, and so being a stranger to the new life and birth 
that is born of God, which naturally does his will, and 
cannot of its own nature transgress the commandments of 
God, doth, I say, in his natural state look at the command- 
The letter ments as they are without him in the letter ; and finding 
niaketh"not himself reproved and convicted, is by the letter killed, but 
alive. not made alive. So man, finding himself wounded, and 

not applying himself inwardly to that which can heal, 
labours in his own will after a conformity to the law as it 
is without him, which he can never obtain, but finds the 
more he wrestles, the more he falleth short. So this is the 
Jew still in effect, with his carnal commandment, with the 
law without, in the first covenant state, which '< makes not 
the comers thereunto perfect, as pertaining to the con- 
science," Heb. IX. 9: though they may have here a notion 
of Christianity, and an external faith in Christ. This hath 
made them strain and wrest the scriptures for an imputative 


righteousness wholly without them, to cover their im- 
purities; and this* hath made them imagine an acceptance 
with God possible, though they suppose it impossible ever 
to obey Christ's commands. But alas! deceived souls! 
that will not avail in the day wherein God will judge every 
man according to his work, whether good or bad. It will 
not save thee to say, it was necessary for thee to sin daily 
in thought, word and deed ; for such as do so have cer- 
tainly obeyed unrighteousness ; and what is provided for 
such but tribulation and anguish, indignation and wrath ; 
even as glory, honour, and peace, immortality and eternal 
life, to such as have done good, and patiently continued in 
well-doing. So then, if thou desirest to know this perfec- 
tion and freedom from sin possible for thee, turn thy mind 
to the light and spiritual law of Christ in the heart, and 
suffer the reproofs thereof; bear the judgment and indig- 
nation of God upon the unrighteous part in thee as therein it 
is revealed, which Christ hath made tolerable for thee, and 
so suffer judgment in thee to be brought forth into victory. How we 
and thus come to partake of the fellowship of Christ's suf- chrfgi^s^^ 
ferings, and be made conformable unto his death, that thou sufferings. 

and are 

mayest feel thyself crucified with him to the world by the made con- 
power of his cross in thee ; so that that life that sometimes u^to hU 
was alive in thee to this world, and the love and lusts death, 
thereof, may die, and a new life be raised, by which thou 
mayest live henceforward to God, and not to or for thy- 
self; and with the apostle thou mayest say. Gal. ii. 20: 
It is no more I, "but Christ liveth in me ;" and then thou 
M'ilt be a Christian indeed, and not in name only, as too 
many are ; then thou wilt know what it is to have "put 
off the old man with his deeds," who indeed sins daily in 
thought, word, and deed ; and to have put on the new 
man, that is renewed in holiness, after the image of him 
that hath created him, Eph. iv. 24 : and thou wilt witness 
thyself to be God's workmanship, created in Christ Jesus 
unto good works, and so not to sin always. And to this 
new man " Christ's yoke is easy, and his burden is light ;" Matt.xi.30 
though it be heavy to the old Adam ; yea, the command- ^Jo'^"^-^- 
21 2f 


ments of God are not unto this man grievous ; for it is his 
meat and drink to be found fulfilling the' will of God. 
Proof 3. Lastly, This perfection or freedom from sin is possible, 

attained'^^^ bccause many have attained it, according to the express 
perfection, testimony of the scripture ; some before the law, and some 
under the law, through witnessing and partaking of the 
benefit and effect of the gospel, and much more many un- 
Enoch der the gospel. As first, it is written of Enoch, Gen. v, 22, 
wUh'ood '■^'^j ^^^^^ ^^ walked with God, which no man while sinning 
and %vas q^^ ; ^or doth the scripture record any failing of his. It 
is said of Noah, Gen. vi. 9, and of Job. i. 8, and ofZacha- 
rias and Elizabeth, Luke i. 6, that they were perfect ; but 
under the gospel, besides that of the Romans above men- 
tioned, see what the apostle saith of many saints in gene- 
ral, Eph. ii. 4, 5, 6, " But God, who is rich in mercy, for 
his great love wherewith he hath loved us, even when we 
were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, 
by grace ye are saved ; and hath raised us up together, 
and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ 
Jesus," &c. I judge while they were sitting in these 
heavenly places, they could not be daily sinning in thought, 
word and deed ; neither were all their works which they 
did there as filthy rags, or as a raenstruous garment. See 
what is further said to the Hebrews, xii. 22, 23, " Spirits 
of just men made perfect." And to conclude, let that of 
the Revelations, xiv. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, be considered, where 
though their being found without fault be spoken in the 
present time, yet it is not without respect to their innocency 
while upon earth ; and their being "redeemed from among 
men, and no guile found in their mouth," is expressly 
Sec. III. mentioned in the time past. But I shall proceed now, in 
the third place, to answer the objections, which indeed are 
the arguments of our opposers. 
Obj. 1. § IX, I shall begin with their chief and great argument, 

which is the words of the apostle, 1 John i. 8, <<If we say 
that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth 
is uOl in us." This they think invincible. 
Ans. 1. But is it not strange to see men so blinded with partiax- 


ity? How many scriptures tenfold more plain do they 
reject, and yet stick so tenaciously to this, that can receive 
so many answers ? As first, " If we say we have no sin," If we say 
&c., will not import the apostle himself to be included, ^in, &,c. ob- 
Sometimes the scripture useth this manner of expression jected. 
when the person speaking cannot be included ; which 
manner of speech the grammarians call metaschematismus. 
Thus James iii. 9, 10, speaking of the tongue, saith, 
"Therewith bless we God, and therewith curse we men ;" 
adding, " These things ought not so to be." Who from 
this will conclude that the apostle was one of those cursers? 
But Secondly, This objection hitteth not the matter ; he Ans. 2. 
saith not. We sin daily in thought, word, and deed; 
far less that the very good works which God works in us 
by his Spirit are sin : yea the very next verse clearly 
shows, that upon confession and repentance we are not 
only forgiven, but also cleansed ; " He is faithful to forgive 
us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness."* *iJohni.9. 
Here is both a forgiveness and removing of the guilt, and 
a cleansing or removing of the filth ; for to make forgive- 
ness and cleansing to belong both to the removing of the 
guilt, as there is no reason for it from the text, so it were 
a most violent forcing of the words, and would imply a 
needless tautology. The apostle having shown how that 
not the guilt only, but even the filth also of sin is removed, 
subsumes his words in the time past in the 10th verse, "If 
we say we have not sinned, we make him a liar." Thirdly, Ans. 3. 
As Augustine well observed, in his exposition upon the 
epistle to the Galatians, It is one thing not to sin, and an- it is one 
other thing not to have sin. The apostle's words are not |o "inland 
If we say we sin not, or commit not sin daily, but " if we another 

, .,,,,., , • thing not to 

say we have no sm : and betwixt these two there is a have sin. 
manifest difference ; for in respect all have sinned, as we 
freely acknowledge, all may be said in a sense to have sin. 
Again, sin may be taken for the seed of sin, which may be 
in those that are redeemed from actual sinning ; but as to 
the temptations and provocations proceeding from it being 
resisted by the servants of God, and not yielded to, they 



Ans. 4. 

OBi. 2. 



of seasons 
and dispen- 
sations re- 

are the devil's sin that tempteth, not the man's that is pre- 
served. Fourthly, This being considered, as also how 
positive and plain once and again the same apostle is in 
that very epistle, as in divers places above cited, is it equal 
or rational to strain this one place, presently after so quali- 
fied and subsumed in the time past, to contradict not only 
other positive expressions of his, but the whole tendency 
of his epistle, and of the rest of the holy commands and 
precepts of the scripture ? 

Secondly, Their second objection is from two places of 
scripture, much of one signification : the one is, 1 Kings 
viii. 46, "For there is no man that sinneth not." The 
other is, Eccles. vii. 20, "For there is not a just man 
upon earth, that doth good, and sinneth not." 

I answer. First, These affirm nothing of a daily and con- 
tinual sinning, so as never to be redeemed from it ; but 
only that all have sinned, or that there is none that doth 
not sin, though not always, so as never to cease to sin ; 
and in this lies the question. Yea, in that place of the 
Kings he speaks within two verses of the returning of such 
" with all their souls and hearts ;" which implies a possi- 
bility of leaving off sin. Secondly, There is a respect to 
be had to the seasons and dispensations ; for if it should be 
granted that in Solomon's time there was none that sinned 
not, it will not follow that there are none such now, or 
that it is a thing not now attainable by the grace of God 
under the gospel : For a non esse ad non posse non valet 
sequela. And lastly, This whole objection hangs upon a 
false interpretation ; for the Hebrew word Ntom may be 
read in the potential mood, thus, There is no man who 
may not sin, as well as in the indicative : so both the old 
Latin, Junius and Tremellius, and Vatablus have it ; and 
the same word is so used, Psalm cxix. 11, "I have hid 
thy word in my heart," : "jS xonx nS U'oS that is to say, That 
I may not sin against thee, in the potential mood, and not 
in the indicative ; which being more answerable to the 
universal scope of the scriptures, the testimony of the truth, 
and the sense almost of all interpreters, doubtless ought to 


be so understood, and the other interpretation rejected as 

Thirdly, They object some expressions of the apostle Obj. 3. 
Paul, Rom. vii. 19, "For the good that I would, I do 
not ; but the evil which I would not, that I do." And 
verse 24, " wretched man that I am! who shall deliver 
me from the body of this death ?" 

I answer, This place infers nothing, unless it were ap- Answ. 
parent that the apostle here were speaking of his own con- ' 
dition, and not rather in the person of others, or what he 
hunself had sometimes borne ; which is frequent in scrip- 
ture, as in the case of cursing, in James before mentioned. 

But there is nothing in the text that doth clearly signify 
the apostle to be speaking of himself, or of a condition he 
was then under, or was always to be under ; yea, on the 
contrary, in the former chapter, as afore is at large shown, 
he declares, they w^ere dead to sin ; demanding how such 
should yet live any longer therein ? Secondly, It appears Paul per- 
that the apostle personated one not yet come to a spiritual ^re'tclfed 

condition, in that he saith, verse 14, " But I am carnal, ma" '» 

II 1 ■ 11 XT • • 1 ■ -11 1 1 show them 
sold under sm. Mow is it to be imagined that the apostle the Re- 
Paul, as to his own proper condition, when he wrote that "^®'"®'^- 
epistle, was a carnal man, who in chap. i. testifies of him- 
self. That he was separated to be an apostle, capable to 
impart to the Romans spiritual gifts ; and chap. viii. 2, 

That " the law of the Spirit of Life in Christ Jesus" had 
" made him free from the law of sin and death?" So then 
he was not carnal. And seeing there are spiritual men in 
this life, as our adversaries will not deny, and is intimated 
through the whole 8th chapter to the Romans, it will not 
be denied but the apostle was one of them : so then as his 
calling himself carnal in chap. vii. cannot be understood 
of his own proper state, neither can the rest of what he 
speaks there of that kind be so understood : yea, after, 
verse 24, where he makes that exclamation, he adds in the 
next verse, <« I thank God, through Jesus Christ our Lord ;" 
signifying that by him he witnessed deliverance ; and so 
gneth on, showing how he had obtained it in the next 



Whom sin 
has con- 
(jiiered, he 
is no con- 

Obj. 4. 


Can they 
that sin be 
never freed 
from sin ? 



chapter, viz, viii. ver. 35, " Who shall separate us from 
tl;e love of Christ.'"' And ver. 37, " But in all these things 
we are more than conquerors:" and in the last verse, 
"Nothing shall be able to separate us," &c. But wher- 
ever there is a continuing in sin, there is a separation in 
some degree, seeing every sin is contrary to God, and 
dvofjiia, i. e. "a transgression of the law," 1 John iii. 4, and 
whoever committeth the least sin, is overcome of it, and 
so in that respect is not a conqueror, but conquered. This 
condition then, which the apostle plainly testified he with 
some others had obtained, could not consist with continual 
remaminiT and abidinof in sin. 

Fourthly, They object the faults and sins of several 
eminent saints, as Noah, David, &c. 

I answer. That doth not at all prove the case : for the 
question is not whether good men may not fall into sin, 
which is not denied ; but whether it be not possible for 
tliem not to sin .'' It will not follow because these men sin- 
ned, that therefore they were never free of sin, but always 
sinned : for at this rate of arguing, it might be urged, ac- 
cording to this rule, Contrariorum par ratio, i. e., The 
reason of contraries is alike, that if, because a good man 
hath sinned once or twice, he can never be free from sin, 
but must always be daily and continually a sinner all his 
life long ; then by the rule of contraries, if a wicked man 
have done good once or twice, he can never be free from 
righteousness, but must always be a righteous man all his 
life-time : which as it is most absurd in itself, so it is con- 
trary to the plain testimony of the scripture, Ezek. xxxiii. 
12 to 18. 

Lastly, They object, That if perfection or freedom from 
sin be attainable, this will render mortification of sin use- 
less, and make the blood of Christ of no service to us, 
neither need we any more pray for forgiveness of sins. 

I answer, I had almost omitted this objection, because 
of the manifest absurdity of it : for can mortification of sin 
be useless, where the end of it is obtained .•' seeing there 
is no attaining of this perfection but by mortification. Doth 


the hope and belief of overcoming render the fight unne- Who fights 
cessary ? Let raticnal men judge which hath most sense in hopes°tV" 

it, to say as ou- adversaries do, It is necessary that we overcome 
„ ' , / , , • , ^ . his toe ? 

right and wrestle, out we must never thmk oi overcommg, 

we must resolve still to be overcome ; or to say, Let us 
fight, because we may overcome ? Whether do such as 
believe they may be cleansed by it, or those that believe 
they can never be cleansed by it, render the blood of 
Christ most effectual ? If two men were both grievously 
diseased, and applied themselves to a physician for remedy, 
which of those do most commend the physician and his 
cure, he that believeth he may be cured by him, and as he 
feels himself cured, confesseth that he is so, and so can say 
this is a skilful physician, this is a good medicine, behold 
I am made whole by it, or he that never is cured, nor ever 
believes that he can so long as he lives ? As for praying 
for forgiveness, we deny it not ; for that all have sinned, Praying for 
and therefore all need to pray that their sins past may be o°/sin^"^^^ 
blotted out, and that they may be daily preserved from 
sinning. And if hoping or believing to be made free from 
sin hinders praying for forgiveness of sin, it would follow 
by the same inference that men ought not to forsake mur- 
der, adultery, or any of these gross evils, seeing the more 
men are sinful, the more plentiful occasion there would be 
of asking forgiveness of sin, and the more work for 
mortification. * But the apostle hath sufficiently refuted 
such sin-pleasing cavils in these words, Rom. vi. 1, 2, 
" Shall we continue in sin that grace may abound ? God 

But lastly, It may be easily answered, by a retortion to 
those that press this from the words of the Lord's Prayer, 
" forgive us our debts," that this militates no less against 
perfect justification than against perfect sanctification : for 
if all the saints, the least as well as the greatest, be per- 
fectly justified in that very hour wherein they are con- 
verted, as our adversaries will have it, then they have 
remission of sins long before they die. May it not then 
be said to them, What need have ye to pray for remission 


of sin, who are already justified, whose sins are long rgo 

forgiven, both past and to come? 
Tesiimo- § X. But this may suffice : concerning this possibility 
IkrhJrs ^ Jerome speaks clearly enough, lib. iii., adver. Pelagium^ 
coiicernmi,' u This we also say, that a rnan may not sin, if he will, for 

pcrteciioii . . . . 

or freedom a time and place, according to his bodily weakness, so 
long as his mind is intent, so long as the cords of the 
Cithara relax not by any vice ;" and again in the same 

Jerome. book, <' Which is that tliat I said, that it is put in our 
power, to wit, being helped by the grace of God, either to 
sin or not to sin." For this was the error of Pelagius, 
which we indeed reject and abhor, and which the Fathers 
deservedly withstood, "That man by his natural strength, 
without the help of God's grace, could attain to that state 

Augustine. SO as not to sin." And Augustine himself, a great opposer 
of the Pelagian heresy, did not deny this possibility as 
attainable by the help of God's grace, as in his book de 
Spiritii <§• literd, cap. ii., and his book de JVaturd §* Gratia 
against Pelagiu.s, cap. xlii., 1., Ix., and Ixiii., de Gestis 
Concllli Palcestini, cap. vii., and ii., and de Peccato Oiigi- 

Gelasius. nali, lib. ii., cap. ii. Gelasius also, in his disputation 
against Pelagius, saith, " But if any affirm that this may be 
given to some saints in this life, not by the power of man's 
strength, but by the grace of God, he doth well to think 

That by so confidently, and hope it faithfully; for by this gift of 

God all God all things are possible." That this was the common 

things are opinion of the Fathers, appears from the words of the 

I)ossible. . . 

Aszansic Council, canon the last, " We believe also this 
according to the Catholic faith, that all who are baptized, 
through grace by baptism received, and Christ helping 
them, and co-working, may and ought to do whatsoever 
belongs to salvation, if they will faithfully labour." 
Conclusion. § XI. Blessed then are they that believe in him, who is 
both able and willing to deliver as many as come to him 
through true repentance from all sin, and do not resolve, 
as these men do, to be the devil's servants all their life- 
time, but daily go on forsaking unrighteousness, and for- 
getting those things that are behind, "press forward toward 


the mark, for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Phil. Hi. 14. 
Jesus;" such shall not find their faith and confidence to \ya^rytot'he 
be in vain, but in due time shall be made conquerors mark, for 

, ,. , , the prize 

through him in whom they have believed ; and so over- and over- 
coming, shall be established as pillars in the house of '^"™'"S- 
God, so as they shall go no more out, Rev. iii. 12. 


Concerning Perseverance, and the Possibility of Falling 
from Grace. 

Although this gift and inward grace of God be sufficient 
to work out salvation, yet in those in whom it is resisted 
it both may and doth become their condemnation. 
Moreover they in whose hearts it hath wrought in part 
to purify and sanctify them in order to their further per- 
fection, may, by disobedience, fall from it, turn it to 
wantonness, Jude 4, make shipwreck of faith, 1 Tim. i. 
19, and after having tasted the heavenly gift, and been 
made partakers of the Holy Ghost, again fall away, Heb. 
vi. 4, 5, 6, yet such an increase and stability in the truth 
may in this life be attained, from which there can be no 
total apostasy. 

§ I. The first sentence of this proposition hath already 
been treated of in the fifth and sixth propositions, where 
it hath been shown that that light which is given for life 
and salvation, becomes the condemnation of those that 
refuse it, and therefore is already proved in those places, 
where I did demonstrate the possibility of man's resisting 
the grace and Spirit of God ; and indeed it is so apparent 
in the scriptures, that it cannot be denied by such as will 
but seriously consider these testimonies, Prov. i. 24, 25, 
26; John iii. 18, 19; 2 Thess. ii. 11, 12; Acts vii. 51, 
and xiii. 46 ; Rom. i. 18. As for the other part of it., that 
they in whom this grace may have wrought in a good 



measure in order to purify and sanctify them, tending to 
their further perfection, may afterwards, through disobe- 
dience, fall away, &c,, the testimonies of the scripture in- 
cluded in the proposition itself are sufficient to prove it to 
men of unbiassed judgment; but because as to this part 
our cause is common with many other Protestants, I shall 
be the more brief in it : for it is not my design to do that 
which is done already, neither do I covet to appear know- 
ing by writing much ; but simply purpose to present to the 
world a faithful account of our principles, and briefly to let 
.. them understand what we have to say for ourselves. 

A falling § II. From these scriptures then included in the propo- 

by disobe- sition, not to mention many more which might be urged, I 

dience arffue thus : 

evinced. " . r r^ i ■ 

Arg. 1. If men may turn the grace of God mto wantonness, then 

they must once have had it : 

But the first is true, therefore also the second. 
Arg. 2. If men may make shipwreck of faith, they must once 

have had it; neither could they ever have had true faith 
without the grace of God : 

But the first is true, therefore also the laou 
Arg. 3. If men may have tasted of the heavenly gift, and been 

made partakers of the Holy Spirit, and afterwards fall 
away, they must needs have known in measure the opera- 
tion of God's saving grace and Spirit, without which no 
man could taste the heavenly gift, nor yet partake of the 
Holy Spirit : 

But the first is true, therefore also the last. 
II- Secondly, Seeing the contrary doctrine is built upon 

The doc- this false hypothesis, That grace is not given for salvation 

trine of , ''^ ' . , ^ , ^. , . , •. 

election to any, but to a certam elect number, which cannot lose it, 
and rcpro- j j^j^^^ |j j.j^g j.ggj. ^f mankind, by an absolute decree, 

ballon . . 

is incon- are debarred from s^race and salvation ; that being destroyed, 
preaching this falls to the ground. Now as that doctrine of theirs is 
exhona-^ wholly inconsistent with the daily practice of those that 
lion. preach it, in that they exhort people to believe and be saved 

while in the mean time, if they belong to the decree of 
reprobation, it is simply impossible for them so to do ; and 


if to the decree of election, it is needless, seeing it is as 
impossible to them to miss of it, as hath been before de- 
monstrated. So also in this matter of perseverance, their 
practice and principle are no less inconsistent and contra- 
dictory. For while they daily exhort people to be faithful 
to the end, showing them if they continue not they shall 
be cut off, and fall short of the reward ; which is very true, 
but no less inconsistent with that doctrine that affirms there 
is no hazard, because no possibility of departing from the 
least measure of true grace ; which if true, it is to no 
purpose to beseech them to stand, to whom God hath made 
it impossible to fall. I shall not longer insist upon the 
probation of this, seeing what is said may suffice to answer 
my design ; and that the thing is also abundantly proved 
by many, of the same judgment. That this was the doc- 
trine of the primitive Protestants thence appears, that the 
Augustine Confession condemns it as an error of the Ana- 
baptists to say. That they who once are justified, cannot 
lose the Holy Spirit. Many such like sayings are to be 
found in the common places of Philip Melancthon. Vos- 
sius, in his Pelagian History, lib. vi. testifies, that this was Theopin- 
the common opinion of the Fathers. In the confirmation fiithers 
of the twelfth thesis, page 587, he hath these words : f^n ™'"^ 
"That this which we have said was the common sentiment from grace, 
of antiquity, those at present can only deny, who other- 
ways perhaps are men not unlearned, but nevertheless, in 
antiquity altogether strangers," &c. These things thus 
observed, I come to the objections of our opposers. 

§ in. First, They allege, That those places mentioned Obj. i. 
of making shipwreck of faith, are only to be understood of 
seeming faith, and not of a real true faith. 

This objection is very weak, and apparently contrary to Answ. 
the text, 1 Tim. i. 19, where the apostle addeth to faith a 
good conscience, by way of complaint; whereas if their A good and 
faith had been only seeming and hypocritical, the men had science. 
been better without it than with it ; neither had they been 
worthy of blame for losing that which in itself was evil. 
But the apostle expressly adds " and of a good conscience," 


which shows it was real ; neither can it be supposed that 
men could truly attain a good conscience without the ope- 
ration of God's saving grace ; far less that a good con- 
science doth consist with a seeming false and hypocritical 
faith. Again, these places of the apostle being spoken 
by way of regret, clearly import that these attainments they 
had fallen from were good and real, not false and deceit- 
ful, else he would not have regretted their falling from 
them ; and so he sailh positively, '< They tasted of the 
heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost," 
&c., not that they seemed to be so, which showeth this 
objection is very frivolous, 
Obj.2. Secondly, They allege, Phil. i. 6, "Being confident of 

this very thing, that he which hath begun a good work in 
you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ," &c., and 
1 Pet. i. 5 : " Who are kept by the power of God through 
faith unto salvation." 
Answ. These scriptures, as they do not affirm any thing posi- 

tively contrary to us, so they cannot be understood other- 
wise than as the condition is performed upon our part, 
Salvation is Seeing salvation is no otherways proposed there but upon 
upon°cer- Certain necessary conditions to be performed by us, as hath 
tain condi- been above proved, and as our adversaries also acknow- 
to be per- ledge, as Rom. viii. 13 : " For if ye live after the flesh, ye 
formed. g|^^jj jj^ . ^^^ -^ ^^ through the spirit do mortify the deeds 
of the body, ye shall live." And Heb. iii. 14: " We are 
made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our 
confidence steadfast unto the end." For if these places of 
the scripture upon which they build their objection were 
to be admitted without these conditions, it would mani- 
festly overturn the whole tenor of their exhortations through- 
out all their writings. Some other objections there are of 
the same nature, which are solved by the same answers, 
which also, because largely treated of by others, I omit, to 
come to that testimony of the truth which is more espe* 
cially ours in this matter, and is contained in the latter part 
of the proposition in these words : Yet such an increase 


and stability in the truth may in this life be attained, from 
which there cannot be a total apostasy. 

§ IV. As in the explanation of the fifth and sixth pro- 
positions I observed, that some that had denied the errors 
of others concerning reprobation, and affirmed the uni- 
versality of Christ's death, did notwithstanding fall short 
in sufficiently holding forth the truth, and so gave the con- 
trary party occasion by their defects to be strengthened in 
their errors, so it may be said in this case. As upon the The two 
one hand they err who affirm that the least degree of true ^'^^^ j-un 
and savins: ffrace cannot be fallen from, so do they err '"^°.^y ^^" 

o D . . serting a 

upon the other hand that deny any such stability to be final tailing 

attained from which there cannot be a total and final apos- j^g fj-om 

tasy. And betwixt these two extremes lieth the truth ap- grace im- 
•' . . . ^ possible. 

parent in the scriptures, which God hath revealed unto us 

by the testimony of his Spirit, and which also we are made 
sensible of by our own experience. And even as in the 
former controversy was observed, so also in this, the de- 
fence of truth will readily appear to such as seriously 
weigh the matter ; for the arguments upon both hands, 
rightly applied, will as to this hold good ; and the objec- 
tions, which are strong as they are respectively urged 
against the two opposite false opinions, are here easily 
solved, by the establishing of this truth. For all the argu- 
ments which these allege that affirm there can be no falling 
away, may well be received upon the one part, as of those 
who have attained to this stability and establishment, and 
their objections solved by this confession ; so upon the 
other hand, the arguments alleged from scripture testi- 
monies by those that affirm the possibility of falling away, 
may well be received of such as are not come to this 
establishment, though having attained a measure of true 
grace. Thus then the contrary batterings of our adver- 
saries, who miss the truth, do concur the more strongly to 
establish it, while they are destroying each other. But 
lest this may not seem to suffice to satisfy such as judge it 
always possible for the best of men before they die to fall 


away, I shall add, for tlie proof of it, some brief con- 
siderations from some few testimonies of the scripture. 
I. § V. And first, I freely acknowledge that it is good for 

ners*and aH to be humble, and in this respect not over confident, so 
diligence la ^g jq \^,^^ jq j^is, to foster themsclvcs in iniquity, or lie 

olindispen- . . ■" . ... 

sable ne- down in security, as if they had attamed this condition, 
cessi y o gg^i,^g ^^ atchfulness and diligence is of indispensable neces- 
sity to all mortal men, so long as they breathe in this 
world ; for God will have this to be the constant practice 
of a Christian, that thereby he may be the more fit to serve 
him, and better armed against all the temptations of the 
enemy. For since the wages of sin is death, there is no 
man, while he sinneth, and is subject thereunto, but may 
law'fully suppose himself capable of perishing. Hence the 
apostle Paul himself saith, 1 Cor. ix. 27: "But I keep 
under my body, and bring it into subjection, lest that by 
any means, when I have preached to others, I myself 
should be a cast-away." Here the apostle supposes it 
possible for him to be a cast-away, and yet it may be 
judged he was far more advanced in the inward work of 
regeneration, when he wrote that epistle, than many who 
now-a-days too presumptuously suppose they cannot fall 
away, because they feel themselves to have attained some 
small degree of true grace. But the apostle makes use of 
this supposition or possibility of his being a cast-away, as 
I before observed, as an inducement to him to be watch- 
ful ; " I keep under my body, lest," &c. Nevertheless 
the same apostle, at another time, in the sense and feeling 
of God's holy power, and in the dominion thereof, finding 
himself a conqueror there-through over sin and his soul's 
enemies, maketh no difficulty to affirm, Rom. viii. 38 : 
"For I am persuaded that neither death nor life," &c., 
which clearly showeth that he had attained a condition 
from which he knew he could not fall away. 
1,1 But secondly. It appears such a condition is attainable, 

because we are exhorted to it ; and, as hath been proved 
before, the scripture never proposeth to us things impos- 
sible. Such an exhortation we have from the apostle, 


2 Pet. i. 10: "Wherefore the rather, brethren, give dili- A condition 
gf ace to make your calling and election sure, for if ye do ^y^ this lite, 
these things ye shall never fall." And though there be a [[om which 

, , ° '' . there is no 

condition here proposed, yet since we have already proved falling 
that it is possible to fulfil this condition, then also the pro- ^^^^^' 
mise annexed thereunto may be attained. And since, 
where assurance is wanting, there is still a place left for 
doubtings and despairs, if we should affirm it never attain- 
able, then should there never be a place known by the 
saints in this world, wherein they might be free of doubt- 
ing and despair ; which as it is most absurd in itself, so it 
is contrary to the manifest experience of thousands. 

Thirdly, God hath given to many of his saints and chil- III. 
dren, and is ready to give unto all a full and certain assurance 
assurance that thev are his, and that no power shall be able f."fi estab- 

"^ lishnicnt 

to pluck them out of his hand. But this assurance would given of 
be no assurance, if those who are so assured were not n,a,iy of his 
established and confirmed beyond all doubt and hesita- saims and 

11- -1 •!• /■ 1 children, 

tion : II so, then surely there is no possibility tor such to 

miss of that which God hath assured them of. And that 
there is such assurance attainable in this life, the scripture 
abundantly declareth, both in general and as to particular 
persons. As first. Rev. iii. 12 : " Him that overcometh 
will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall 
go no more out," &c., which containeth a general promise 
unto all. Hence the apostle speaks of some that are sealed, 
2 Cor.i. 22: "Who hath also sealed us, and given the 
earnest of the Spirit in our hearts:" wherefore the Spirit 
so sealing is called the earnest or " pledge of our in- 
heritance," Eph. i. 13, " In whom ye were sealed with 
that Holy Spirit of promise." And therefore the apostle 
Paul, not only in that of the Romans above noted, de- 
clareth himself to have attained that condition, but 2 Tim. 
iv. 7, he affirraeth in these words, "I have fought a good 
fight," &c., which also many good men have and do wit- 
ness. And therefore, as there can be nothing more evident 
than that which the manifest experience of this time show- 
eth, and therein is found agreeable to the experieVice of 


former times, so we see tlit-re have been both of old and 
of late that have turned the grace of God into wantonness, 
and have fallen from their faith and integrity ; thence we 
may safely conclude such a falling away possible. We 
also see that some of old and of late have attained a cer- 
tain assurance, some time before they departed, that they 
should inherit eternal life, and have accordingly died in 
that good hope, of and concerning whom the Spirit of God 
testified that they are saved. Wherefore we also see such a 
state is attainable in this life, from which there is not a fall- 
ing away: for seeing the Spirit of God did so testify, it 
was not possible that they should perish, concerning whom 
he who cannot lie thus bare witness. 


Concernmg the Ministry^ 

As by the light or gift of God all true knowledge in things 
spiritual is received and revealed, so by the same, as it 
is manifested and received in the heart, by the strength 
and power thereof, every true minister of the gospel is 
ordained, prepared, and supplied in the work of the 
ministry ; and by the leading, moving, and drawing 
hereof, ought every evangelist and Christian pastor to be 
led and ordered in his labour and work of the gospel, 
both as to the place where, as to the persons to whom, 
and as to the time wherein he is to minister. Moreover, 
they who have this authority may and ought to preach 
the gospel, though without human commission or litera- 
ture ; as on the other hand, they who want the authority 
of this divine gift, however learned, or authorized by the 
commission of men and churches, are to be esteemed but 
The gospel as deceivers, and not true ministers of the gospel. Also 
"^ ^aci ed ^^^y ^^^° have received this holy and unspotted gift, as 

freely. they have freely received it, so are they freely to give it, 

without hire or bargaining, far less to use it as a trade to 


get money by : yet if God hath called any one from their 
employment or trades, by which they acquire their live- 
lihood, it may be lawful for such, according to the liberty 
which they feel given them in the Lord, to receive such 
temporals (to wit, what may be needful for them for meat 
and clothing) as are given them freely and cordially by 
those, to whom they have communicated spirituals. 

§ I. Hitherto I have treated of those things which re- 
late to the Christian faith and Christians, as they stand each • 
in his private and particular condition, and how and by 
what means every man may be a Christian indeed, and so 
abide. Now I come in order to speak of those things that 
relate to Christians, as they are stated in a joint fellowship 
and communion, and come under a visible and outward 
society, which society is called the church of God, and in The church 
scripture compared to a body, and therefore named the °i-,g spjrif. 

body of Christ. As then in the natural body there beua'^odyof 
1- • J c Christ. 

divers members, all concurring to the common end of pre- 
serving and confirming the whole body, so in this spiritual 
and mystical body there are also divers members, accord- 
ing to the different measures of grace and of the Spirit 
diversely administered unto each member ; and from this 
diversity ariseth that distinction of persons in the visible 
society of Christians, as of apostles, pastors, evangelists, 
ministers, &c. That which in this proposition is proposed, 
is. What makes or constitutes any a minister of the church, 
what his qualifications ought to be, and how he ought to 
behave himself. But because it may seem somewhat pre- 
posterous to speak of the distinct offices of the church, until 
something be said of the church in general, though nothing 
positively be said of it in the proposition ; yet, as here im- 
plied, I shall briefly premise something thereof, and then 
proceed to the particular members of it. 

§ II. It is not in the least my design, to meddle with 

those tedious and many controversies, wherewith the Papists 

and Protestants do tear one another concerning this thing ; 

but only according to the truth manifested to me, and re- 

22* 2h 


vealed in me by the testimony of the Spirit, according to 
that proportion of wisdom given me, brieily to hold forth 
as a necessary introduction both to this matter of the 
ministry and of worship which followeth, those things which 
T, together with my brethren, do believe concerning the 

The church then, according to the grammatical signifi- 
cation of the word, as it is used in the holy scripture, 
signifies an assembly or gathering of many into one place ; 
for the substantive exxXriaia comes from the word sxxaX^u, / 
call out of, and originally from xaXe'w, I call ; and indeed, 
as this is the grammatical sense of the word, so also it is 
the real and proper signification of the thing, the church 
being no other thing but the society, gathering, or company 
of such as God hath called out of the world, and worldly 
spirit, to walk in his Light and Life. The church then so 
defined is to be considered, as it comprehends all that are 
thus called and gathered truly by God, both such as are 
yet in this inferior world, and such as having already laid 
down the earthly tabernacle, are passed into their heavenly 
mansions, which together do make up the one catholic 
church, concerning which there is so much controversy. 
Out of w'hich church we freely acknowledge there can be 
no salvation ; because under this church and its denomina- 
tion are comprehended all, and as many, of whatsoever 
nation, kindred, tongue, or people they be, though out- 
wardly strangers, and remote from those who profess Christ 
and Christianity in words, and have the benefit of the 
scriptures, as become obedient to the holy light and testi- 
mony of God in their hearts, so as to become sanctified by 
it, and cleansed from the evils of their ways. For this is 
the universal or catholic spirit, by which many are called 
from all the four corners of the earth, and shall sit down 
with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob : by this the secret life 
and virtue of Jesus is conveyed into many that are afar off, 
even as by the blood that runs into the veins and arteries 
of the natural body, the life is conveyed from the head and 
heart unto the extreme parts. There may be members 


therefore of this cathohc church both among heathen, Turks and 
Turks, Jews, and all the several sorts of Christians, men become^'^ 
and women of integrity and simplicity of heart, who though members 
blinded in some things in their understanding, and perhaps church, 
burdened with the superstitions and formality of the several 
sects in which they are engrossed, yet being upright in their 
hearts before the Lord, chiefly aiming and labouring to be 
delivered from iniquity, and loving to follow righteousness, 
are by the secret touches of this holy light in their souls 
enlivened and quickened, thereby secretly united to God, 
and there-through become true members of this catholic 
church. Now the church in this respect hath been in being 
in all generations ; for God never wanted some such wit- 
nesses for him, though many times slighted, and not much 
observed by this world ; and therefore this church, though 
still in being, hath been oftentimes as it were invisible, in 
that it hath not come under the observation of the men of 
this world, being, as saith the scripture, Jer. iii. 14, '< one 
of a city, and two of a family." And yet though the church 
thus considered may be as it were hid from wicked men, 
as not then gathered into a visible fellowship, yea and not 
observed even by some that are members of it, yet may 
there notwithstanding many belong to it ; as when Elias 
complained he was left alone, 1 Kings xix. 18, God an- 
swered unto him, "I have reserved to myself seven thou- 
sand men, who have not bowed their knees to the image 
of Baal ;" whence the apostle argues, Rom. xi., the being 
of a remnant in his day. 

§ III. Secondly, The church is to be considered as it ^J- . 
signifies a certain number of persons gathered by God's tion of the 
Spirit, and by the testimony of some of his servants raised God,^as*ga. 
up for that end, unto the belief of the true principles and thered into 

3 visidIg 

doctrines of the Christian faith, who through their hearts fellowship, 
being united by the same love, and their understandings 
informed in the same truths, gather, meet, and assemble 
together to wait upon God, to worship him, and to bear a 
joint testimony for the truth against error, suffering for the 
same, and so becoming through this fellowship as one 


family and household in certain respects, do each of them 
watch over, teach, instruct, and care for one another, ac- 
cording to their several measures and attainments : such 
were the churches of the primitive times gathered by the 
apostles ; whereof we have divers mentioned in the holy 
scriptures. And as to the visibility of the church in this 
respect, there hath been a great interruption since the 
apostles' days, by reason of the apostasy, as will hereafter 

§ IV. To be a member then of the Catholic church, 
there is need of the inward calling of God by his light in 
the heart, and a being leavened into the nature and spirit 
of it, so as to forsake unrighteousness, and be turned to 
righteousness, and in the inwardness of the mind, to be 
cut out of the wild olive tree of our own first fallen 
nature, and ingrafted into Christ by his Word and Spirit 
in the heart. And this may be done in those who are 
strangers to the history, God not having pleased to make 
them partakers thereof, as in the fifth and sixth propositions 
hath already been proved. 

To be a member of a particular church of Christ, as this 
inward work is indispensably necessary, so is also the out- 
ward profession of, and belief in Jesus Christ, and those 
holy truths delivered by his Spirit in the scriptures ; seeing 
the testimony of the Spirit recorded in the scriptures, doth 
answer the testimony of the same Spirit in the heart, even 
as face answereth face in a glass. Hence it follows, that 
the inward work of holiness, and forsaking iniquity, is 
necessary in every respect to. the being a member in the 
church of Christ ; and that the outward profession is neces- 
sary to be a member of a particular gathered church, but 
not to the being a member of the Catholic church ; yet it 
is absolutely necessary, where God aflfords the opportunity 
of knowing it: and the outward testimony is to be believed, 
where it is presented and revealed ; the sum whereof hath 
upon other occasions been already proved. 

§ V. But contrary hereunto, the devil, that worketh and 
hath wrought in the mystery of iniquity, hath taught his 


*b]lowers to affirm, That no man, however holy, is a mem- The mem- 
ber of the church of Christ without the outward profession ; Antiduis- 
and unless he be initiated thereinto by some outward cere- f'^" clmrch 

'' . in the apos 

monies. And again, That men who have this outward tasy, iheir 

])rofession, though inwardly unholy, may be members of fesrion.^"^^' 

the true church of Christ, yea, and ought to be so esteemed. 

This is plainly to put light for darkness, and darkness for 

light ; as if God had a greater regard to words than 

actions, and were more pleased with vain professions than 

with real holiness ; but these things I have sufficiently 

refuted heretofore. Only from hence let it be observed, 

that upon this false and rotten foundation Antichrist hath 

built his Babylonish structure, and the Antichristian church 

in the apostasy hath hereby reared herself up to that height 

and grandeur she hath attained ; so as to exalt herself 

above all that is called God, and sit in the temple of God 

as God. 

For the particular churches of Christ, gathered in the The decay 
111 r 1 • • 1 , of the 

apostles days, soon after beginning to decay as to the church. 

inward life, came to be overgrown with several errors, and 

the hearts of the professors of Christianity to be leavened 

with the old spirit and conversation of the world. Yet it 

pleased God for some centuries to preserve that life in 

many, whom he emboldened with zeal to stand and suffer When men 

for his name through the ten persecutions : but these being christians 

over, the meekness, gentleness, love, loner-sufferinff, ffood- by bnth, 

' ' ° _, . ! ° ^ ^ and not by 

ness, and temperance of Christianity began to be lost, conversion, 

For after that the princes of the earth came to take upon them ^ camelo 
that profession, and that it ceased to be a reproach to be a ^^ '<''*^- 
Christian, but rather became a means to preferment ; men 
became such by birth and education, and not by conver- 
sion and renovation of spirit: then there was none so vile, 
none so wicked, none so profane, who became not a mem- 
ber of the church. And the teachers and pastors thereof 
becoming the companions of princes, and so being en- 
riched by their benevolence, and getting vast treasures and 
estates, became puffed up, and as it were drunken with the 
vain pomp and glory of this world: and so marshalled 



In the 
church of 
Rome are 
no less su- 
and cere- 
monies in- 
than were 
Jews or 
heal lien. 

and what 
there is be- 
twixt the 
and Papists 
ill supersti- 
tions i 

themselves in manifold orders and degrees; not without 
innumerable contests and altercations who should have the 
precedency.* So the virtue, life, substance, and kernel of 
the Christian religion came to be lost, and nothing remained 
but a siiadow and image ; which dead image, or carcase 
of Christianity, to make it take the better with the super- 
stitious multitude of heathen that were engrossed in it, 
not by any inward conversion of their hearts, or by becom- 
ing less wicked, or superstitious, but by a little change in 
the object of their superstition, not having the inward 
ornament and life of the Spirit, became decked with many 
outward and visible orders, and beautified with the gold, 
silver, precious stones, and the other splendid ornaments 
of this perishing world ; so that this was no more to be 
accounted the Christian religion, and Christian church, 
notwithstanding the outward profession, than the dead 
body of a man is to be accounted a living man ; which, 
however cunningly embalmed, and adorned with ever so 
much gold or silver, or most precious stones, or sweet 
ointments, is but a dead body still, without sense, life, or 
motion. For that apostate church of Rome has introduced 
no fewer ceremonies and superstitions into the Christian 
profession, than were either among Jews or heathen; 
and that there is and hath been as much, yea, and more 
pride, covetousness, uncleanness, luxury, fornication, 
profaneness and atheism among her teachers and chief 
bishops, than ever was among any sort of people, none 
need doubt, that have read their own authors, to wit, Platina 
and others. 

Now, though Protestants have reformed from her in some 
of the most gross points and absurd doctrines relating to 
the church and ministry, yet, which is to be regretted, they 
have only lopped the branches, but retain and plead ear- 
nestly for the same root, from which these abuses have 
sprung. So that even among them, though all that mass 
of superstition, ceremonies, and orders be not again estab- 

* As was betwixt the bishop of Rome, and the bishop of Constantinople 


lished, yet the same pride, covetousness and sensuality 
is found to have overspread and leavened their churches 
and ministry, and the life, power and virtue of true religion 
is lost among them ; and the very same death, barrenness, 
dryness and emptiness, is found in their ministry. So 
that in effect they differ from Papists, but in form and some 
ceremonies ; being with them apostatised from the life and 
power the true primitive church and her pastors were in : 
so that of both it may be said truly, without breach of 
charity, that having only a form of godliness, and many of 
them not so much as that, they are deniers of, yea, enemies 
to, the power of it. And this proceeds not simply from 
their not walking answerably to their own principles, and 
so degenerating that way, which also is true ; but, which 
is worse, their laying down to themselves, and adhering to 
certain principles, which naturally, as a cursed root, bring 
forth these bitter fruits : these therefore shall afterwards be 
examined and refuted, as the contrary positions of truth in 
the proposition are explained and proved. 

For as to the nature and constitution of a church,* * i. e. na- 
abstract from their disputes concerning its constant visi- 'ihTpro- 
bility, infallibility, and the primacy of the church of Rome, 'f*^'^'}' 
the Protestants, as in practice, so in principles, differ not iiuw ihey 
from Papists ; for they engross within the compass of their i||(fnib'e'rs 
church, whole nations, making their infants members of ''iceof. 
it, by sprinkling a little water upon them ; so that there is 
none so wicked or profane who is not a fellow-member ; 
no evidence of holiness being required to constitute a 
member of the church. Nay, look through the Protestant 
nations, and there will no difference appear in the lives of 
the generality of the one, more than of the other ; he, 
who ruleth in the children of disobedience, reigning in Christ iani- 
both: so that the reformation, through this defect, is only consisteth 
in holding some less gross errors in the notion, but not in '" '^® '"'^"r 

& o ... newing oi 

having the heart reformed and renewed, in which mainly the heart, 
the life of Christianity consisteth. 

§ VI. But the Popish errors concerning the ministry, 
which they have retained, are most of all to be regretted, 


A Popish by which chiefly the life and power of Christianity is bar- 
n^sTry'alT'" ^etl out among them, and they kept in death, barrenness 
evils fol- anj dryness : there beino- nothing more hurtful than an 

low. -' G a 

error in this respect. For where a false and corrupt 
ministry entereth, all manner of other evils follow upon it, 
Like peo- according to that scripture adage, "Like people, like 
pHust'. ^ priest :" for by their influence, instead of ministering life 
Rosea iv. 9. g,^(j righteousness, they minister death and iniquity. The 
whole backslidings of the Jewish congregation of old are 
hereto ascribed : " The leaders of my people have caused 
them to err." The whole writings of the prophets are full 
of such complaints ; and for this cause, under the New 
Testament, we are so often warned and guarded to " be- 
ware of false prophets, and false teachers," &c. What 
may be thought then, where all, as to this, is out of order ; 
where both the foundation, call, qualifications, maintenance, 
and whole discipline are different from and opposite to the 
ministry of the primitive church ; yea, and necessarily tend 
to the shutting out of a spiritual ministry, and the bring- 
ing in and establishing of a carnal ? This shall appear by 
QvEs. I. § VII. That then which comes first to be questioned in 

this matter, is concerning the call of a minister ; to wit. 
What maketh, or how cometh a man to be, a minister, 
pastor, or teacher in the church of Christ ? 
Answ. We answer ; By the inward power and virtue of the 

Spirit of God. For, as saith our proposition. Having re- 
The call of ceived the true knowledge of things spiritual by the Spirit 
aiid'wTiJre- of God, without which they cannot be known, and being 
in It con- j^y ^j^g same in measure purified and sanctified, he comes 

sj.^leth. •' .... 

thereby to be called and moved to mmister to others ; be- 
ing able to speak, from a living experience, of what he 
himself is a witness ; and therefore knowing the terror of 
the Lord, he is fit to persuade men, &c., 2 Cor. v. 11, 
and his words and ministry, proceeding from the inward 
power and virtue, reach to the heart of his hearers, and 
make them approve of him, and be subject unto him. Our 
Object. adversaries are forced to confess, that this were indeed 


desirable and best ; but this they will not have to be abso- 
lutely necessary. I shall first prove the necessity of it, and 
then show how much they err in that which they make 
more necessary than this divine and heavenly call. 

First ; That which is necessary to make a man a Chris- Akg. 
tian, so as without it he cannot be truly one, must be much ^.'^^Jly "^ 

more necessary to make a man a minister of Christianity ; a" inward 

1 -1 1 11 1 1 • • call to 

seemg the one is a degree above the other, and has it in- make a 

eluded in it ; nothing less than he that supposeth a master, chris^tian. 
supposeth him first to have attained the knowledge and 
capacity of a scholar. They that are not Christians, can- 
not be teachers and ministers among Christians. 

But this inward call, power and virtue of the Spirit of 
God, is necessary to make a man a Christian ; as we have 
abundantly proved before in the second proposition, ac- 
cording to these scriptures, " He that hath not the Spirit 
of Christ, is none of his." " As many as are led by the 
Spirit of God, are the Sons of God :" 

Therefore this call, moving and drawing of the Spirit, 
must be much more necessary to make a minister. 

Secondly ; All ministers of the New Testament ought 2. The mi- 
to be ministers of the Spirit, and not of the letter, accord- "hl's'pfi-it 
ing to that of 2 Cor. iii. 6, and as the old Latin hath it, requires the 

?T 1 1 1 1 1 1 CI • • 11 T> 1 operation 

"JNot by the letter, but by the Spirit. iJut how can a and testi- 
man be a minister of the Spirit, who is not inwardly called {he"spirit. 
by it, and who looks not upon the operation and testimony 
of the Spirit as essential to his call? As he could not be a 
minister of the letter who had thence no ground for his 
call, yea, who was altogether a stranger to and unac- 
quainted with it, so neither can he be a minister of the 
Spirit who is a stranger to it, and unacquainted with the 
motions thereof, and knows it not to draw, act, and move 
him, and go before him in the work of the ministry. I 
would willingly know, how those that take upon them to 
be ministers, as they suppose, of the gospel, merely from 
an outward vocation, without so much as being any ways 
sensible of the work of the Sf\irit, or any inward call there- 
from, can either satisfy themselves or others that they are 
23 2 1 



ministers of the Spirit, or wherein they differ from the 
ministers of the letter ? For, 

3. Under Thirdly ; If this inward call, or testimony of the Spirit, 
people were not essential and necessary to a minister, then the 
iicrded not ministry of the New Testament would not only be no ways 

to doubt, •' . . J J 

wlio should preferable to, but in divers respects far worse than that of 
and'intnis- ^^^ l^^^'- For under the law there was a certain tribe 
ters. allotted for the ministry, and of that tribe certain families 

set apart for the priesthood and other offices, by the im- 
mediate command of God to Moses; so that the people 
needed not be in any doubt who should be priests and 
ministers of the holy things : yea, and besides this, God 
called forth, by the immediate testimony of his Spirit, 
several at divers times to teach, instruct, and reprove his 
people, as Samuel, Nathan, Elias, Elisha, Jeremiah, Amos, 
and many more of the prophets : but now under the new 
covenant, where the ministry ought to be more spiritual, 
the way more certain, and the access more easy unto the 
Lord, our adversaries, by denying the necessity of this in- 
ward and spiritual vocation, make it quite otherways. For 
there being now no certain family or tribe to which the 
ministry is limited, we are left in uncertainty, to choose 
and have pastors at a venture, without any certain assent 
of tlie will of God ; having neither an otitward rule nor 
certainty in this affair to walk by : for that the scripture 
cannot give any certain rule in this matter, hath in the 
third proposition concerning it been already shown. 

4. Christ Fourthly ; Christ proclaims them all thieves and rob- 
t e oor. bgi-s^ llja(- enter not by him the door into the sheepfold, 
John X. 1. but climb up some other way ; whom the sheep ought not 

to hear : but such as come in without the call, movings, 
and leadings of the Spirit of Christ, wherewith he leads 
his children into all truth, come in certainly not by Christ, 
who is the door, but some other way, and therefore are not 
true shepherds. 

§ VIII. To all this they object the succession of the 
clmrch ; alleging. That since Christ gave a call to his 
apostles and disciples, they have conveyed that call to 


their successors, having power to ordain pastors and Succession 
teachers ; by which power the authority of ordaining and fhe\1se ^ 
making ministers and pastors is successively conveyed to J^'^"""*^"'^ . 
us ; so that such, who are ordained and called by the and Ins 
pastors of the church, are therefore true and lawful minis- "^^"^^ ^^' 
ters ; and others, who are not so called, are to be accounted 
but intruders. Hereunto also some Protestants add a ne- 
cessity, though they make it not a thing essential ; That 
besides this calling of the church, every one, being called, 
ought to have the inward call of the Spirit, inclining hira 
fio chosen to his work : but this they say is subjective, and 
not objective ; of which before. 

As to what is subj.oined of the inward call of the Spirit, Answ. 
in that they make it not essential to a true call, but a su- 
pererogation as it were, it showeth how little they set by 
it : since those they admit to the ministry are not so much 
as questioned in their trials, whether they have this or not. 
Yet, in that it hath been often mentioned, especially by the The call of 
primitive Protestants in their treatises on this subject, it I'jefeiTed to 
showeth how much they were secretly convinced in their any other 
minds, that this inward call of the Spirit was most excel- tive Pro- 
lent, and preferable to any other ; and therefore in the most ^^^^^"^s- 
noble and heroic acts of the reformation, they laid claim 
unto it ; so that many of the primitive Protestants did not 
scruple both to despise and disown this outward* call, * Succes- 
when urged by the Papists against them. But now Pro- M^Jjem 
testants, having gone from the testimony of the Spirit, plead Protestants 

r 1 ^^ . ,, . 1 , , n denying the 

tor the same succession; and bemg pressed (by those whom call of the 
God now raiseth up by his Spirit to reform those abuses ^'"^" 
that are among them) with the example of their forefathers' 
practice against Rome, they are not at all ashamed utterly 
to deny that their fathers were called to their work by the 
inward and immediate vocation of the Spirit ; clothing 
themselves with that call, which they say their forefathers 
had, as pastors of the Roman church. For thus (not to go 
further) affirmeth Nicolaus Arnoldus,f in a pamphlet written 

■j- Who gives himself out Doctor and Professor of Sacred Theology 
at Franequer. 


against the same propositions, called, A Theological Exer- 
citation, sect, xl., averring, That they pretended not to an 
immediate act of" the Holy Spirit ; but reformed by the 
virtue of the ordinary vocation which they had in the 
church, as it then was, to wit, that of Rome, &c. 

§ IX. Many absurdities do Protestants fall into, by de- 
riving their ministry thus through the church of Rome. 
Absiirdi- As, first, They must acknowledge her to be a true church 
tetuiiiis'fall ^^ Christ, though only erroneous in some things ; which 

into, by do- contradicts their forefathers so frequently, and vet truly, 
riviiiir tlieir i j ' ^ j ' 

ministry Calling her Antichrist. Secondly, They must needs ac- 

[.jj^glgf ^ knowledge, that the priests and bishops of the Romish 
Rome. church are true ministers and pastors of the church of 
Christ, as to the essential part ; else they could n^ot be fit 
subjects for that power and authority to have resided in ; 
neither could they have been vessels capable to receive 
that power, and again transmit it to their successors. 
Thirdly, It would follow from this, that the priests and 
bishops of the Romish church are yet really true pastors 
and teachers : for if Protestant ministers have no authority 
but what they received from them, and since the church 
of Rome is the same she was at that time of the reforma- 
tion in doctrine and manners, and she has the same power 
now she had then, and if the power lie in the succession, 
then these priests of the Romish church now, which derive 
their ordination from those bishops that ordained the first 
reformers, have the same authority which the successors 
of the reformed have, and consequently are no less minis- 
ters of the church than they are. But how will this agree 
with that opinion which the primitive Protestants had of 
the Romish priests and clergy, to whom Luther did not 
only deny any power or authority, but contrary-wise affirm- 
Lnther af- ed, That it was wickedly done of them, to assume to them- 
a^vo^iTi'an^^' selves Only this authority to teach, and be priests and 
might i.e a ministers, &c. For he himself affirmed, That every good 

preacher. r^\ • • i i i \ • 

Christian (not only men, but even women also) is a 

§ X. But against this vain succession, as asserted either 


by the Papists or Protestants as a necessary thing to the The prc- 
call of a minister, I answer ; That such as plead for it, as cession oF* 
a sufficient or necessary thing to the call of a minister, do Papists and 

i: rot 6st ants 

thereby sufficiently declare their ignorance of the nature of explained. 

Christianity, and how much they are strangers to the Hfe 

and power of a Christian ministry, which is not entailed to 

succession, as an outward inheritance ; and herein, as hath 

been often before observed, they not only make the gospel 

not better than the law, but even far short of it. For Jesus 

Christ, as he regardeth not any distinct particular family or 

nation in the gathering of his children ; but only such as 

are joined to and leavened with his own pure and righteous 

seed, so neither regards he a bare outward succession, 

where his pure, immaculate, and righteous life is wanting ; 

for that were all one. He took not the nations into the new 

covenant, that he might suffer them to fall into the old errors 

of the Jews, or to approve them in their errors, but that he 

might gather unto himself a pure people out of the earth. 

Now this was the great error of the Jews, to think they The Jews' 

were the church and people of God, because they could Abraha,^', 

derive their outward succession from Abraham ; whereby outward 


they reckoned themselves the children of God, as being 
the offspring of Abraham, who was the Father of the Faith- 
ful. But how severely doth the scripture rebuke this vain 
and frivolous pretence ! Telling them, That God is able 
of the stones to raise children unto Abraham ; and that not 
the outward seed, but those that were found in the faith of 
Abraham, are the true children of faithful Abraham. Far 
less then can this pretence hold among Christians, seeing 
Christ rejects all outward affinity of that kind: These, Mat. xii. 48, 
saith he, are my mother, brethren and sisters, who tlo jyja'rj^jjj33 
the will of my Father which is in heaven : And again ; <^c. 
he looked round about him, and said. Who shall do the 
will of God, these, saith he, are my brethren. So then, 
such as do not the commands of Christ, as are not found 
clothed with his righteousness, are not his disciples ; and 
that which a man hath not, he cannot give to another : and 
it is clear, that no man nor church, though truly called of 


God, and as such having the authority of a church and 

minister, can any lonj^er retain that authority, than they 

retain the power, ht'e, and righteousness ol" Christianity ; 

The form for the form is entailed to the power and substance, and 

is entailini^ ^^^ ^^^^ substance to the form. So that when a man ceaseth 

tothepow- iawaidlv in his lieart to be a Christian fwhere his Chris- 

er and sub- . . '' . >^ . 

stance, and tu^uity must lie) by turning to Satan, and becoming a repro- 

etance'to ' ^''t^j I't; is uo more a Cliristian, though he retain tiie name 

the form, and form, than a dead man is a man, though he hath the 

image and representation of one, or tlian the picture or 

statue of a man is a man : and though a dead man may 

serve to a painter to retain some imperfect representation 

of the man, that once was alive, and so one picture may 

serve to make another by, yet none of those can serve to 

make a true living man again, neither can they convey the 

life and spirit of the man ; it must be God, that made the 

Succession man at first, that alone can revive him. As death then 

mterrup - j^-^j^j^gg g^.}^ interruption of an outward natural succession, 

that no art nor outward form can uphold, and as a dead 

man, after he is dead, can have no issue, neither can dead 

images of men make living men: so that it is the living 

that are only capable to succeed one another ; and such as 

die, so soon as they die cease to succeed, or to transmit 

succession. So it is in spiritual things ; it is the life of 

Christianity, taking place in the heart, that makes a Chris- 

The living tian : and so it is a number of such, being alive, joined 

make the together in the life of Christianity, that make a church of 

fr"['^V,u Christ ; and it is all those that are thus alive and quickened, 

lite lost, the _ ' _ ' ' 

church is considered together, that make the Catholic church of 
Christ : therefore when this life ceaseth in one, then that 
one ceaseth to be a Christian ; and all power, virtue, and 
authority, which he had as a Christian, ceaseth with it; so 
that if he hath been a minister or teacher, he ceaseth to be 
so any more : and though he retain the form, and hold to 
the authority in words, yet that signifies no more, nor is it 
of any more real virtue and authority, than the mere image 
of a dead man. And as this is most agreeable to reason, 
so it is to the scripture's testimony ; for it is said of Judas, 


Acts. i. 25, That Judas fell from his ministry and apostle- Judas /"ell 

ship by transgression ; so his transgression caused him to ministry by 

cease to be an apostle any more : whereas, had the apostle- transgres- 

ship been entailed to his person, so that transgression could 

not cause him to lose it, until he had been formally degraded 

by the church (which Judas never was so long as he lived) 

Judas had been as really an apostle, after he betrayed Christ, 

as before. And as it is of one, so of many, yea, of a whole 

church : for seeing nothing makes a man truly a Christian, 

but the life of Christianity inwardly ruUng in his heart ; so 

nothing makes a church, but the gathering of several true 

Christians into one body. Now where all these members 

lose this life, there the church ceaseth to be, though they 

still uphold the form, and retain the name : for when that 

which made them a church, and for which they were a 

church, ceaseth, then they cease also to be a church : and 

therefore the Spirit, speaking to the church of Laodicea, 

because of her lukewarmness. Rev. iii. 16, threateneth to 

spue her out of his mouth. Now, suppose the church The luke 

of Laodicea had continued in that lukewarmness, and had "'?'7""^sa 

' 01 the 

come under that condemnation and judgment, though she church of 
had retained the name and form of a church, and had had 
her pastors and ministers, as no doubt she had at that time, 
yet surely she had been no true church of Christ, nor had 
the authority of her pastors and teachers been to be re- 
garded, because of an outward succession, though perhaps 
some of them had it immediately from the apostles. From 
all which I infer. That since the authority of the Christian 
church and her pastors is always united, and never sepa- 
rated from the inward power, virtue, and righteous life of 
Christianity; where this ceaseth, that ceaseth also. But our 
adversaries acknowledge. That many, if not most of those, 
by and through whom they derive this authority, were alto- 
gether destitute of this life and virtue of Christianity : there- 
fore they could neither receive, have, nor transmit any 
Christian authority. 

But if it be objected. That though the generality of the Object 
bishops an \ priests of the church of Rome, during the 


apostasy, were such wicked men ; yet Protestants affirm, 
and thou thyself seernest to acknowledge, that there were 
some good men among them, whom the Lord regarded, 
and who were true members of the Catholic church of 
Christ ; might not they then have transmitted this au- 
thority ? 
Answ. I answer ; This saith nothing, in respect Protestants do 

not at all lay claim to their ministry as transmitted to them 
by a direct line of good men ; which they can never show, 
The Pro- nor yet pretend to; but generally place this succession as 
p1ead"for a inherent in the whole pastors of the apostate church. 

succession Neither do they plead their call to be good and valid, 
inherent. .... ii-/. i 

because they can derive it through a line oi good men, 

separate and observably distinguishable from the rest of 
the bishops and clergy of the Romish church ; but they 
derive it as an authority residing in the whole : for they 
think it heresy, to judge that the quality or condition of 
the administrator doth any ways invalidate or prejudice 
his work. 

This vain and pretended succession not only militates 
against, and fights with the very manifest purpose and in- 
tent of Christ in the gathering and calling of his church, 
but makes him (so to speak) more blind and less prudent 
than natural men are in conveying and establishing their 
An estate outward inheritances. For where an estate is entailed to 
h L- J , a certain name and family, when that family weareth out, 
volves to and there is no lawful successor found of it, that can make 
none claim's a just title appear, as being really of blood and affinity to 
it, but he to ^j^^ family : it is not lawful for any one of another race or 

whom he •' •' 

Bees meet blood, because he assumes the name or arms of that family, 
so the heir- to possess the estate, and claim the superiorities and 
ship of life privileges of the family ; but by the law of nations the in- 

is enjoyed * => . . 

from Christ heritance devolves into the prince, as being Ultimus Hares ; 

heir. and SO he giveth it again immediately to whom he sees 

meet, and makes them bear the name and arms of the 
family, who then are entitled to the privileges and revenues 
thereof. So in like manner, the true name and title of a 
Christian, by which he hath right to the heavenly in- 


heritance, and is a member of Jesus Christ, is inward 
righteousness and holiness, and the mind redeemed from 
the vanities, lusts, and iniquities of this world ; and a 
gathering or company, made up of such members, makes 
a church. Where this is lost, the title is lost ; and so the 
true seed, to which the promise is, and to which the in- 
heritance is due, becomes extinguished in them, and they 
become dead as to it ; and so it retires, and devolves itself * 
again into Christ, who is the righteous heir of life ; and he 
gives the title and true right again immediately to whom it 
pleaseth him, even to as many as being turned to his pure 
light in their consciences, come again to walk in his right- 
eous and innocent life, and so become true members of his 
body, which is the church. So the authority, power and 
heirship are not annexed to persons, as they bear the mere 
names, or retain a form, holding the mere shell or shadow 
of Christianity ; but the promise is to Christ, and to the 
seed, in whom the authority is inherent, and in as many as 
are one with him, and united unto him by purity and holi- 
ness, and by the inward renovation and regeneration of 
their minds. 

Moreover, this pretended succession is contrary to scrip- 
ture definitions, and the nature of the church of Christ, 
and of the true members. For, first. The church is the 
house of God, the pillar and ground of truth, 1 Tim. iii. 
15. But according to this doctrine, the house of God is The house 
a polluted nest of all sort of wickedness and abominations, "^ poiiuTed 
made up of the most ugly, defiled, and perverse stones "*",*'*; ™ 

1 -1 1 T 1 I -1 1 • 11 atheist nor 

that are m the earth ; where the devil rules m all manner pretender 
of unrighteousness. For so our adversaries confess, and [^here^^^ 
history informs, the church of Rome to have been, as some 
of their historians acknowledge ; and if that be truly the 
house of God, what may we call the house of Satan } Or 
may we call it therefore the house of God, notwithstanding 
all this impiety, because they had a bare form, and that 
vitiated many ways also ; and because they pretended to 
the name of Christianity, though they were antichristian, 
devilish, and atheistical in their whole practice and spirit, 



and also in many of their principles? Would not this infer 
yet a greater absurdity, as if they had been something to 
be accounted of, because of their hypocrisy and deceit, 
and false pretences ? Whereas the scripture looks upon 
that as an aggravation of guilt, and calls it blasphemy, 
Rev. ii. 9. Of two wicked men, he is most to be abiioi 
red, who covereth his wickedness with a vain pretence of 
• God and righteousness ; even so these abominable beasts, 
and fearful monsters, who looked upon themselves to be 
bishops in the apostate church, were never a whit the 
better, that they falsely pretended to be the successors of 
the holy apostles ; unless to lie be commendable, and that 
hypocrisy be the way to heaven. Yea, were not this to 
fall into that evil condemned among the Jews, Jer. vii. 4 : 
"Trust ye not in lying words, saying. The temple of the 
Lord, the temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord are 
these; thoroughly amend your ways," &c., as if such out- 
ward names and things were the thing the Lord regarded, 
and not inward holiness ? Or can that then be the j)illar 
and ground of truth, which is the very sink and pit of 
wickedness, from which so much error, superstition, idola- 
try, and all abomination spring? Can there be ai.y thing 
more contrary both to scripture and reason ? 
II. Secondly, The church is defined to be the kingdom of 

the dear Son of God, into which the saints are translated, 
being delivered from the power of darkness. It is called 
the body of Christ, which from him by joints and bands 
having nourishment ministered and knit together, in- 
creaseth with the increase of God, Col. ii. 19. But can 
such members, such a gathering as we have demonstrated 
that church and members to be, among whom they allege 
their pretended authority to have been preserved, and 
through which they derive their call ; can such, I say, be 
the body of Christ, or members thereof? Or is Christ the 
head of such a corrupt, dead, dark, abominable stinking 
What feU carease ? If so, then might we not as well affirm against 
lowship j}^^ apostle, 2 Cor. vi. 14 : " That righteousness hath fel- 
with Belial? lowship with unrighteousness, that light hath communion 


with darkness, that Christ hath concord with Belial, that a 
believer hath part with an infidel, and that the temple of 
God hath agreement with idols?" Moreover no man is 
called the temple of God, nor of the Holy Ghost, but as 
his vessel is purified, and so he fitted and prepared for 
God to dwell in ; and many thus fitted by Christ become 
his body, in and among whom he dwells and walks, ac- 
cording as it is written, " I will dwell in them, and walk 
in them, and I will be their God, and they shall be my 
people," It is therefore that we may become the temple 
of Christ, and people of God, that the apostle in the fol- 
lowing verse exhorts, saying out of the prophet, " Where- 2 Cor. vi. 
fore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith '' ' 
the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing, and I will re- 
ceive you ; and I will be a father unto you, and ye shall 
be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty." But 
to what purpose is all this exhortation ? And why should 
we separate from the unclean, if a mere outward profes- 
sion and name be enough to make the true church; and if 
the unclean and polluted were both the church and lawful 
successors of the apostles, inheriting their authority, and 
transmitting it to others ? Yea, how can the church be the 
kingdom of the Son of God, as contra-distinguished from 
the kingdom and power of darkness? And what need, 
yea, what possibility, of being translated out of the one 
into the other, if those that make up the kingdom and 
power of darkness be real members of the true church of 
Christ, and not simply members only, but the very pastors 
and teachers of it ? But how do they increase in the in- 
crease of God, and receive spiritual nourishment from 
Christ the head, that are enemies of him in their hearts by 
wicked works, and openly go into perdition ? Verily as 
no metaphysical and nice distinctions, that though they volous^di"" 
were practically as to their own private states enemies to ti"ction of 

1 ^ . ~ enemies to 

God and Christ, and so servants of Satan ; yet they were, God by 
by virtue of their office, members and ministers of the andfmTm- 
church, and so able to transmit the succession; I say, as •^.^•"^ ^^ .^'^ 
1 • 1 1 r • 1 1- • ■ -11 1 , church by 

such invented and frivolous distinctions will not please the office. 


Lord God, neither will he be deluded by such, nor make 
up the glorious body of his church with such mere outside 
hypocritical shows, nor be beholden to such painted se- 
pulchres to be members of his body, which is sound, pure 
and undefded, and therefore he needs not such false and 
corrupt members to make up the defects of it ; so neither 
will such distinctions satisfy truly tender and Christian 
consciences ; especially considering the apostle is so far 
from desiring us to regard this, that we are expressly com- 
manded to turn away from such as have a form of godli- 
ness, but deny the power of it. For we may well object 
against these, as the poor man did against the proud pre- 
late, that went about to cover his vain and unchristian-like 
sumptuousness, by distinguishing that it was not as bishop 
Theanswcr but as prince he had all that splendor. To which the poor 
nislic°to^a ''^'^tic wisely is said to have answered. When the prince 
proud pre- goeth to hell, what shall become of the prelate .■' And 
indeed this were to suppose the body of Christ to be de- 
fective, and that to fill up these defective places, he puts 
counterfeit and dead stufi' instead of real living members; 
like such as lose their eyes, arms, or legs, who make coun- 
terfeit ones of wood or glass instead of them. But we 
cannot think so of Christ, neither can we believe, for the 
reasons above adduced, that either we are to account, or 
that Christ doth account, any man or men a whit the more 
, members of his body, because though they be really 

wicked, they hypocritically and deceitfully clothe them- 
selves with his name, and pretend to it; for this is con- 
trary to bis own doctrine, where he saith expressly, John 
XV. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, &c.. That he is the vine, and his 
disciples are the branches ; that except they abide in him, 
they cannot bear fruit; and if they be unfruitful, they shall 
A withered be cast forth as a branch, and wither. Now I suppose 
draw no' these cut and withered branches are no more true branches 
nourish- j^^j. niembers of the vine ; they can no more draw sap nor 

inent, so _ . 

hath no life nourishment from it, after that they are cut off, and so 
have no more virtue, sap, nor life : What have they then 
to boast or glory of any authority^ seeing they want that 


life, virtue, and nourishment from which all authority 
comes ? So such members of Christ as are become dead 
to him through unrighteousness, and so derive no more 
virtue nor life from him, are cut off by their sins, and 
wither, and have no longer any true or real authority, and 
their boasting of any is but an aggravation of their iniquity 
by hypocrisy and deceit. But further, would not this 
make Christ's body a mere shadow and phantasm ? Yea, 
would it not make him the head of a lifeless, rotten, stink- 
ing carcase, having only some little outward false show, 
while inwardly full of rottenness and dirt? And what a A living 
monster would these men make of Christ's body by assign- a lifeless"^ 
ing it a real, pure, living, quick head, full of virtue and ^°^y' ^^^^ 

"^ . &'T ' a monster 

life, and yet tied to such a dead lifeless body as we have would that 
already described these members to be, which they allege 
to have been the church of Christ ? Again, the members 
of the church of Christ are specified by this definition, to 
wit, as being the sanctified in Christ Jesus, 1 Cor. i. 2. 
But this notion of succession supposeth not only some un- 
sanctified members to be of the church of Christ, but even 
the whole to consist of unsanctified members ; yea, that 
such as were professed necromancers and open servants 
of Satan were the true successors of the apostles, and in 
whom the apostolic authority resided, these being the ves- 
sels through whom this succession is transmitted ; though 
many of them, as all Protestants and also some Papists 
confess, attained these offices in the, so called, church not 
only by such means as Simon Magus sought it, but by 
much worse, even by witchcraft, traditions, money, 
treachery, and murder, which Platina himself confesseth* 
of divers bishops of Rome. 

§ XI. But such as object not this succession of the 
church, which yet most Protestants begin now to do, dis- 
tinguish in this matter, affirming, that in a great apostasy, 
such as was that of the church of Rome, God may raise up 

• In the Life of Benedict IV., of John XVI., of Sylvester III., of Boni- 
face VIII., of Steph. VI., of Joan VIII. Also Onuphrius's Annotations 
upon this Papess, or Popess, towards the end. 




some singularly by his Spirit, who from the testimony of 
the scriptures perceiving the errors into which such as bear 
the name of Christians are fallen, may instruct and teach 
them, and then become authorized by the people's joining 
with and accepting of their ministry only. Most of them 
also will affirm, That the Spirit herein is subjective, and 
not objective. 
Object. But they say. That where a church is reformed, such as 

they pretend the Protestant churches are, there an ordinary 
orderly call is necessary ; and that of the Spirit, as extra- 
ordinary, is not to be sought after : alleging, that res aliter 
se habet in ecclesld constituendd, quam in ecclesid constitutd ; 
that is. There is a difference in the constituting of a church, 
and after it is constituted. 
Answ. I answer, This objection as to us saith nothing, seeing 

we accuse, and are ready from the scriptures to prove the 
A differ- Protestants guilty of gross errors, and needing reformation, 
ed'^be'tween '^^ ^^'^l' 3S they did and do the Papists ; and therefore we 
constituting [j^ay justlv lay claim, if we would, to the same extraordi- 

a church „ . . . 

and one as nary call, havmg the same reason for it, and as good 
. gyjjgf^gg ^Q prove ours as they had for theirs. As for that 
maxim, viz. : That the case is different in constituting a 
church, and a church constituted, I do not deny it ; and 
therefore there may be a greater measure of power required 
to the one than to the other, and God in his wisdom dis- 
tributes the same as he sees meet; but that the same 
immediate assistance of the Spirit is not necessary for' 
ministers in a gathered church as well as in gathering one, 
I see no solid reason alleged for it: for surely Christ's 
promise was to be with his children to the end of the 
world, and they need him no less to preserve and guide 
his church and children than to gather and beget them. 
Nature taught the Gentiles this maxim, JVon minor est vir- 
tus^ quam quarere, parta tiieri, ' To defend what we attain, 
requires no less strength than what is necessary to acquire 
it.' For it is by this inward and immediate operation of 
the Spirit, which Christ hath promised to lead his children 
with into all truth, and to teach them all things, that 


Christians are to be led in all steps, all well last as first, 

which relate to God's glory and their own salvation, as 

we have heretofore sufficiently proved, and therefore need 

not now repeat it. And truly this device of Satan, where- It is a de- 

by he has got people to put the immediate guidings and ^an'^tor men 

leadings of God's Spirit as an extraordinary thing afar off, ^? put^tl'e 

which their forefathers had, but which they now are neither le;idiiigs far 

to wait for nor expect, is a great cause of the growing nier°times. 

apostasy upon the many gathered churches, and is one 

great reason why a dry, dead, barren, lifeless, spiritless 

ministry, which leavens the people into the same death, 

doth so much abound, and is so much overspreading even 

the Protestant nations, that their preaching and worships, 

as well as their whole conversation, is not to be discerned 

from Popish by any fresh living zeal, or lively power of 

the Spirit accompanying it, but merely by the difference of 

some notions and opinions. 

§ XII. Some unwise and unwary Protestants do some- Object. 
times object to us. That if we have such an immediate 
call as we lay claim to, we ought to confirm it by mi- 

But this being an objection once and again urged against Answ. 
the primitive Protestants by the Papists, we need but in 
short return the answer to it that they did to the Papists, 
to wit. That we need not miracles, because we preach no Whether 
new gospel, but that which is already confirmed by all the ™ow^iece^! 
miracles of Christ and his apostles ; and that we offer ^J^^v 'p con 
nothmg but that which we are ready and able to confirm gospel? 
by the testimony of the scriptures, which both already 
acknowledge to be true : and that John the Baptist and John Bap- 
divers of the prophets did none that we hear of, and yet yers'^pro " 
were both immediately and extraordinarily sent. This is P'^^ts did 

. none. 

the common Protestant answer, therefore may suffice in 
this place ; though, if need were, I could say more to this 
purpose, but that I study brevity. 

§ XIII. There is also another sort of Protestants, to wit, 
the English Independents, who differing from the Calvin- 
istical Presbyterians, and denying the necessity of this sue- 


The consti- cession, Of the authority of any national church, take another 
the"iii(k- ^^'^y j a^hrming, That such as have the benefit of the scrip- 
n^"'^'^'" tures, any company of people agreeing in the principles of 
truth as they find tiiem there declared, may constitute among 
themselves a church, without the authority of any oilier, 
and may choose to themselves a pastor, who by the church 
thus constituted and consenting, is authorized, requiring 
only the assistance and concurrence of the pastors of the 
neighbouring churches, if any such there be ; not so much 
as absolutely necessary to authorize, as decent for order's 
sake. Also they go so far as to affirm, Tiiat in a church so 
Gified bre- constituted, any gifted brother, as they call them, if he find 
himself qualified thereto, may instruct, exhort, and preach 
in the church ; though, as not having the pastoral office, 
he cannot administer those which they call their sacra- 

To this I answer. That this was a good step out of the 
Babylonish darkness, and no doubt did proceed from a 
real discovery of the truth, and from the sense of a great 
abuse of the promiscuous national gatherings. Also this 
preaching of the gifted brethren, as they called them, did 
proceed at first from certain lively touches and movings 
Their loss of the Spirit of God upon many; but alas! because they 
and decay. ^ygj;,|- ^q^ forward, that is much decayed among them ; and 
the motions of God's Spirit begin to be denied and reject- 
ed among them now, as much as by others. 
The scrip- But as to their pretended call from the scripture, I an- 
no'^calf'tcT swer, The scripture gives a mere declaration of true things, 
persons in- \y^^{ j^q (.^\\ (q particular persons; so that tiiouiih I believe 

dividual. , , . , . , , 1 , 

the thmgs there written to be true, and deny the errors 
which I find there testified against, yet as to those things 
which may be my particular iluty, I am still to seek ; and 
therefore I can never be resolved in the scripture whether 
I (such a one by name) ought to be a minister? And for 
the resolving this doubt I must needs recur to the inward 
and immediate testimony of the Spirit, as in the proposition 
concerning the scriptures is shown more at large. 

§ XIV. From all this then we do firmly conclude, that 


not only in a general apostasy it is needful men be extra- 
ordinarily called, and raised up by the Spirit of God, but 
that even when several assemblies or churches are gathered 
by the power of God, not only into the belief of the prin- 
ciples of truth, so as to deny errors and heresies, but also 
into the life, spirit, and power of Christianity, so as to be 
the body and house of Christ indeed, and a fit spouse for 
him, that he who gathers them doth also, for the preserving 
them in a lively, fresh, and powerful condition, raise up Truemin- 
and move among them by the inward immediate operation nficadons'" 
of his own Spirit, ministers and teachers, to instruct and call, and 
teach, and watch over them, who being thus called, are 
manifest in the hearts of their brethren, and their call is 
thus verified in them, who by the feeling of that life and 
power that passeth through them, being inwardly builded 
up by them daily in the most holy faith, become the seals 
of their apostleship. And this is answerable to another 
saying of the same apostle Paul, 2 Cor. xiii. 3 : " Since 
ye seek a proof of Christ's speaking in me, which to you- 
wards is not weak, but is mighty in you." So this is that Their lay- 
which gives a true substantial call and title to a minister, |"a^d"a 
whereby he is a real successor of the virtue, life, and power ^°'^}'- ^° 
that was m the apostles, and not oi the bare name : and to man; a 
such ministers we think the outward ceremony of ordina- g^hado'w ^ 

tion or laying on of hands not necessary, neither can we whilst the 
, r^. . . , . , substance 

see the use oi it, seemg our adversaries who use it acknow- is wanting. 

ledge that the virtue and power of communicating the Holy 

Ghost by it is ceased among them. And is it not then 

foolish and ridiculous for them, by an apish imitation, to 

keep up the shadow, where the substance is wanting ? And 

may not they by the same rule, where they see blind and 

lame men, in imitation of Christ and his apostles, bid them 

see and walk ? Yea, is it not in them a mocking of God 

and men, to put on their hands, and bid men receive the 

Holy Ghost, while they believe the thing impossible, and 

confess that that ceremony hath no real effect ? Having 

thus far spoken of the call, I shall proceed next to treat of 

the qualifications and w^ork of a true minister. 

24* 2l 


QuEs. 2. § XV. As I have placed the true call of a minister in 

ficaUoro'r the motion of this Holy Spirit, so is the power, life, and 
a minisier. virtue thereof, and the pure grace of God that comes there- 
from, the chief and most necessary qualification, without 
which he can no ways perform his duty, neither acceptably 
Philoso- to God nor beneficially to men. Our adversaries in this 
P''>''"K . case alHrm, that three things so to the making up of a mi- 

eclioul divi- ' 1 1 r 1 -> * 

nity will nisler, viz. 1. Natural parts, that he be not a fool. 2. Ac- 

Tgolpet ^ qiiired parts, that he be learned in the languages, in philo- 

minister. gophy and school divinity. 3. The grace of God. 

The two first they reckon necessary to the being of a 

minister, so as a man cannot be one without them ; the 

third they say goeth to the well-being of one, but not to 

the being ; so that a man may truly be a lawful minister 

without it, and ought to be heard and received as such. 

But we, supposing a natural capacity, that one be not an 

idiot, judge the grace of God indispensably necessary to 

the very being of a minister, as that without which any can 

neither be a true, nor lawful, nor good minister. As for 

letter-learning, we judge it not so much necessary to the 

■well-being of one, though accidentally sometimes in certain 

respects it may concur, but more frequently it is hurtful than 

A poor helpful, as appeared in the example of Taulerus, who being 

s^ructed ^ learned man, and who could make an eloquent preaching, 

the learned j^ieeded nevertheless to be instructed in the way of the Lord 
Taulerus. tih^ iri • c 

by a poor laic. I shall hrst speak of the necessity ot grace, 

and then proceed to say something of that literature which 

they judge so needful. 

Proof I. First then, as we said in the call, so may we much more 

here, if the grace of God be a necessary qualification to 

make one a true Christian, it must be a qualification much 

more necessary to constitute a true minister of Christianity. 

That grace is necessary to make one a true Christian I 

God's think will not be questioned, since it is "by grace we are 

Brace alone s^ved," Eph. ii. 8. It is the grace of God that teacheth 

dothconsti- ' i " 

tiite a true us to deny ungodliness, and the lusts of this world, and to 

teacher. live godly and righteously, Tit. ii. 11. Yea, Christ saith 

e\])ressly, That without him we can do nothing, John 


XV. 5 ; and the way whereby Christ helpeth, assisteth, and 
worketh with us is by his grace : hence he saith to Paul, 
u My grace is sufficient for thee." A Christian without 
grace is indeed no Christian, but an hypocrite, and a false 
pretender. Then I say, If grace be necessary to a private 
Christian, far more to a teacher among Christians, who must 
be as a father and instructor of others, seeing this dignity 
is bestowed upon such as have attained a greater measure 
than their brethren. Even nature itself may teach us that 
there is more required in a teacher than in those that are 
taught, and that the master must be above and before the 
scholar in that art or science which he teacheth others. 
Since then Christianity cannot be truly enjoyed, neither 
any man denominated a Christian without the true grace 
of God, therefore neither can any man be a true and lawful Proof II. 
teacher of Christianity without it. Who first 

Secondly, No man can be a minister of the church of must be a 

•; ' _ , member oi 

Christ, which is his body, unless he be a member of the the body, 

body, and receive of the virtue and life of the head. jifg jg j-e- 

But he that hath not true ffrace, can neither be a mem- ceived, and 

" ' _ . virtue Irom 

ber of the body, neither receive of that life and nourish- the head. 

ment which comes from the head : 

Therefore far less can he be a minister to edify the 

That he cannot be a minister who is not a member is 
evident ; because he who is not a member is shut out and 
cut off, and hath no place in the body ; whereas, the minis- 
ters are counted among the most eminent members of the 
body. But no man can be a member unless he receive of 
the virtue, life, and nourishment of the head ; for the mem- 
bers that receive not this life and nourishment decay and 
wither, and then are cut off. And that every true member 
doth thus receive nourishment and lifer from the head, the 
apostle expressly affirmeth, Eph. iv. 16: "From whom 
the whole body being fitly joined together, and compacted 
by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effec- 
tual working in the measure of every part, rnaketh increase 
of the body unto the edifying of itself in love." Now this 


that thus is communicated, and which thus uniteth the 
whole, is no other than the grace of God ; and therefore 
the apostle in the same chapter, ver. 7, saith, " But unto 
every one of us is given grace according to the measure of 
the gift of Christ;" and ver. 11, he showeth how tliat by 
*'iis grace and gift both apostles, prophets, evangelists, 
^ .stors, and teachers are given lor the work of the ministry, 
and edifying of the body of Christ. And certainly then 
no man destitute of grace is fit for this work, seeing that 
all that Christ gives are so qualified ; and these that are not 
so qualified, are not given nor sent of Christ, are not to be 
heard, nor received, nor acknowledged as ministers of the 
The sheep gospel, because his sheep neither ought nor will hear the 
neithe'r'*' voicc of a Stranger. This is also clear from 1 Cor. xii. 
°I'?i'V """^ throughout ; for the apostle in that chapter, treating of the 
ihe stran- diversity of gifts and members of the body, showeth how 
gers voice, y^^. ^j^g workings of the same Spirit in ditlerent manifesta- 
tions or measures in the several members of the body the 
whole body is edified, saying, ver. 13, That " we are all 
baptized by the one Spirit into one body ;" and then, ver. 
28, he numbers up the several dispensations thereof, which 
by God are set in the church through the various workings 
of his Spirit for the edification of the whole. Then if there 
be no true member of the body which is not thus baptized 
by the Spirit, neither any thing that worketh to the edify- 
ing of it, but according to a measure of grace received 
from the Spirit, surely without grace none ought to be ad- 
mitted to work or labour in the body, because their labour 
and work, without this grace and Spirit, would be but in 
Tkoof II. § XVI. Thirdly, That this grace and gift is a necessar} 
qualification to a minister, is clear from that of the apostle 
Peter, 1 Pet. iv. 10, 11, "As every man hath received the 
gift, even so minister the same one to another, as good 
stewards of the manifold grace of God. If any man speak 
let him speak as the oracles of God : if any man minister, 
let him do it as of the ability which God giveth ; that God 
in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ; to 


whom be praise and dominion for ever, Amen." From 
which it appears, that those that minister must minister ac- The minis- 
cording to the gift and grace received ; but they that have {fj^'i^^t^"^^ 
not such a gift, cannot minister according thereunto. Se- gift and 
condly, As good stewards of the manifokl grace of God : ceived. 
but how can a man be a good steward of that which he Good stew. 
hath not.'' Can ungodly men, that are not gracious them- what ?^ Of 
selves, be ffood stewards of the manifold grace of God ? ^o*^'^ ,. 

^ . , . ° . abounding 

And therefore in the following verses he makes an exclusive grace, 

limitation of such that are not thus furnished, saying, " If Uie'ability 

any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God ; and ^"^ f^^^" 
•' ^ _ / ,r , , _ ' ardship re- 

if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability that God ceived. 
giveth :" which is as much as if he had said, they that can- 
not thus speak, and thus minister,, ought not to do it : for 
this if denotes a necessary condition. Now what this ability 
is, is manifest by the former words, to wit, the gift received, 
and the grace whereof they are stewards, as by the imme- 
diate context and dependency of the words doth appear. 
Neither can it be understood of a mere natural ability, be- 
cause man in this condition is said " not to know the things 
of God," and so he cannot minister them to others. And 
the following words show this also, in that he immediately 
subjoineth, " that God in all things may be glorified ;" 
but surely God is not glorified, but greatly dishonoured, 
when natural men, from their mere natural ability, meddle 
in spiritual things, which they neither know nor under- 

Fourthly, That grace is a most necessary qualification Proof IV. 
for a minister, appears by those qualifications which the 
apostle expressly requires, 1 Tim. iii. 2 ; Tit. i., &c., where 
he saith, " A bishop must be blameless, vigilant, sober, of 
good behaviour, apt to teach, patient, a lover of good 
men, just, holy, temperate, as the steward of God, hold- 
ing fast the faithful word as he hath been taught." Upon 
the other hand. He must neither be given to wine, nor a 
striker, nor covetous, nor proud, nor self-willed, nor soon 
angry. Now I ask if it be not impossible that a man can 
have all these above-named virtues, and be free of all 


How can a these evils, without the grace of God ? If then these vir- 
these^vir^-^^ tues, for the producing of wliich in a man grace is abso- 
tues with- lutely necessary, be necessary to make a true minister of 
grace of the church of Christ according to the apostle's judgment, 

surely grace must be necessary also. 

Concerning this thing a learned man, and well skilled 

in antiquity, about the time of the reformation, writeth 
Whatso- thus : " Whatsoever is done in the church, either for orna- 
fn^he "^ ment or edification of religion, whether in choosing magis- 
church trates or instituting ministers of the church, except it be 

without the , , , .. r r^ \i c^ ■ ■ i-i- • 1 

ministry of done by tlie nnnistry oi Uod s .Spirit, wluch is as it were the 
Sp^rif ^^^' "^ ^^^^ church, it is vain ancTwicked. For whoever 

is vain and hath iiot been called by the Spirit of God to the great 
wicked. ... 

office of God and dignity of apostleship, as Aaron was, 

and hath not entered in by the door, which is Christ, but 
hath otherways risen in the church by the window, by the 
favours of men, &c., truly such a one is not the vicar of 
Christ and his apostles, but a thief and robber, and the 
Who is Ju- vicar of Judas Iscariot and Simon the Samaritan. Hence 
das Iscari- jj. ^^.^^g ^^ strictly appointed concerning the election of pre- 
lates, which holy Dionysius calls the sacrament of nomi- 
nation, that the bishops and apostles who should oversee 
the service of the church should be men of most entire 
manners and life, powerful in sound doctrine, to give a 
reason for all things." So also another,* about the same 
time, writeth thus : " Therefore it can never be, that by 
the tongues or learning any can give a sound judgment 
concerning the holy scriptures, and the truth of God. 
Lastly," saith he, <'the sheep of Christ seeks nothing but 
the voice of Christ, which he knoweth by the Holy Spirit, 
wherewith he is filled : he regards not learning, tongues, 
or any outward thing, so as therefore to believe this or that 
to be the voice of Christ, his true shepherd ; he knoweth 
that there is need of no other thing but the testimony of the 
Spirit of God." 

• Franciscus Lambertus Avenionensis, in bis book concerning Pro- 
phecy, Learning, Tongues, and the Spirit of Prophecy. Argent, exctu. 
anno J51G, de prov. cap. xxiv. 


§ XVII. Against this absolute necessity of grace they Obj. i. 
object, That if all ministers had the saving grace of God, 
then all ministers should be saved, seeing none can fall 
away from or lose saving grace. 

But this objection is built upon a false hypothesis, Answ. 
purely denied by us ; and we have in the former propo- 
sition concerning perseverance already refuted it. 

Secondly, It may be objected to us, That since we affirm Obj. 2. 
that every man hath a measure of true and saving grace, 
there needs no singular qualification either to a Christian or 
minister ; for seeing every man hath this grace, then no man 
needs forbear to be a minister for want of grace. 

I answer, We have above shown that there is necessary Answ. 
to the making a minister a special and particular call from 
the Spirit of God, which is something besides the universal 
dispensation of grace to all, according to that of the apostle, 
" No man taketh this honour unto himself, but he that is Heb. v. 4. 
called of God, as was Aaron." Moreover, we understand All have 
by grace as a qualification to a minister, not the mere mea- which^dla 
sure of light, as it is given to reprove and call him to right- '» "ght- 

o ' ^ o eousness, 

eousness ; but we understand grace as it hath converted but allare 
the soul, and operateth powerfully in it, as hereafter, con- jlf^ve^g^ 
cerning the work of ministers, will further appear. So we '"'o its na- 

, , . , , . . , ture as to 

understand not men simply as having grace in them as a bring forth 
seed, which we indeed affirm all have in a measure ; but |,\an^^eiegg 
we understand men that are gracious, leavened by it into holy life, 
the nature thereof, so as thereby to bring forth those good 
fruits of a blameless conversation, and of justice, holiness, 
patience, and temperance, which the apostle requires as 
necessary in a true Christian bishop and minister. 

Thirdly, They* object the example of the false prophets, Obj. 3. 
of the Pharisees, and of Judas. 

But First, As to the false prophets, there can nothing be Answ. 
more foolish and ridiculous ; as if because there were 
false prophets, really false, without the grace of God, there- 
fore grace is not necessary to a true Christian minister. 

* So Nic. Arnoldus, sect, xxxii. upon Thesis iv. 


The false Indeed if they had proved that true prophets wanted this 
prophets grace, they had said something ; but what have false pro- 
waiii the phets common with true ministers, but that they pretend 

grace ot ' . ' •' * 

God. falsely that which they have not ? And because fal'se pro- 

phets want true grace, will it therefore follow, that true 
prophets ought not to have it, that they may be true and 
not false? Tlie example of the Pharisees and priests 
imder the law will not answer to the gospel times, because 
The service God set apart a particuhir tribe for that service, and par- 
under the ticular families, to whom it belono^ed by a lineal succession ; 

law was not ' o J ' 

purely spi- and aiso their service and work was not purely spiritual, 
figurative, but only the performance of some outward and carnal ob- 
for the per- gg|.yj^^JQjjg ^^^^ ceremonies, which were but a shadow of 

lonnance oi ' 

wliich, as the substance that was to come ; and therefore their work 
hovod to be iTiade not the comers thereunto perfect, as appertaining to 
f "'^^I'hei ^^^^ conscience, seeing they were appointed only according 
outward to the law of a carnal commandment, and not according 
sothemin- to the power of an endless life. Notwithstanding as in 
istersof the ^]^g ^cr^^yQ tjjgy ■^ygry ^o be without blemish as to their out- 

gospelmust . 

be inwardly ward man, and in the performance of their work they were 
blemish. to be washed and purified from their outward pollutions, 
so now, under the gospel times, the ministers in the anti- 
type must be inwardly without blemish in their souls and 
spirits, being, as the apostle requires, blameless, and in 
their work and service must be pure and undefiled from 
their inward pollutions, and so clean and holy, that they may 
" offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God by Jesus 
The minis- Christ," 1 Pet. ii. 5. As to Judas, the season of his minis- 
discmlcs^of ^^y ^^'^^ "°* wholly evangelical, as being before the work 
Christ be- was finished, and while Christ himself and his disciples 

fore the i t • i i i 

work was were yet subject to the Jewish observances and constitu- 
s\"s more tions, and therefore his commission, as well as that which 
legal than the rest received with him at that time, was " only to the 
lical.° house of Israel," Mat. x. 5, 6 ; by virtue of that commis- 

sion the rest of the apostles were not empowered to go 
forth and preach after the resurrection until they had 
waited at Jerusalem for the pouring forth of the Spirit : so 
that it appears Judas's ministry was more legal than evan- 


gelical. Secondly, Judas's case, as all will acknowledge, 
was singular and extraordinary, he being immediately Judas was 
called by Christ himself, and accordingly furnished and Jy J!|i^fjS 
empowered by him to preach, and do miracles; which Christ, and 

,. . . , . , preached 

immediate commission our adversaries do not so much as treely, 
pretend to, and so fall short of Judas, who trusted in rHvin^"! 
Christ's words, and therefore went forth and preached, will not do; 

. , , , ., . „ 1 . . • • /• 1 although 

without gold or silver, or scrip lor his journey ; giving treely they 

as he had freely received ; which our adversaries will not ^patteni"of 

do, as hereafter shall be observed : also that Judas at that their grace- 

11 It f /-I 11 T 1 l^ss minis- 

time had not the least measure ot Uod s grace, 1 have not try, say- 
as yet heard proved. But is it not sad, that even Pro- j-|)^",j|g ^'^^ 
testants should lay aside the eleven good and faithful least 
apostles, and all the rest of the holy disciples and ministers God'sgrace 

of Christ, and betake them to that one, of whom it was f' ''^"^ 
' _ ' time. 

testified that he was a devil, for a pattern and example to 
their ministry.'' Alas ! it is to be regretted, that too many 
of them resemble this pattern over much. 

Another objection is usually made against the necessity Object. 
of grace,* That in case it were necessary, then such as Arnoidus^'^' 
wanted it could not truly administer the sacraments ; and 
consequently the people would be left in doubts and in- 
finite scruples, as not knowing certainly whether they had 
truly received them, because not knowing infallibly 
whether the administrators were truly gracious men. 

But this objection hitteth not us at all, because the na- Answ,. 
ture of that Spiritual and Christian worship, which we 
according to the truth plead for, is such as is not neces- 
sarily attended with these carnal and outward institutions, 
from the administering of which the objection ariseth ; and 
so hath not any such absurdity following upon it, as will 
afterwards more clearly appear. 

§ XVIII. Though then we make not human learning what true 
necessary, yet we are far from excluding true learning ; to 'eammgig.. 
wit, that learning which proceedeth from the inward 
teachings and instructions of the Spirit, whereby the soul 
learneth the secret ways of the Lord, becomes acquainted 
with many inward travails and exercises of the mind ; and 
25 2 m 



The good 
wliicli is 
to a true 

is first tiie 
of Latin, 
Greek, and 

learneth by a living experience how to overcome evil, anu 
the temptations of it, by following the Lord, and walking 
in his light, and waiting daily for wisdom and knowledge 
immediately from the revelation thereof; and so layeth up 
these heavenly and divine lessons in the good treasure of 
the heart, as honest Mary did the sayings which she heard, 
and things which she observed : and also out of this trea- 
sure of the soul, as the good scribe, brings forth things 
new and old, according as the same Spirit moves, and 
gives true liberty, and as the glory of God requires, for 
whose glory the soul, which is the temple of God, learneth 
to do all things. This is that good learning which we 
think necessary to a true minister ; by and through which 
learning a man can well instruct, teach, and admonish in 
due season, and testify for God from a certain experience; 
as did David, Solomon, and the holy prophets of old, and 
the blessed apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ, Who testi- 
fied of what they had seen, heard, felt, and handled of 
the word of life, 1 John i. 1, Ministering the gift according 
as they had received the same, as good stewards of the 
manifold grace of God ; and preached not the uncertain 
rumors of men by hearsay, which they had gathered merely 
in the comprehension, while they were strangers to the 
thing in their own experience in themselves : as to teach 
people how to believe, while themselves were unbelieving ; 
or how to overcome sin, while themselves are slaves to it, 
.as all ungracious men are ; or to believe and hope for an 
■eternal reward, which themselves have not as yet arrived 
■at, &c. 

§ XIX. But let us examine this literature, which they 
make so necessary to the being of a minister ; as in the 
first place, the knowledge of the tongues, at least the Latin, 
Greek, and Hebrew. The reason of this is. That they may 
read the scripture, which is their only rule, in the original 
languages, and thereby be the more capable to comment 
upon it, and interpret it, &c. That also which made this 
knowledge be the more prized by the primitive Protestants, 
was indeed the dark barbarity that was over the world in 


the centuries immediately preceding the reformation ; the 
knowledge of the tongues being about that time, until it 
was even then restored by Erasmus and some others, al- 
most lost and extinct. And this barbarity was so much Before the 
the more abominable, that the whole worship and prayers [he^prayer" 
of the people were in the Latin tono^ue ; and among that °{ ''^"^ P^°.' 

'■ '^ , . ° pie were in 

vast number of priests, monks and friars, scarce one of a the Latin 

thousand understood his breviary, or that mass which he '^"^^®" 

daily read and repeated : the scripture being, not only to 

the people, but to the greater part of the clergy, even as to 

the literal knowledge of it, as a sealed book. I shall not The zeal 

at all discommend the zeal that the first reformers had voursofihe 

against this Babylonish darkness, nor their pious endea- ^'"^^ ^®^°''" 

° •' ' r mers com- 

vours to translate the holy scriptures : I do truly believe, mended. 
according to their knowledge, that they did it candidly : 
and therefore to answer the just desires of those that desire The know- 
to read them, and for other very good reasons, as main- languages 
taining a commerce and understanding among divers na- commend- 

° . able, and 

tions by these common languages, and others of that kind, schools ne- 
we judge it necessary and commendable that there be "^^^^^^'y* 
public schools for the teaching and instructing such youth, 
as are inclinable thereunto, in the languages. And al- 
though that papal ignorance deserved justly to be abhorred 
and abominated, we see nevertheless, that the true reforma- 
tion consists not in that knowledge ; because although since ThePapists' 
that time the Papists, stirred up through emulation of the and know- 
Protestants, have more applied themselves to literature, and ledge, espe- 

. ..... . cially the 

it now more flourisheth in their universities and cloisters, Jesuits. 
than before, especially in the Ignatian or Jesuitic sect, they 
are as far now as ever from a true reformation, and more 
hardened in their pernicious doctrines. But all this will 
not make it a necessary qualification to a minister, far less a 
more necessary qualification than the grace of God and his 
Spirit ; because the Spirit and grace of God can make up 
this want in the most rustic and ignorant ; but this know- 
ledge can no ways make up the want of the Spirit in the 
most learned and eloquent. For all that which man by his 
own industry, learning and knowledge in the languages, 


The Spirit Can interpret of the scriptures, or find out, is nothing with- 
interprcter o^^ the Spirit ; he cannot be certain, but may still miss of 
of the scrip- t|^g sense of it: whereas a poor man, that knoweth not a 

tures, whe- ' . ' 

ther ironi letter, when he heareth the scrij)lures read, by the same 
lanirua'^'usl^ Spirit he can say, This is true ; and by the same Spirit he 
or without (.r^J^ understand, open, and interpret it, if need be : yea, 
finding his condition to answer the condition and ex- 
perience of the saints of old, he knoweth and possesseth 
the truths there delivered, because they are sealed and wit- 
nessed in his own heart by the same Spirit. And this we 
have plentiful experience of in many of those illiterate men, 
whom God hath raised up to be ministers in his church in 
this day ; so that some such, by his Spirit, have corrected 
some of the errors of the translators, as in the third pro- 
position concerning the scriptures I before observed. Yea, 
A poor I know myself a poor shoemaker, that cannot read a word, 
^harcouW ' '^^'^^ being assaulted with a false citation of scripture, from 

not read, a public professor of divinity, before the magistrate of a 
refutes a. iiiii i' c i-. 

professor of City, when he had been taken up tor preaclnng to some 

^^^"asser- ^''^^^' ^^^"^^ Came to hear him ; I say, I know such a one, and 
tions from he is yet alive, who though the professor, who also is 
scripture. , , , , , ^ i i • • . 

esteemed a learned man, constantly asserted his saying to 

be a scripture sentence, yet affirmed, not through any certain 
letter-knowledge he had of it, but from the most certain 
evidence of the vSpirit in himself, that the professor was 
mistaken ; and that the Spirit of God never said any such 
thing as the other affirmed : and the bible being brought, 
it was found as the poor shoemaker had said. 
2. Logic § XX. The second part of their literature is logic and 

sophyWot philosophy, an art so little needful to a true minister, that 

needful to ^f q^q ^]^^^ comes to be a true minister hath had it, it is 

safest for him to forget and lose it ; for it is the root and 

ground of all contention and debate, and the way to make 

a thing a great deal darker, than clearer. For under the 

pretence of regulating man's reason into a certain order 

and rules, that he may find out, as they pretend, the truth, 

it leads into such a labyrinth of contention, as is far more 

^ fit to make a sceptic than a Christian, far less a minister 


of Christ: yea, it often hinders man from a clear under- 
standing of things that his own reason would give him ; 
and therefore through its manifold rules and divers inven- 
tions, it often gives occasion for a man, that hath little 
reason, foolishly to speak much to no purpose ; seeing a 
man, that is not very wise, may notwithstanding be a per- 
fect logician. And then, if ye would make a man a fool 
to purpose that is not very wase, do but teach him logic 
and philosophy ; and whereas before he might have been 
fit for something, he shall then be good for nothing, but to 
speak nonsense ; for these notions will so swim in his head, 
that they will make him extremely busy about nothing. 
The use that wise and solid men make of it, is, to see the The use of 
emptiness thereof; therefore saith one, It is an art of con- selTtsemp- 
tention and darkness, by which all other sciences are ren- tmess. 
dered more obscure, and harder to be understood. 

If it be urged. That thereby the truth may be maintained 
and confirmed, and heretics confuted ; 

I answer. The truth, in men truly rational, needeth not Answ. 
the help thereof; and such as are obstinate, this will not 
convince ; for by this they may learn twenty tricks and 
distinctions, how to shut out the truth : and the truth pro- 
ceeding from an honest heart, and spoken forth from the 
virtue and Spirit of God, will have more influence, and 
take sooner and more effectually, than by a thousand de- 
monstrations of logic ; as that heathen philosopher* acknow- a heathen 
ledo^ed, who, disputing with the Christian bishops in the pl^ilosopher 

o _' ; I o _ -c^ disputing 

council of Nice, was so subtile, that he could not be over- with the 
come by them ; but yet by a few words spoken by a simple the ^council 
old rustic, was presently convinced by him, and converted of Nice, 

, , ^ , -' . . was con- 

to the Christian faith ; and being enquired how he came vened to 

to yield to that ignorant old man, and not to the bishops ; ti^n faith " 

he said, That they contended with him in his own way, by an igno 

' . *' . •" rant old 

and he could still give words for words ; but there came man, when 
from the old man that virtue, which he was not able to n^^f *^'^" 
resist. This secret virtue and power ought to be the logic and 

* Lucee Osiandri Epit. Hist. Eccles., lib. ii., cap. 5., cent. 4. 




Natural lo- 
gic useful. 

3. Ethics, 
or the man- 
ner-rules to 

not needful. 

4. Physics 
and the me- 
make no 
of tlie truth. 

III. The 
learned ■ 
vinity ob- 
noxious ; a 
a letter- 

philosophy wherewith a true Christian minister shotiltJ be 
furnished ; and for which they need not be beholden to 
Aristotle. As to natural logic, by which rational men, 
without that art and rules, or sophistical learning, deduce 
a certain conclusion out of true propositions, which scarce 
any man of reason wants, we deny not the use of it ; and 
I have sometimes used it in this treatise ; which also may 
serve without that dialectic art. As for the other part of 
philosophy, which is called moral, or ethics, it is not so 
necessary to Christians, who have the rules of the holy 
scriptures, and the gift of the Holy Spirit, by which they 
can be much better instructed. The physical and meta- 
physical part may be reduced to the arts of medicine and 
the mathematics, which have nothing to do with the essence 
of a Christian minister. And therefore the apostle Paul, 
who well understood what was good for Christian minis- 
ters, and what hurtful, thus exhorted the Colossians, Col. 
ii. S, "Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy 
and vain deceit." And to his beloved disciple Timothy 
he writes also thus, 1 Tim. vi. 20, " Timothy, keep that 
which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane and vain 
babblings, and oppositions of science, falsely so called." 

§ XXI. The third and main part of their literature is 
school-divinity, a monster, made up of some scriptural no- 
tions of truth, and the heathenish terms and maxims; 
being, as it were, the heathenish philosophy christianized, 
or rather, the literal external knowledge of Christ heathen- 
ized. It is man in bis first, fallen, natural state, with his 
devilish wisdom, pleasing himself with some notions of 
truth, and adorning them with his own sensual and carnal 
wisdom, because he thinks the simplicity of the truth too low 
and mean a thing for him ; and so despiseth that simplicity, 
wheresoever it is found, that he may set up and exalt him- 
self, puffed up with this his monstrous birth. It is the devil, 
darkening, obscuring, and veiling the knowledge of God, 
with his serpentine and worldly wisdom ; that so he may 
the more securely deceive the hearts of the simple, and 
make the truth, as it is in itself, despicable and hard to be 


known and understood, by multiplying a thousand difficult 
and needless questions, and endless contentions and de- 
bates. All which, he who perfectly knoweth, is not a whit 
less the servant of sin than he was ; but ten times more so, 
in that he is exalted, and proud of iniquity, and so much 
the farther from receiving, understanding, or learning the 
truth, as it is in its own naked simplicity ; because he is 
full, learned^ rich, and wise in his own conceit : and so 
those that are most skilled in it, wear out their day, and 
spend their precious time about the infinite and innumer- 
able questions they have feigned and invented concerning 
it. A certain learned man called it, A twofold discipline, 
like the race of the Centaurs, partly proceeding from divine 
sayings, partly from philosophical reasons. A thousand of Its needless 
their questions they confess themselves to be no-ways ne- and^e'idiesa 
cessary to salvation ; and yet many more of them they j'ingli"gs- 
could never agree upon, but are, and still will be, in end- 
less janglings about them. The volumes that have been 
written about it, a man in his whole age could scarce read, 
though he lived to be very old ; and when he has read 
them all, he has but wrought himself a great deal more 
vexation and trouble of spirit than he had before. These 
certainly are the words multiplied without knowledge ; 
by which counsel hath been darkened. Job xxxviii. 2. 
They make the scripture the text of all this mass ; and it is 
concerning the sense of it that their voluminous debates 
arise. But a man of a good upright heart may learn more 
in half an hour, and be more certain of it, by waiting upon 
God, and his Spirit in the heart, than by reading a thou- 
sand of their volumes ; which by filling his head with many 
needless imaginations, may well stagger his faith, but never 
confirm it : and indeed those that give themselves most to 
it, are most capable to fall into error, as appeareth by the 
example of Origen, who, by his learning, was one of the 
first, that falling into this way of interpreting the scriptures, 
wrote so many volumes, and in them so many errors, as 
very much troubled the church. Also Arius, led by this 
curiosity and human stiii+iny, despising the simplicity of 


Whereby the gospel, ft^ll into his error, which was the cause of that 
mt""error I'orrible heresy which so much troubled the church. Me- 
andsclustn. thinks the simplicity, plainness, and brevity of the scrip- 
tures themselves, should be a sufHcient reproof for such a 
science ; and the apostles, being honest, plain, illiterate 
men, may be better understood by such kind of men now, 
than with all that mass of scholastic stuff, which neither 
Peter, nor Paul, nor John, ever thought of. 
The apos- § XXII. But this invention of Satan, wherewith he be- 
daiii^erous g^^^ the apostasy, hath been of dangerous consequence ; 
conse- f-Qp thereby he at first spoiled the simplicity of truth, by 

queiice. . •' _ ^ . . 'J 

keeping up the heathenish learning, which occasioned such 
Many of uncertainty, even among those called Fathers, and such 
do^noroniy^ ^^bate, that there are few of them to be found, who, by 
cnnfradict rcasou of this mixture, do not only frequently contradict 

each other, , i /- 

but them- one another, but themselves also. And therefore when the 
and why .^°' ^po^tasy grew greater, he, as it were, buried the truth with 
this veil of darkness, wholly shutting out people from true 
knowledge, and making the learned [so accounted) busy 
themselves with idle and needless questions ; while the 
weighty truths of God were neglected, and went, as it were, 
into disuse. 

Now, though the grossest of these abuses be swept away 
by Protestants ; yet the evil root still remains, and is nou- 
rished and upheld ; and the science kept up, as being 
deemed necessary for a minister : for, while the pure learn- 
ing of the Spirit of truth is despised and neglected, and 
made ineffectual, man's fallen earthly wisdom is upheld ; 
and so in that he labours and works with the scriptures, 
being out of the Life and Spirit which those that wrote 
them were in, by which only they are rightly understood, 
Merchan- and made use of. And so he thut is to be a minister, must 
the scrip- ^ ^earn this art or trade of merchandizing with the scriptures, 
lures, what and be that which the apostle wcidd not be, to wit, a trader 
See also with them, 2 Cor. ii. 17. That he may acquire a knack 
*^''"' ■ from a verse of scripture, by adding his own barren notions 
and conceptions to it, and his uncertain conjectures, and 
what he hath stolen out of books : for wliich end he must 


have of necessity a good many by him, and may each 
Sabbath-day, as they call it, or oftener, make a discourse 
for an hour long ; and this is called the preaching of the And this 
word : whereas the gift, grace, and Spirit of God, to teach, JheprTach- 
open, and instruct, and to preach a word in season, is ne- ing of the 


glected ; and so man's arts and parts, and knowledge, and 
wisdom, which is from below, are set up and established Thus Anti- 
in the temple of God, yea, and above the littlt seed ; which eJt"blislied 
in effect is Antichrist, working: in the mystery. And so the ^''oy*^ l^f 

' ° . . „ seed 01 the 

devil may be as good and able a minister as the best of kmgdom. 
them ; for he has better skill in languages, and more logic, How the 
philosophy and school-divinity, than any of them; and ^^^^'^^^^_ 
knows the truth in the notion better than they all, and can ter of the 
talk more eloquently than all those preachers. But what gospel, 
availeth all this ? Is it not all but as death, as a painted 
sepulchre, and dead carcase, without the power, life and 
spirit of Christianity, which is the marrow and substance 
of a Christian ministry .'' And he that hath this, and can 
speak from it, though he be a poor shepherd, or a fisher- 
man, and ignorant of all that learning, and of all those 
questions and notions ; yet speaking from the Spirit, his 
ministry will have more influence towards the converting 
of a sinner unto God, than all of them who are learned 
after the flesh ; as in that example of the old man at the 
council of Nice did appear. 

§ XXIII. And if in any age, since the apostles' days. The power 
God hath purposed to show his power by weak instruments, weak in- 
for the battering; down of that carnal and heathenish wis- struments 

. . .... restoring 

dom, and restoring again the ancient simplicity of truth, the simph 
this is it. For in our day, God hath raised up witnesses truth, 
for himself, as he did fishermen of old ; many, yea, most 
of whom, are labouring and mechanic men, who, altoge- 
ther without that learning, have, by the power and Spirit 
of God, struck at the very root and ground of Babylon; 
and in the strength and might of this power, have gathered 
thousands, by reaching their consciences, into the same 
power and life, who, as to the outward part, have been far 
more knowing than they, yet not able to resist the virtue 




The power- 
ful ministry 
of illiterate 

The time 
of the au- 
thor's first 
Job xxviii. 

Qtjes. 3. 

Tiie work 
of a minis- 

that proceeded from them. Of which I myself ara a true 
witness ; and can declare from certain experience, because 
my heart hath been often greatly broken and tendered by 
that virtuous life that proceeded from the powerful ministry 
of those illiterate men : so that by their very countenance, 
as well as words, I have felt the evil in me often chained 
down, and the good reached to and raised. What shall I 
then say to you, who are lovers of learning, and admirers 
of knowledge .'' Was not I also a lover and admirer of it, 
who also sought after it, according to my age and capacity } 
But it pleased God, in his unutterable love, early to with- 
stand my vain endeavours, while I was yet but eighteen 
years of age ; and made me seriously to consider (which I 
wish also may befal others) That without holiness and 
regeneration, no man can see God ; and that the fear 
of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom, and to depart from 
iniquity, a good understanding; and how much knowledge 
puffeth up, and leadeth away from that inward quietness, 
stillness, and humility of mind, where the Lord appears, 
and his heavenly wisdom is revealed. If ye consider these 
things, then will ye say with me, that all this learning, wis- 
dom and knowledge, gathered in this fallen nature, is but 
as dross and dung, in comparison of the cross of Christ; 
especially being destitute of that power, life and virtue, 
which I perceived these excellent (though despised, be- 
cause illiterate) witnesses of God to be filled with : and 
therefore seeing, that in and among them, I, with many 
others, have found the heavenly food that gives content- 
ment, let my soul seek after this learning, and wait for it 
for ever. 

§ XXIV, Having thus spoken of the call and qualifica- 
tions of a gospel- minister, that which comes next to be 
considered, is. What his proper work is, how, and by what 
rule, he is to be ordered.'* Our adversaries do all along go 
upon externals, and therefore have certain prescribed rules . 
and methods, contrived according to their human and 
earthly wisdom : we, on the contrary, walk still upon tlie 
same foundation, and lean always upon the immediate as- 


sistance and influence of that Holy Spirit, which God hath The Holy 

given his children, to teach them all things, and lead them gpirlt'of 

in all things : which Spirit, being the Spirit of order, and order and 

o r 5 t> r ? _ not 01 con- 

not of confusion, leads us, and as many as follow it, into fusion. 

such a comely and decent order as becometh the church 
of God. But our adversaries, having shut themselves out 
from this immediate counsel and influence of the Spirit, 
have run themselves into many confusions and disorders, 
seeking to establish an order in this matter. For some will Popish or- 
have first a chief bishop, or pope, to rule and be a prince offices, &c. 
over all ; and under him, by degrees, cardinals, patriarchs, 
archbishops, priests, deacons, sub-deacons ; and besides 
these, Acoluthi, Tonsorati, Ostiarii, &c. And in their 
theology (as they call it) professors, bachelors, doctors, &c. 
And others would have every nation independent of an- 
other, having its own metropolitan or patriarch ; and the 
rest in order subject to him, as before. Others again are 
against all precedency among pastors, and constitute their 
subordination not of persons, but of powers : as first the 
consistory, or session ; then the class, or presbytery ; then 
the provincial ; and then the national synod or assembly. 
Thus they tear one another, and contend among themselves 
concerning the ordering, distinguishing, and making their 
several orders and offices ; concerning which there hath 
been no less contest, not only by way of verbal dispute, 
but even by fighting, tumults, wars, devastations, and Wars and 
bloodshed, than about the conquering, overturning, and ^^^^^^ 

establishing of kingdoms. And the histories of late times church go 
3 ° _ . vernment. 

are as full of the various tragedies, acted on account of 

this spiritual and ecclesiastical monarchy and common- 
wealth, as the histories of old times are of the wars and 
contests that fell out both in the Assyrian, Persian, Greek 
and Roman empires : these last upon this account, though 
among those that are called Christians, have been no less 
bloody and cruel than the former among heathen, concern- 
ing their outward empires and governments. Now all this, The ground 
both among Papists and Protestants, proceedeth, in that thereor^ 
they seek in imitation to uphold a form and shadow of 


things, though they want the power, virtue and substance ; 
while for many of their orders and forms they have not so 
much as the name in the scrij)ture. But in opposition to 
all this mass of formality, and heap of orders, rules and 
governments, we say, the substance is chiefly to be sought 
after, and the power, virtue and spirit, is to be known and 
waited for, which is one in all the different names and 
offices the scripture makes use of; as appears by 1 Cor. xii. 
4, (often before mentioned) " There are diversities of gifts, 
but the same Spirit." And after the apostle, throughout 
the whole chapter, hath shown how one and the selfsame 
Spirit worketh in and quickeneth each member; then in 
verse 28, he showeth how thereby God hath set in the 
church, first apostles, secondly prophets, teachers, &c. And 
likewise to the same purpose, Eph. iv. 11, he showeth, how 
by these gifts '< he hath given some apostles, some prophets, 
some evangelists, some pastors, some teachers," &,c. Now 
it never was Christ's purpose, nor the apostles', that Chris- 
tians should, without this Spirit and heavenly gift, set up a 
shadow and form of these orders, and so make several 
ranks and degrees, to establish a carnal ministry of men's 
making, without the life, power and Spirit of Christ : this 
The work is that work of Antichrist, and mystery of iniquity, that 
Christ and l^^th got up in the dark night of apostasy. But in a true 
mystery of church of Christ, gathered together by God, not only into 

iniquity. . ? . ^ •' . 

the belief of the principles of truth, but also into the power, 

life and Spirit of Christ, the Spirit of God is the orderer, 

ruler and governor; as in each particular, so in the general. 

And when they assemble together to wait upon God, and 

Such as the to worship and adore him ; then such as the Spirit sets 

npaf. tcTthe ap^^t for the ministry, by its divine power and influence 

ministry, openinor their mouths, and givinsr them to exhort, reprove, 

thi^rbre- r o ^ o o i r i 

thren hear and instruct with virtue and power ; these are thus ordained 
iiein. ^^ Q^^ ^i^j admitted into the ministry, and their brethren 

cannot but hear them, receive them, and also honour them 
for their work's sake. And so this is not monopolized by 
The clergy a Certain kind of men, as the clergy (who are to that pur- 
and laics. ^^^.^ educated and brought up as other carnal artists) and 


the rest to be despised as laics ; but it is left to the free 
gift of God to choose any whom he seeth meet thereunto, 
whether rich or poor, servant or master, young or old, yea, 
male or female. And such as have this call, verify the Women 
gospel, by preaching not in speech only, but also in !^each. 
power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in much fulness, 1 
Thess. i. 5, and cannot but be received and heard by the 
sheep of Christ. 

§ XXV. But if it be objected here. That I seem hereby Object. 
to make no distinction at all betwixt ministers and others ; 
which is contrary to the apostle's saying, 1 Cor. xii. 29, 
"Are all apostles ? Are all prophets ? Are all teachers ?" 
&c. From thence they insinuate, That I also contradict 
his comparison in that chapter, of the church of Christ with 
a human body ; as where he saith, verse 17, " If the whole 
body were an eye, where were the hearing? If the whole 
were hearing, where were the smelling?" &c. Also the 
apostle not only distinguisheth the ministers of the church 
in general from the rest of the members, but also from them- 
selves ; as naming them distinctly and separately, apostles, 
prophets, evangelists, pastors, teachers, &c. 

As to the last part of this objection, to which I shall first Ans. l. 
answer ; it is apparent, that this diversity of names is not Diversity 
to distinguish separate offices, but to denote the different makes^no 
and various operations of the Spirit : a manner of speech distinct 

•11 iT-»ii-i • offices; but 

frequent with the apostle Paul, wherem he sometimes which may 

expatiates to the illustrating of the glory and praise of be"toge^ther 

God's grace : as in particular, Rom. xii. 6 : " Havinsf then i" ^"^ P'^'"' 

gifts differing according to the grace that is given us, 

whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the pro- 
portion of faith ; or ministry, let us wait on our minister- 
ing ; or he that teacheth, on teaching; or he that exhor- 
teth, on exhortation." Now none will say from all this, 
that these are distinct offices, or do not or may not coin- 
cide in one person, as may all those other things mentioned 
by him in the subsequent verses, viz.. Of loving, being 
kindly affectioned, fervency of spirit, hospitality, diligence, 
blessing, rejoicing, &c., which he yet numbers forth as dif- 


ferent gifts of the Spirit, and according to this objection 

might be placed as distinct and separate offices, which 

were most absurd. 

Secondly, In these very places mentioned it is clear 

that it is no real distinction of separate offices ; because 

all acknowledge, that pastors and teachers, which the 

apostle there no less separateth and distinguisheth, than 

pastors and prophets, or apostles, are one and the same, 

and coincide in the same office and person ; and therefore 

Prophecy may be said so of the rest. For prophecy as it signifies 

syfng^^i'ts'''' t'^^ foretelling of things to come, is indeed a distinct gift, 

twofold sig- but no distinct office : and therefore our adversaries do 
nmcation. . -n i 

not place it among their several orders : neither wul they 

deny, but that it both may be and hath been given of God 

to some, that not only have been pastors and teachers, and 

that there it hath coincided in one person with these other 

offices, but also to some of the laics : and so it hath been 

found, according to their own confession, without the 

To prophe- limits of their clergy. Prophecy in the other sense, to wit, 
sy, a privi- . . .„ i • r i o • • r al- 

lege of as it signines a speaking from the bpirit oi truth, is not 

and ofd'l °"') peculiar to pastors and teachers, who ought so to 
the saints, prophesy ; but even a common privilege to the saints. 
For though to instruct, teach and exhort, be proper to such 
as are more particularly called to the work of the ministry ; 
yet it is not so proper to them, as not to be, when the 
saints are met together, as any of them are moved by the 
Spirit, common to others : for some acts belong to all in 
such a relation ; but not only to those within that relation : 
Competunt omtii, sed non soli. Thus to see and hear are 
proper acts of a man ; seeing it may be properly predi- 
cated of him, that he heareth and seeth : yet are they 
common to other creatures also. So to prophesy in this 
sense, is indeed proper to ministers and teachers ; yet not 
so, but that it is common and lawful to other saints, when 
moved thereunto, though it be not proper to them by way 
of relation: because, notwithstanding that motion, they 
are not particularly called to the work of the ministry, as 
appears by 1 Cor. xiv., where the apostle at large declar- 


mg the order and ordinary method of the church, saith, 
ver. 30, 31 ; " But if any thing be revealed to another that 
sitteth by, let the first hold his peace ; for ye may all pro- 
phesy one by one, that all may learn, and all be com- 
forted:" which showeth that none here is excluded. But 
yet that there is a subordination, according to the various 
measures of the gift received, the next verse showeth : 
"And the spirits of the prophets are subject to the pro- 
phets : for God is not the author of confusion, but of 
peace." Now that prophesying, in this sense, may be 
common to all saints, appears by verse 39, of the same 
chapter, where speaking to all in general, he saith, " Where- 
fore, brethren, covet to prophesy ;" and verse 1, he exhorts 
them, saying, " Desire spiritual gifts, but rather that ye may 

Secondly, As to evangelists the same may be said; for Who are 
whoever preacheth the gospel is really an evangelist, and fjgfg^P" 
so consequently every true minister of the gospel is one ; f»nd whe 
else what proper office can they assign to it, unless they may term 
should be so foolish as to affirm that none were evangelists go^iow-a!^ 
but Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, who wrote the day- 
account of Christ's life and sufferings? and then it were 
neither a particular office, seeing John and Matthew were 
apostles, Mark and Luke pastors and teachers, so that there 
they coincided in one. And indeed it is absurd to think, 
that upon that particular account the apostle used the word 
evangelist. Calvin acknowledgeth, that such as preach 
the gospel in purity, after some time of apostasy, may be 
truly called evangelists, and therefore saith, that there 
were apostles in his time ; and hence the Protestants at 
their first coming forth, termed themselves evangelici, or 

Lastly, an apostle, if we look to the etymology of the Who is an 
word, signifies one that is sent ; and in respect every true ^P°®' ® 
minister is sent of God, in so far he is an apostle ; though 
the twelve, because of their being specially sent of Christ, 
were therefore called apostles xa7' sloxh^, or per eminentiam, 
I. e., by way of excellency. And yet that there was no limi- 


They were tati<in to such a number, as some foolishly imagine, 

not limited . /• i i rn i i 

to such a appears, because alter lliat nuiaber was nilea up, tlie 

number. apostle Paul was afterwards so called; therefore we judge 

that these are no distinct separate offices, but only names 

used upon occasion to express the more eminent arising 

and shining forth of God's grace. As if any minister of 

Christ should now proselyte and turn a whole nation to the 

Whether Christian faith, though he had no distinct office, yet I doubt 

calleTan''^ "°^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ Pai)isls and Protestants would judge it toler- 

apostle at able to Call such an one an apostle, or an evan";elist ; for 

this day. , . , r • ,i r , ■ , 

on this account the Jesuits call some ot their sect apostles 

of India and of Japan ; and Calvin testifies that there 

were apostles and evangelists in his time, in respect to the 

Upon what reformation ; upon which account also we have known 

JohT Knox "^^^^^ ^^^^ °^^^'^ "^"^^^^ ^^""^ apostle of Scotland. So that 
was called we conclude that ministers, pastors, or teachers do com- 
ofScotland. prehend all, and that the office is but one, and therefore in 
that respect we judge there ought to be no precedency 
among them : to prove which I shall not here insist, seeing 
it is shown largely, and treated of by such as have denied 
the Diocesan Episcopacy, as they call it. 
Ans. 2. § XXVI. As to the first part of the objection, viz.. That 

I seem to make no distinction betwixt the minister and 
Liberty to people, I answer. If it be understood of a liberty to speak 
alThave^by ^^ prophesy by the Spirit, I say all may do that, when 
the Spirit, moved thereunto, as above is shown ; but we do believe 
and affirm that some are more particularly called to the 
work of the ministry, and therefore are fitted of the Lord 
for that purpose ; whose work is more constantly and par- 
ticularly to instruct, exhort, admonish, oversee, and watch 
over their brethren ; and that as there is something more 
incumbent upon them in that respect than upon every 
common believer, so also, as in that relation, there is due 
to them from the flock such obedience and subjection as is 
mentioned in these testimonies of the scripture, Heb. xiii. 
17 ; 1 Thess. v. 12, 13; 1 Tim. v. 17 ; 1 Pet. v. 5. Also 
besides these who are thus particularly called to the minis- 
try, and constant labour in the word and doctrine, there 


are also the elders, who though they be not moved to a The elders 
frequent testimony by way of declaration in words, yet as for^^he^'wi 
such are sfrown up in the experience of the blessed work dows, the 
01 truth m their hearts, they watch over and privately ad- fatherless 
monish the young, take care for the widows, the poor, and 
fatherless, and look that nothing be wanting, but that 
peace, love, unity, concord, and soundness be preserved 
in the church of Christ ; and this answers to the deacons 
mentioned Acts vi. 

That which we oppose, is the distinction of laity and The dis- 
clergy, which in the scripture is not to be found, whereby cieray and 
none are admitted unto the work of the ministry but such 'aity not to 

, , , , , . , . be found in 

as are educated at schools on purpose, and instructed m scripture. 
logic and philosophy, &c., and so are at their apprentice- 
ship to learn the art and trade of preaching, even as a man 
learns any other art, whereby all other honest mechanic 
men, who have not got this heathenish art, are excluded 
from having this privilege. And so he that is a scholar 
:hus bred up must not have any honest trade whereby to 
get him a livelihood, if he once intend for the ministry, but 
he must see to get him a place, and then he hath his set 
hire for a livelihood to him. He must also be distinguished Their garb, 
from the rest by the colour of his clothes ; for he must only 
wear black, and must be a master of arts : but more of this 

§ XXVII. As this manner of separating men for the 
ministry is nothing like the church in the apostles' days, so 
great evils have and do follow upon it. For first. Parents 
seeing both the honour and profit that attends the clergy, 
do allot their children sometimes from their infancy to it, 
and. so breed them up on purpose. And others, come to 
age, upon the same account betake them to the same trade, 
and having these natural and acquired parts that are judged 
the necessary qualifications of a minister, are thereby ad- 
mitted, and so are bred up in idleness and pleasure, think- 
ing it a disgrace for them to work with their hands ; and 
so just study a little out of their books, to make a discourse 
once or twice a week during the running of an hour-glass 
26* 2o 


The clor- whercas the gift, grace, and Spirit of God, to call and 

oui^ot'" ^ qualify for the ministry, is neglected and overlooked. And 

l^po"*^' *he ixiany covetous, corrupt, earthly, carnal men, having a 

ueglecitd. mere show and form, but strangers to, and utterly ignorant 

of, the inward work of grace upon their hearts, are 

brought in and intrude themselves, and so through them 

death, barrenness, and darkness, and by consequence, 

superstition, error, and idolatry have entered and leavened 

the church. And they that will narrowly observe, shall 

find that it was thus the apostasy came to take place ; of 

the truth of which I could give many examples, which for 

brevity's sake I omit. Thus the office, reverence, and 

respect due to it were annexed to the mere name, so that 

when once a man was ordained a bishop or a priest, he was 

heard and believed, though he had nothing of the Spirit, 

power, and life that the true apostles and ministers were 

in. And thus in a short time the succession came to be 

of the name and title, and the office was thereto annexed ; 

and not of the nature, virtue, and life ; which in effect 

made them to cease to be the ministry and ministers of 

Christ, but only a shadow and vain image of it ; which 

also decaying, was in some ages so metamorphosed, that 

not only the substance was lost, but the very form wholly 

The mar- vitiated, altered, and marred ; so that it may be far better 

red church g.^jj gf ^^g pretended Christian church, as was disputed of 

compared to ' _ ' ' _ 

Thcseus's Theseus's boat, which by the piecing of many new pieces 

' of timber was wholly altered, whether indeed it were the 

same or another.'' But in case that the first had been of 

oak, and the pieces last put in but of rotten fir, and that 

also the form had been so far changed as to be nothing 

like the first, I think it would have suffered no dispute, but 

might have easily been concluded to be quite another, 

retaining nothing but the name, and that also unjustly. 

The abuse Secondly, From this distinction of laity and clergy this 

the*disiinc- ^buse also follows, that good, honest, mechanic men, and 

tioii ot laity others who have not learned the art and trade of preach- 
Bnd clergy. ,. . , ,. , , 

ing, and so are not hcentiateu accordmg to these rules 

they prescribe unto themselves ; such, I say, being pos- 


sessed with a false opinion that it is not lawful for them to 
meddle with the ministry, nor that they are any ways fit 
for it, because of the defect of that literature, do thereby 
neglect the gift in themselves, and quench many times the 
pure breathings of the Spirit of God in their hearts ; which, 
if given way to, might prove much more for the edification 
of the church than many of the conned sermons of the 
learned. And so by this means the apostle's command 
and advice is slighted, who exhorteth, 1 Thess. v. 19, 20, 
" not to quench the Spirit, nor despise prophesyings," 
And all this is done by men pretending to be Christians, 
who glory that the first preachers and propagators of their 
religion were such kind of plain mechanic men, and illi- 
terate. And even Protestants do no less than Papists Both Pro- 
exclude such kind of men from being ministers among Pap'irts^ex- 
them, and thus limit the Spirit and gift of God ; though ^I'^^^'^ m*'- 

. . . , '^ . " ° chanic men 

their Fathers, in opposition to Papists, asserted the con- from 
trary ; and also their own histories declare how that kind whogreafiy 
of illiterate men did, without learnino^, by the Spirit of contributed 

.... b' ./ ^ . to the re- 

God, greatly contribute in divers places to the Reformation, formation. 

By this it may appear, that as in calling and qualifying 
so in preaching and praying, and the other particular steps 
of the ministry, every true minister is to know the Spirit 
of God by its virtue and life to accompany and assist him ; 
but because this relates to worship, I shall speak of it 
more largely in the next proposition, which is concerning 

The last thing to be considered and inquired into is, 
concerning the maintenance of a gospel minister ; but be- 
fore I proceed, I judge it fit to speak something in short 
concerning the preaching of women, and to declare what 
we hold in that matter. 

Seeing male and female are one in Christ Jesus, and that Women's 
he gives his Spirit no less to one than to the other, when preaching 
God moveth by his Spirit in a woman, we judge it no and praying 
ways unlawful for her to preach in the assemblies of God's 
people. Neither think we that of Paul, 1 Cor. xiv. 34, to 
reprove the inconsiderate and talkative women among the 



Acts xxi. 9 

QuES. 4. 

The minis- 
ters' food 
and tlieir 


ed mainte- 

Corinthians, who troubled the church of Christ with their 
unprofitable questions, or that, 1 Tim. ii. 11, 12, that 
" women ought to learn in silence, not usurping authority 
over the man," any ways repugnant to this doctrine ; be- 
cause it is clear that women have prophesied and preached 
in the church, else had that saying of Joel been ill applied 
by Peter, Acts ii. 17. And seeing Paul himself, in the 
same epistle to the Corinthians, giveth rules how women 
shoidd behave themselves in their public preaching and 
praying, it would be a manifest contradiction, if that other 
place were taken in a larger sense. And the same Paul 
speaks of a woman that laboured with him in the work of 
the gospel : and it is written that Philip had four daughters 
that prophesied. And lastly, It hath been observed, that 
God hath effectually in this day converted many souls by 
the ministry of women ; and by them also frequently com- 
forted the souls of his children ; which manifest experience 
puts the thing beyond all controversy. But now I shall 
proceed to speak of the maintenance of ministers. 

§ XXVIII. We freely acknowledge, as the proposition 
holds forth, that there is an obligation upon such to whom 
God sends, or among whom he raiseth up a minister, that, 
if need be, they minister to his necessities. Secondly, 
That it is lawful for him to receive what is necessary and 
convenient. To prove this I need not insist, for our ad- 
versaries will readily grant it to us ; for the thing we affirm 
is, that this is all that these scripture testimonies relating 
to this thing do grant. Gal. vi. 6 ; 1 Cor. ix. 11, 12, 13, 
14 ; 1 Tim. v. 18. That which we then oppose in this 
matter is. First, That it should be constrained and limited. 
Secondly, That it should be superfluous, chargeable, and 
sumptuous. And Thirdly, The manifest abuse thereof, of 
which I shall also briefly treat. 

As to the First, our adversaries are forced to recur to the 
example of the law ; a refuge they use in defending most 
of their errors and superstitions, which are contrary to the 
nature and purity of the gospel. 

They say, God appointed the Levites the tithes, there- 


fore they belong also to such as minister in holy things Object, 
under the gospel. 

I answer, All that can be gathered from this is, that as Ans. 
the priests had a maintenance allowed them under the law, 
so also the ministers and preachers under the gospel, which Tithes 
is not denied; but the comparison will not hold that they pointedfor 
should have the very same ; since. First, There is no ex- ^'}f ^^' , 

'''''_ vites, not 

press gospel command for it, neither by Christ nor his for gospel 
apostles. Secondly, The parity doth no ways hold betwixt 
the Levites under the law, and the preachers under the 
gospel ; because the Levites were one of the tribes of 
Israel, and so had a right to a part of the inheritance of the 
land as well as the rest of their brethren ; and having none, 
had this allotted to them in lieu of it. Next, The tenth of 
the tithes was only allowed to the priests that served at the 
altar, the rest being for the Levites, and also to be put up 
in store-houses, for entertaining of widows and strangers. 
But these preachers, notwithstanding they inherit what they 
have by their parents, as well as other men, yet claim the 
whole tithes, allowing nothing either to widow or stranger. 
But as to the tithes I shall not insist, because divers others 
have clearly and learnedly treated of them apart, and also 
divers Protestants do confess them not to be jure divino ; 
and the parity as to the quota doth not hold, but only in 
general as to the obligation of a maintenance ; which main- 
tenance, though the hearers be obliged to give, and fail of 
their duty if they do not, yet that it ought neither to be 
stinted, nor yet forced, I prove; because Christ, when he Reason I. 
sent forth his apostles, said, "Freely ye have received. The gospel 
freely give," Mat. x. 8, and yet they had liberty to receive preache°d^^ 
meat and drink from such as offered them, to supply their without so 

1 1TT1 -11 11 , . much a 

need. Which shows that they were not to seek or require year. 

anything by force, or to stint, or make a bargain before- 
hand, as the preachers as well among Papists as Protestants 
do in these ■days, who will not preach to any until they be 
first sure of so much a year ; but on the contrary, these 
were to do their duty, and freely to communicate, as the 


Lord should order them, what they had received, witliout 

seeking or expecting a reward. 
Nic. Ar- The answer given to this by Nicolaus Arnoldus, Exercit. 

answer to Theolog. Sect. 42, 43, is not to be forgotten, but indeed 
•Freely ye ^q }^^, j^j^p^ upon record for a perpetual remembrance of him 

have re- r r r i 

ceived,' and his brethren ; for he frankly answers after this manner, 
We have not freely received, and therefore are not bound 
to give freely. The answer I confess is ingenuous and 
good ; for if those that receive freely are to give freely, it 
would seem to follow by the rule of contraries, that those 
that receive not freely ought not to give freely, and I shall 
grant it ; only they must grant me, that they preach not by 
and according to the gift and grace of God received, nor 
can they be good stewards of the manifold grace of God, 
as every true minister ought to be ; or else they have gotten 
Simon Ma- this gift or grace by money, as Simon Magus would have 
^"^' been compassing it, since they think themselves not bound 

to give it without money again. But to be plain, I believe 
he intended not that it was from the gift or grace of God 
they w^ere to preach, but from their acquired arts and stu- 
dies, which have cost them much labour and also some 
money at the university ; and therefore, as he that puts his 
stock into the public bank expects interest again, so these 
scholars, having spent some money in learning the art of 
preaching, think they may boldly say they have it not 
freely ; for it hath cost them both money and pains, and 
therefore they expect both money and ease again. And 
therefore, as Arnoldus gets money for teaching his young 
students the art and trade of preaching, so he intends they 
should be repaid before they give it again to others. It 
All things was of old Said, Omnia venalia Roma, i. e., 'All things 
sale^at '° ^'"^ ^^^ ^° ^^^^ ^^ Rome ;' but now the same proverb may 
Rome, to \)q applied to Franequer. And therefore Arnoldus's stu- 
spplied. dents, when they go about to preach, may safely seek and 
require hereby, telling their hearers their master's maxirn, 
JYos gratis non accepimus-, ergo neque gratis dare tenemur. 
But then they may answer again. That they find them and 
their master to be none of his ministers, who when he sent 


forth his disciples, gave them this command, " Freely ye 

have received, freely give," and therefore we will have 

none of your teaching, because we perceive you to be of 

the number of those "that look for their gain from their Isai. Ivi. ii, 


§ XXIX. Secondly, The scripture testimonies that urge Reason 11. 
this are in the same nature of those that press charity and Mere vo- 
liberality towards the poor, and command hospitality, &c., £|"^|;g'jg'^'i(, 
but these are not nor can be stinted to a certain quantity, m."" can 

, , , , , , 111 stmt them. 

because they are deeds merely voluntary, where the obe- 
dience to the command lieth in the good will of the giver, 
and not in the matter of the thing given, as Christ showeth 
in the example of the widow's mite. So that though there 
be an obligation upon Christians to minister of outward 
things to their ministers, yet there can be no definition of 
the quantity but by the giver's own consent, and a little 
from one may more truly fulfil the obligation than a great 
deal from another. And therefore as acts of charity and 
hospitality can neither be limited nor forced, so neither can 

If it be objected. That ministers may and ought to ex- Object. 
hort, persuade, yea and earnestly press Christians, if they 
find them defective therein, to acts of charity and hospi- 
tality, and so may they do also to the giving of mainte- 
nance ; 

I answer. All this saith nothing for a stinted and forced Answ, 
maintenance, for which there cannot so much as the show 
of one solid argument be brought from scripture. I con- 
fess ministers may use exhortation in this as much as in 
any other case, even as the apostle did to the Corinthians, Paul's la- 
showing them their duty ; but it were fit for ministers that J^i^^'t'^t])'^^ 
so do (that their testimony might have the more weight, gospel 
and be the freer of all suspicion of covetousness and self- witliom 
interest) that they might be able to say truly in the sight of *^^'*'^«^ 
God that which the same apostle subjoins upon the same 
occasion, 1 Cor. ix. 15, 16, 17, 18: "But I have used 
none of these things ; neither have I written these things, 
that it should be so done unto me : for it were better for 


me to die, than that any man should make my glorying 
void. For though I preach the gospel, I have nothing to 
glory of; for necessity is laid upon me, yea woe is unto 
me if I preach not the gospel. For if I do this thing wil- 
lingly, I have a reward ; but if against my will, a dispen- 
sation of the gospel is committed unto me. What is my 
reward then? Verily that when I preach the gos[)el, I may 
make the gospel of Christ without charge, that I abuse not 
my power in the gospel." 

Reason : Thirdly, As there is neither precept nor example for this 
forced and stinted maintenance in the scripture, so the 
apostle, in his solemn farewell to the pastors and elders of 
the church of Ephesus, guards them against it, Acts xx. 
33, 34, 35. But if the thing had been either lawful or 
practised, he would rather have exhorted them to be con- 
tent with their stinted hire, and not to covet more ; whereas 
he showeth them, first, by his own example, that they were 

Paul covet- "ot to covet or expect any man's silver or gold ; secondly, 

ed no bo- ^^^^ ^^iev oufjht to work with their hands for an honest 

dy s saver _ •' & 

or gold. livelihood, as he had done; and lastly, he exhorts them so 

to do from the words of Christ, " because it is a more 
blessed thing to give than to receive ;" showing that it is 
so far from a thing that a true minister ought to aim at, or 
expect, that it is rather a burden to a true minister, and 
cross to him, to be reduced to the necessity of want- 
ing it. 
Reason 4 § XXX. Fourthly, If a forced and stinted maintenance 
were to be supposed, it would make the ministers of Christ 
No hireling just One with those hirelings whom the prophets cried out 
goepdof^ against. For certainly if a man make a bargain to preach 
Christ. to people for so much a year, so as to refuse to preach 
unless he have it, and seek to force the people to give it 
by violence, it cannot be denied that such a one preacheth 
Midi. iii. 5. for hire, and so "looks for his gain from his quarter," yea 
and " prepares war against such as put not into his mouth ;" 
but this is the particular special mark of a false prophet 
and an hireling, and therefore can no ways belong to a 
true minister of Christ. 


Next, that a superluous maintenance, that is, more than Moderate 
in reason is needful, ought not to be received by Christian and Papists 
ministers, will not need much proof, seeing: the more exclaim 

11 V» • 1 T-i against the 

moderate and sober, both among Papists and Protestants, excess of 
readily confess it, who with one voice exclaim against the leve^nues!' ^ 
excessive revenues of the clergy ; and that it may not 
want a proof from scripture, what can be more plain than 
that of the apostle to Timothy? 1 Tim. vi. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 
where he both shows wherewith we ought to be content, 
and also the hazard of such as look after more ; and 
indeed, since that very obligation of giving maintenance 
to a minister is founded upon their need, and such as have 
opportunity to work are commended rather in not receiv- 
ing than in receiving, it can no ways be supposed lawful 
for them to receive more than is sufficient. And indeed, 
were they truly pious and right, though necessitous, they 
would rather incline to take too little, than be gaping after 
too much. 

§ XXXI. Now that there is great excess and abuse II. 
hereof among Christians, the vast revenues which the of the 

bishops and priests have, both Papists and Protestants, do P^'^sts and 
r i / J^ _ ' bishops re* 

declare ; since I judge it may be said without any hyper- venues. 

bole, that some particular persons have more paid them 
yearly than Christ and his apostles made use of in their 
whole lifetime, who yet wanted not what was needful as to 
the outward man, and no doubt deserved it far better than 
those that enjoy that fulness. But it is manifest these 
bishops and priests love their fat benefices, and the plea- 
sure and honour that attends them, so well, that they pur- 
pose neither to follow Christ nor his apostles' example or 
advice in this matter. 

But it is usually objected, That Christians are become Object. 
so hard-hearted, and generally so little heed spiritual things, 
that if ministers had not a settled and stinted maintenance 
secured them by law, they and their families might starve 
for want of bread. 

I answer. This objection might have some weight as to Answ. 
a carnal ministry, made up of natural men, who have no 
27 2p 



They want- 
ed nothing 
whom God 
sent ; they 
with their 



Mat. X. 14. 
If they re- 
ject thy tes 
shake the 
dust from 
otfthy feet 

life, power, nor virtue with them, and so may insinuate 
some need of such a maintenance for such a ministry; but 
it saith nothing as to such as are called and sent of God, 
who sends no man a wayfaring upon his own charges ; and 
so go forth in the authority and power of God, to turn 
people from darkness to light ; for such can trust to him 
that sendeth them, and do believe that he will })rovide for 
them, knowing that he requireth nothing of any but what 
he giveth power to perform ; and so when they return, if 
he inquire, can say they wanted nothing. And such also 
when they stay in a place, being immediately furnished by 
God, and not needing to borrow and steal what they 
preach from books, and take up their time that way, fall 
a working at their lawful employments and labour with 
their hands, as Paul did when he gathered the church at 
Corinth. And indeed if this objection had any weight, 
the apostles and primitive pastors should never have gone 
forth to convert the nations, for fear of want. Doth not 
the doctrine of Christ teach us to venture all, and part with 
all, to serve God .'' Can they then be accounted ministers 
of Christ who are afraid to preach him lest they get not 
money for it, or will not do it until they be sure of their 
payment.'' What serves the ministry for but to perfect 
the saints, and so to convert them from that hard-hearted- 
ness .'' 

But thou wilt say, I have laboured and preached to 
them, and they are hard-hearted still, and will not give me 
any thing : 

Then surely thou hast either not been sent to them of 
God, and so thy ministry and preaching hath not been 
among them in the power, virtue, and life of Christ, and 
so thou deservest nothing ; or else they have rejected thy 
testimony, and so are not worthy, and from such thou 
oughtest not to expect, yea nor yet receive any thing, if 
they would give thee, but thou oughtest to " shake off the 
dust from thy feet," and leave them. And how frivolous 
this objection is, appears, in that in the darkest and most 
superstitious times the priests' revenues increased most, and 


they were most richly rewarded, though they deserved 
least. So that he that is truly sent of God, as he needs 
not, so neither will he be afraid of want, so long as he 
serves so good a master ; neither will he ever forbear to 
do his work for that cause. And indeed such as make 
this objection show truly that they serve not the Lord 
Christ, but their own belly, and that makes them so anxious 
for want of food to it. 

§ XXXII. But lastly, As to the abuses of this kind of The many 
maintenance, indeed he that would go through them all, priests' 
though he did it passingly, might make of it alone a huge m^mte- 
volume, they are so great and numerous. For this abuse, brings, 
as others, crept in with the apostasy, there being nothing 
of this in the primitive times : then the ministers claimed 
no tithes, neither sought they a stinted or forced mainte- 
nance ; but such as wanted had their necessity supplied by 
the church, and others wrought with their hands. But the 
persecutions being over, and the emperors and princes 
coming under the name of Christians, the zeal of those 
great men was quickly abused by the covetousness of the 
clergy, who soon learned to change their cottages with the 
palaces of princes, and rested not until by degrees some 
of them came to be princes themselves, nothing inferior to 
them in splendour, luxury, and magnificence ; a method 
of living that honest Peter and John the fishermen, and 
Paul the tent-maker, never coveted ; and perhaps as little 
imagined that men pretending to be their successors should 
have arrived to these things. And so soon as the bishops 
were thus seated and constituted, forgetting the life and 
work of a Christian, they went usually by the ears together 
about the precedency and revenues, each coveting the 
chiefest and fattest benefice. It is also to be regretted to 
think how soon this mischief crept in among Protestants, The Pro- 
who had scarce well appeared when the clergy among them havmgfor- 
began to speak at the old rate, and show that though they ^^'^^" ^^^ 

or J o .' pope, yet 

had forsaken the bishop of Rome, they were not resolved would not 
t( part with their old benefices ; and therefore so soon as HclTpopish 
any princes or states shook oflf the pope's authority, and revenues. 


SO demolished the abbeys, nunneries, and other monuments 

of superstition, the reformed clergy began presently to cry 

out to the magistrates to beware of meddling with the 

church's patrimony, severely exclaiming against making a 

lawful use of those vast revenues that had been supersti- 

tiously bestowed upon the church, so called, to the good 

and benefit of the commonwealth, as no less than sacrilege. 

1. Thecler- But by keeping up of this kind of maintenance for the 

gy's covet- n^inistrv and clerofvmen, so called, there is first a bait laid 
ousness. •' &j ' ' ,, i • 

for covetousness, which is idolatry, and of all things most 

hurtful ; so that for covetousness' sake, many, being led 
by the desire of filthy lucre, do apply themselves to be 
ministers, that they may get a livelihood by it. If a man 
have several children, he will allot one of them to be a 
minister ; which if he can get him to be, he reckons it as 
good as a patrimony : so that a fat benefice hath always 
many expectants ; and then what bribing, what courting, 
what industry, and shameful actions are used to acquire 
these things, is too openly known, and needs not to be 

The scandal that by these means is raised among Chris- 
tians is so manifest, that it is become a proverb, that the 
The greedy kirk is always greedy. Whereby the gift and grace of God 

kirk, a pro- jjgjj^o- nesflected, they have for the most part no other rao- 
verb. Q a ' J i 

tive or rule in applying themselves to one church more 

than another but the greater benefice. For though they 
hypocritically pretend, at their accepting of and entering 
into their church, that they have nothing before them but 
the glory of God and the salvation of souls ; yet if a richer 
benefice offer itself, they presently find it more for God's 
glory to remove from the first, and go thither. And thus 
they make no difficulty often to change, while notwith- 
standing they accuse us that we allow ministers to go from 
place to place, and not to be tied to one place ; but we 
allow this not for the gaining of money, but as moved of 
God. For if a minister be called to minister in a particular 
place, he ought not to leave it, except God call him from 
it, and then he ought to obey : for we make the will of 


God inwardly revealed, and not the love of money and 
more gain, the ground of removing. 

Secondly, From this abuse hath proceeded that luxury 2. Thecler 
ind idleness that most of the clergy live in, even among ^J ^ ^^^' 
Protestants as well as Papists, to the great scandal of 
Christianity. For not having lawful trades to work with 
their hands, and being so superfluously and sumptuously 
provided for, they live in idleness and luxury ; and there 
doth more pride, vanity, and worldly glory appear in their 
wives and children than in most others, which is open and 
evident to all. 

Thirdly, They become hereby so glued to the love of 3. Thecler- 

money, that there is none like them in malice, rage, and fy. ^ ^^^ 

cruelty. If they be denied their hire, they rage like 

drunken men, fret, fume, and as it were go mad. A man 

may sooner satisfy the severest creditor than them ; the 

general voice of the poor doth confirm this. For indeed 

they are far more exact in taking up the tithes of sheep, 

geese, swine, and eggs, &c., and look more narrowly to it 

than to the members of their flock : they will not miss the 

least mite; and the poorest widow cannot escape their Poor wi- 

avaricious hands. Twenty lies they will hear unreproved ; cannot 

and as many oaths a man may swear in their hearing with- escape the 

out offending them ; and greater evils than all this they greedy 

can overlook. But if thou owest them aught, and refusest 

to pay it, then nothing but war will they thunder against 

thee, and they will stigmatize thee with the horrible title 

of sacrilege, and send thee to hell without mercy, as if 

thou hadst committed the sin against the Holy Ghost. Of 

all people we can best bear witness to this : for God hav- The work 

, , . ,.,.... , of Anti- 

ing shown us this corrupt and antichristian ministry, and christ is 

called us out from it, and gathered us unto his own power nJalice"^^' 

and life, to be a separate people, so that we dare not join 

with, nor hear these anti-christian hirelings, neither yet put 

into their mouths or feed them ; oh ! what malice, envy, 

and fury hath this raised in their hearts against us ! That 

though we get none of their wares, neither will buy them, 

as knowing them to be naught, yet will they force us to 



give them money : and because we cannot for conscience' 
sake do it, our sufferings have upon that account been un- 
utterable. Yea., to give account of their cruelty, and 
several sorts of iniiumanity used against us, would make 
no small history. These avaricious hirelings have come to 
that degree of malice and rage, that several poor labouring 
men have been carried hundreds of miles from their own 
dwellings, and shut up in prison, some two, some three, 
yea, some seven years together, for the value of one pound 
A widow sterling, and less. I know myself a poor widow, that for 
oTgeese ^ ^''^' tithes of her geese, which amounted not to five shillings, 

about four was about four years kept in prison, thirty miles from her 
years in •' . . 

prison. house. Yea, they by violence for this cause have plun- 
dered of men's goods the hundred-fold, and prejudiced 
much more ; yea, hundreds have hereby spilt their inno- 
cent blood, by dying in the filthy noisome holes and pri- 
Some lost SOUS. And some of the priests have been so enraged, that 
in^nasty^^ goods thus ravished could not satisfy them, but they must 
holes, some also satisfy their fury by beatinij, knockino', and woundins 

woundedby ■ , , . , , . "^ -^ ^ r r ■ 

the priests, With their hands innocent men and women, for refusing, 
°' for conscience' sake, to put into their mouths. 

The only way then soundly to reform and remove all 
these abuses, and take away the ground and occasion of 
them, is, to take away all stinted and forced maintenance 
and stipends. And seeing those things were anciently 
given by the people, that they return again into the public 
treasure ; and thereby the people may be greatly benefited 
by them, for that they may supply for those public taxa- 
tions and impositions, that are put upon them, and may 
Whoso ease themselves of them. And whoever call or appoint 
errio^them- teachers to themselves, let them accordingly entertain 
solves, let them : and for such as are called and moved to the minis- 

tlicni pro- , t c^ ■ • r /~t T ^ Ix • l l 

vido their try by the Spirit of Uod, those that receive them, and taste 
stipend. of the good of their ministry, will no doubt provide things 
needful for them, and there will be no need of a law to 
force a hire for them : for he that sends them, will take 
care for them ; and they also, having food and raiment, 
will therewith be content. 


§ XXXIII. The sum then of what is said is, That the The differ- 
ministry that we have pleaded for, and which also the Lord twelrMhe 

hath raised up araono^ us is, in all its parts, like the true mmistiT oi 

1 1 • • • 1 1 -ITT ^^^ Q'"*- 

ministry of the apostles and primitive church. Whereas kers and 

the ministry our adversaries seek to uphold and plead for, saries! 

as it doth in all its parts differ from them, so, on the other 

hand, it is very like the false prophets and teachers testified 

against and condemned in the scripture, as may be thus 

briefly illustrated : 

I. The ministry and ministers we plead for, are such as The true 

are immediately called and sent forth by Christ and his '^^j^^ters 

Spirit unto the work of the ministry : so were the holy 

apostles and prophets, as appears by these places. Mat. x. 

1, 5; Eph. iv. 11; Heb. v. 4. 

1. But the ministry and ministers our opposers plead 
for, are such as have no immediate call from Christ, to 
whom the leading and motion of the Spirit is not reckoned 
necessary ; but who are called, sent forth, and ordained 
by wicked and ungodly men : such were of old the false 
prophets and teachers, as appears by these places, Jer. xiv. 
14, 15; item, chap, xxiii. 21, and xxvii. 15. 

II. The ministers we plead for, are such as are actuated True min. 
and led by God's Spirit, and by the power and operation g^fj^^ 

of his grace in their hearts, are in some measure converted 
and regenerate, and so are good, holy, and gracious men: 
such were the holy prophets and apostles, as appears from 

I Tim. iii. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ; Tit. i. 7, 8, 9. 

2. But the ministers our adversaries plead for, are such 
to whom the grace of God is no needful qualification ; and 
so may be true ministers, according to them, though they 
be ungodly, unholy, and profligate men : such were the 
false prophets and apostles, as appears from Mic. iii. 5, 

II ; 1 Tim. vi. 5, 6, 7, 8, &c. ; 2 Tim. iii. 2 ; 2 Pet. ii. 
1, 2, 3. 

III. The ministers we plead for, are such as act, move, Truemin- 
and labour in the work of the ministry, not from their own work, 
mere natural strength and ability, but as they are actuated, 
moved, supported, assisted and influenced by the Spirit of 



God, and minister according to the gift received, as gooa 
stewards of the manifold grace of God : such were the holy 
prophets and apostles, 1 Pet. iv. 10, 11 ; 1 Cor. i. 17, ii. 
3, 4, 5, 13; Acts ii. 4; Mat. x. 20; Mark xiii. 11 ; Luke 
xii. 12 ; 1 Cor. xiii. 2. 

3. But tiie ministers our adversaries plead for, are such 
as wait not for, nor expect, nor need the Spirit of God to 
actuate and move them in the work of the ministry ; but 
what they do they do from their own mere natural strength 
and ability, and what they have gathered and stolen from 
the letter of the scripture, and other books, and so speak 
it forth in the strength of their own wisdom and eloquence, 
and not in the evidence and demonstration of the Spirit 
and power : such were the false prophets and apostles, as 
appears, Jer. xxiii. .30, 31, 32, 34, &c. ; 1 Cor. iv. 18 ; 
Jude 16. 

IV. The ministers w^e plead for, are such as, being holy 
and humble, contend not for precedency and priority, but 
rather strive to prefer one another, and serve one another 
in love ; neither desire to be distinguished from the rest by 
their garments and large phylacteries, nor seek the greet- 
ings in the market-places, nor uppermost rooms at feasts, 
nor the chief seats in the synagogues ; nor yet to be called 
of men master, &.c., such were the holy prophets and apos- 
tles, as appears from Mat. xxiii. 8, 9, 10, and xx. 25, 
26, 27. 

4. But the ministers our adversaries plead for, are such 
as strive and contend for superiority, and claim precedency 
over one another ; affecting and ambitiously seeking after 
the forementioned things : such were the false prophets and 
apostles in time past, Mat. xxiii. 5, 6, 7. 

V. The ministers we plead for, are such as having freely 
received, freely give ; who covet no man's silver, gold, or 
garments; who seek no man's goods, but seek them, and 
the salvation of their souls: whose hands supply their own 
necessities, working honestly for bread to themselves and 
their families. And if at any time they be called of God, 
so as the work of the Lord hinder them from the use of 


their trades, take what is freely given them by such to 
whom they have communicated spirituals ; and having 
food and raiment, are therewith content : such were the 
holy prophets and apostles, as appears from Mat. x. 8 ; 
Acts XX. 33, 34, 35 ; 1 Tim. vi. 8. 

5. But the ministers our adversaries plead for, are such 
as not having freely received, will not freely give ; but are 
covetous, doing that which they ought not, for filthy lucre's 
sake ; as to preach for hire, and divine for money, and look 
for their gain from their quarter, and prepare war against 
such as put not into their mouths, &c. Greedy dogs, which 
can never have enough. Shepherds who feed themselves, 
and not the flock ; eating the fat, and clothing themselves 
with the wool ; making merchandize of souls ; and follow- 
ing the way of Balaam, that loved the wages of unrighteous- 
ness : such were the false prophets and apostles, Isai. Ivi. 
11 ; Ezek. xxxiv. 2, 3, 8 ; Mic. iii. 5, 11 ; Tit. i. 10, 11 ; 
2 Pet. ii. 1, 2, 3, 14, 15. 

And in a word. We are for a holy, spiritual, pure and Truemin- 

... . . , , . . 1 1 n 1 T isters' life 

nvmg mmistry, where the mmisters are both called, quali- and quali- 
fied and ordered, actuated and influenced in all the steps "^^'^o"- 
of their ministry by the Spirit of God ; which being want- 
ing, we judge they cease to be the ministers of Christ. 

But they, judging this life, grace, and Spirit no essential 
part of their ministry, are therefore for the upholding of a 
human, carnal, dry, barren, fruitless and dead ministry ; 
of which, alas ! we have seen the fruits in the most part of 
their churches : of whom that saying of the Lord is cer- 
tainly verified, Jer. xxiii. 32 — " I sent them not, nor com- 
manded them, therefore they shall not profit this people at 
all, saith the Lord." 


Concerning Worship. 

All true and acceptable worship to God is offered in the 
inward and immediate moving and drawing of his own 



What the Spirit, which is neither limited to places, times, nor pei- 
ship is^, That sons. For though we are to worship him always, and 
is a-ccptii- continually to fear bufore him; yet as to the outward 

Die lo (lod. . .'' . 

How to be signification thereof, in prayers, praises or preachings, 
pertorined. ■^yj^ ouirjit not to do it in our own will, where and when 
we will ; but where and when we are moved thereunto 
by the stirring and secret inspiration of the Spirit of God 
in our hearts; which God heareth and accepteth of, and 
is never wanting to move us thereunto, when need is ; 
of which he himself is the alone proper judge. All other 
worship then, both praises, prayers or preachings, which 
man sets about in his own will, and at liis ow-n appoint- 
ment, which he can both begin and end at his pleasure, 
do or leave undone as himself seeth meet, whether they 
be a prescribed form, as a liturgy, &c., or prayers con- 
Superati- ceived extempore by the natural strength and faculty of 

will-wor- the mind, they are all but superstition, will-worship, and 
ship, idola- abominable idolatry in the sight of God, which are now 
to be denied and rejected, and separated from, in this 
day of his spiritual arising : however it might have pleased 
him (who winked at the times of ignorance, with a re- 
spect to the simplicity and integrity of some, and of his 
own innocent seed, which lay as it were buried in the 
hearts of men under that mass of superstition) to blow 
upon the dead and dry bones, and to raise some breathings 
of his own, and answer them ; and that until the day 
should more clearly dawn and break forth. 

§ I. The duty of man towards God lieth chiefly in these 
two generals : 1. In an holy conformity to the pure law 
and light of God, so as both to forsake the evil, and be 
found in the practice of those perpetual and moral precepts 
of righteousness and equity. And, 2. In rendering that 
reverence, honour and adoration to God, that he requires 
and demands of us ; which is comprehended under wor- 
ship. Of the former we have already spoken, as also of 
the different relations of Christians, as they are distinguish- 
ed by the several measures c*" grace received, and given to 


every one ; and in that respect have their several offices in 
the body of Christ, which is the church. Now I come to 
speak of worship, or of those acts, whether private or public, 
general or particular, whereby man renders to God that 
part of his duty which relates immediately to him : and as 
obedience is better than sacrifice, so neither is any sacrifice 
acceptable, but that which is done according to the will of 
him to whom it is offered. But men, finding it easier to 
sacrifice in their own wills, than obey God's will, have 
heaped up sacrifices without obedience ; and thinking to True wor- 
deceive God, as they do one another, p-ive him a show of ^ p ^,"^ 
reverence, honour and worship, while they are both inwardly God-wards 
estranged and alienated from his holy and righteous life, 
and wholly strangers to the pure breathings of his Spirit, 
in which the acceptable sacrifice and worship is only offered 
up. Hence it is, that there is not anything relating to man's 
duty towards God, which among all sorts of people hath 
been more vitiated, and in which the devil hath more pre- 
vailed, than in abusing man's mind concerning this thing : 
and as among many others, so among those called Chris- 
tians, nothing hath been more out of order, and more 
corrupted, as some Papists, and all Protestants, do acknow^- 
ledge. As I freely approve whatsoever the Protestants 
have reformed from Papists in this respect ; so I meddle 
not at this time with their controversies about it: only it The Popish 
suffices me with them to deny, as no part of the true wor- "Jj!^f ^^° 
ship of God, that abominable superstition and idolatry the nied. with 

T» • 1 1 1 • f • 1 11 ^" tlieir 

Popish mass, the adoration oi saints and angels, the vene- trumpery. 
ration of relics, the visitation of sepulchres, and all those 
other superstitious ceremonies, confraternities, and endless 
pilgrimages of the Romish synagogue. Which all may 
suffice to evince to Protestants, that Antichrist hath wrought 
more in this than in any other part of the Christian religion ; 
and so it concerns them narrowly to consider, whether if Protest- 
herein they have made a clear and perfect reformation ; as ^^de^^a per 
to which stands the controversy betwixt them and us. For feet refor- 
we find many of the branches lopped off'by them, but the root 
yet remaining ; to wit, a worship acted in and from man's 


will and spirit, and not by and from the Spirit of God : for 
the true Christian and spiritual worship of God hath been 
so early lost, and man's wisdom and will hath so quickly 
and thoroughly mixed itself herein, that both the apostasy 
in this respect hath been greatest, and the reformation here- 
from, as to tiie evil root, most difficult. Therefore let not 
the reader suddenly stumble at the account of our propo- 
sition in this matter, but patiently hear us explain ourselves 
in this respect, and I hope (by the assistance of God) to 
make it appear, that though our manner of speaking and 
doctrine seem most singular and ditierent from all other 
sorts of Christians ; yet it is most according to the purest 
Cnristian religion, and indeed most needful to be observed 
and followed. And that there be no ground of mistake, 
(for that I was necessitated to speak in few words, and 
therefore more obscurely and dubiously in the proposition 
itself) it is fit in the first place to declare and explain our 
sense, and clear the state of the controversy. 
I. § II. And first, let it be considered, that what is here 

What wor- affirmed, is spoken of the worship of God in these gospel- 
spoken'of.'^ times, and not of the worship that was under or before the 
law: for the particular commands of God to men then, are 
not sufficient to authorize us now to do the same things ; 
else we might be supposed at present acceptably to offer 
sacrifice as they did, which all acknowledge to be ceased. 
So thac what might have been both commendable and ac- 
ceptable under the law, may justly now be charged with 
superstition, yea, and idolatry. So that impertinently, in 
this respect, doth Arnoldus rage against this proposition, 
[Exercit. Theolog. sect. 44,] saying ; That I deny all public 
worship, and that according to me, such as in Enoch's 
time publicly began to call upon the name of the Lord ; 
and such as at the command of God went thrice up to 
Jerusalem to worship ; and that Anna, Simeon, Mary, &c., 
were idolaters, because they used the public worship of 
those times ; such a consequence is most impertinent, and 
no less foolish and absurd, than if I should infer from Paul's 
expostulating with the Galatians for their returning to the 


Jewish ceremonies, that he therefore condemned Moses 
and all the prophets as foolish and ignorant, because they 
used those things : the forward man, not heeding the dif- 
ferent dispensations of times, ran into this impertinency. 
Though a spiritual worship might have been, and no doubt Ceremo- 
was practised by many under the law in great simplicity ; "he^iaw ^ 
yet will it not follow, that it were no superstition to use all ^^'"'^ ^°] 

•' ' . ^ . essential to 

those ceremonies that they used, which were by God dis- true wor- 
pensed to the Jews, not as being essential to true worship, ^^'^' 
or necessary as of themselves for transmitting and enter- 
taining a holy fellowship betwixt him and his people ; but 
in condescension to them, who were inclinable to idolatry. 
Albeit then in this, as in most other things, the substance 
was enjoyed under the law by such as were spiritual in- 
deed ; yet was it veiled and surrounded with many rites 
and ceremonies, which it is no ways lawful for us to use 
now under the gospel. 

§ III. Secondly ; Albeit I say, that this worship is II. 
neither limited to times, places, nor persons ; yet I would sh?p^irnot 
not be understood, as if I intended the putting away of all l^i^ed to 

' . . . place or 

set times and places to worship : God forbid I should think person, 
of such an opinion. Nay, we are none of those that for- 
sake the assembling of ourselves together ; but have even 
certain times and places, in which we carefully meet 
together, nor can we be driven therefrom by the threats 
and persecutions of men, to wait upon God, and worship 
him. To meet together we think necessary for the people Necessity 
of God ; because, so long as we are clothed with this ings. 
outward tabernacle, there is a necessity to the entertaining 
of a joint and visible fellowship, and bearing of an out- 
ward testimony for God, and seeing of the faces of one 
another, that we concur wdth our persons as well as spirits : 
to be accompanied with that inward love and unity of 
spirit, doth greatly tend to encouras^e and refresh the 

But the limitation we condemn, is, that whereas the worship 
Spirit of God should be the immediate actor, mover, per- •^,'^''^_.'™." 
suader and inlluencer of man m the particular acts of wor- of God. 


ship, when the saints are met together, this Spirit is limited 
in its operations, by setting up a particular man or men to 
preach and pray in man's will ; and all the rest are ex- 
cluded from so much as believing that they are to wait for 
God's Spirit to move them in such tilings; and so they 
neglecting that in themselves which should quicken them, 
and not waiting to feel the pure breathings of God's Spirit, 
so as to obey them, are led merely to depend upon the 
preacher, and hear what he will say. 
2. True Secondly ; In that these peculiar men come not thither 

teaching of to ,^^eet with the Lord, and to wait for the inward motions 

the wold ot _ ... 

God. and operations of his Spirit ; and so to pray as they feel 

the Spirit to breathe tlirough them, and in them ; and to 
preach, as they find themselves actuated and moved by 
God's Spirit, and as he gives utterance, so as to speak a 
word in season to refresh weary souls, and as the present 
condition and state of the people's hearts require ; suffer- 
ing God by his Spirit both to prepare people's hearts, and 
also give the preacher to speak what may be fit and sea- 
sonable for them ; but he [viz., the preacher] hath ham- 
mered together in his closet, according to his own will, by 
his human wisdom and literature, and by stealing the words 
of truth from the letter of the scriptures, and patching 
together other men's writings and observations, so much 
as will hold him speaking an hour, while the glass runs; 
Priest.s and without waiting or feeling the inward influence of the 
preach by Spi^jt of God, he declaims that by hap-hazard, whether it 

hap-hazarci ' ' . . 

their stiidi- be fit or seasOnable for the people's condition, or not ; and 
when he has ended his sermon, he saith his prayer also in 
his own will ; and so there is an end of the business. 
Whiph customary worship, as it is no ways acceptable to 
God, so how unfruitful it is, and unprofitable to those that 
are found in it, the present condition of the nations doth 
sufficiently declare. It appears then, that we are not against 
set times for worship, as Arnoldus against this proposition, 
Sect. 45, no less impertinently allegeth ; offering need- 
lessly to prove that which is not denied : only these times 
being appointed for outward conveniency, we may not 

ed .sermons. 


therefore think with the Papists, that these days are holy, 
and lead people into a superstitious observation of them ; 
being persuaded that all days are alike holy in the sight of Whether 
God. And although it be not my present purpose to make ]^l\y_^'^ 
a long digression concerning the debates among Protes- 
tants about the first day of the week, commonly called the 
Lord's day, yet forasmuch as it comes fitly in here, I shall 
briefly signify our sense thereof. 

§ IV. We, not seeing any ground in scripture for it, Of ihe first 

, , , . dtiy ol the 

cannot be so superstitious as to believe, that either the week, com- 
Jewish sabbath now continues, or that the first day of the gj°{)|g ^'^^^' 
week is the anti-type thereof, or the true Christian sab- Lord's day. 
bath ; which with Calvin we believe to have a more 
spiritual sense : and therefore we know no moral obliga- 
tion by the fourth command, or elsewhere, to keep the 
first day of the week more than any other, or any holiness 
inherent in it. But first, forasmuch as it is necessary that 
there be some time set apart for the saints to meet together 
to wait upon God ; and that secondly, it is fit at some times 
they be freed from their other outward affairs ; and that 
thirdly, reason and equity doth allow that servants and 
beasts have some time allowed them to be eased from their 
continual labour ; and that fourthly, it appears that the 
apostles and primitive Christians did use the first day of the 
week for these purposes ; we find ourselves sufficiently 
moved for these causes to do so also, without siipersti- 
tiously straining the scriptures for another reason : which, 
that it is not to be there found, many Protestants, yea, 
Calvin himself, upon the fourth command, hath abundantly 
evinced. And though we therefore meet, and abstain from 
working upon this day, yet doth not that hinder us from 
having meetings also for worship at other times. 

§ V. Thirdly ; Though according to the knowledge of 
God, revealed unto us by the Spirit, through that more 
full dispensation of light which we believe the Lord hath 
brought about in this day, we judge it our duty to hold 
forth that pure and spiritual worship which is acceptable to 
God, and answerable to the testimony of Christ and his 


apostles, and likewise to testify against and deny not only 
manifest superstition and idolatry, but also all formal will- 
The wor- worship, which stands not in the power of God ; yet, I say, 
aposusy!'^ we do not deny the whole worship of all those that have 
borne the name of Christians even in the apostasy, as if 
God had never heard their prayers, nor accepted any of 
them : God forbid we should be so void of charity ! The 
latter part of the proposition showeth the contrary. And 
as we would not be so absurd on the one hand to conclude, 
because of the errors and darkness that many were covered 
and surrounded with in Babylon, that none of their prayers 
were heard or accepted of God, so will we not be so 
unwary on the other, as to conclude, that because God 
heard and pitied them, so we ought to continue in these 
errors and darkness, and not come out of Babylon, when 
The Popish it is by God discovered unto us. The Popish mass and 
^espei^s"'^ vespers I do believe to be, as to the matter of them, abo- 
minable idolatry and superstition, and so also believe the 
Protestants; yet wall neither I or they affirm, that in the 
darkness of Popery no upright-hearted men, though zeal- 
ous in these abominations, have been heard of God, or 
Bernard accepted of him. Who can deny, but that both Bernard 
and Bona- ^^^^ Bonaventure, Taulerus, Thomas a Kempis, and divers 

venture, ' ' ^ ' 

Taulerus, others have both known and tasted of the love of God, and 
Kempis, ft-lt the power and virtue of God's Spirit working with them 
have tasted f^,, ^j^gjj. salvation ? And yet ouo-ht we not to forsake and 

of the love _ *^ . ^ 

of God. deny those superstitions which they were found in.'* The 
Calvinistical' Presbyterians do much upbraid, and I say not 
The ^ without reason, the formality and deadness of the Episco- 
liturgy. palian and Lutheran liturgies ; and yet, as they will not 
deny but there have been some good men among them, so 
neither dare they refuse, but that when that good step was 
brought in by them, of turning the public prayers into the 
vulgar tongues, though continued in a liturgy, it was 
acceptable to God, and sometimes accompanied with his 
power and presence : yet will not the Presbyterians have 
it from thence concluded, that the cominon prayers should 
still continue ; so likewise, though we should confess, that, 


through the mercy and wonderful condescension of God, 
there have been upright in heart both among Papists and 
Protestants, yet can we not therefore approve of their way 
in the general, or not go on to the upholding of that 
spiritual worship, which the Lord is calling all to, and 
so to the testifying against whatsoever stands in the way 
of it. 

§ VI. Fourthly ; To come then to the state of the con- Assemblies 
troversy, as to the public worship, we judge it the duty of fn public'^ 
all to be diligent in the assembUng of themselves toge- described, 
iher, and what we have been, and are, in this matter, our 
enemies in Great Britain, who have used all means to 
hinder our assembling together to worship God, may bear 
witness; and when assembled, the great work of one and 
all ought to be to wait upon God ; and returning out of 
Iheir own thoughts and imaginations, to feel the Lord's 
presence, and know^ a gathering into his name indeed, 
where he is in the midst, according to his promise. And 
as every one is thus gathered, and so met together in- 
wardly in their spirits, as well as outwardly in their persons, 
there the secret power and virtue of life is known to re- 
fresh the soul, and the pure motions and breathings of 
God's Spirit are felt to arise ; from which, as w'ords of 
declaration, prayers or praises arise, the acceptable worship 
is known, which edifies the church, and is well-pleasing 
to God. And no man here limits the Spirit of God, nor 
bringeth forth his own conned and gathered stuff; but 
every one puts that forth which the Lord puts into their 
hearts : and it is uttered forth not in man's will and wis- The glori- 
dom ; but in the evidence and demonstration of the Spirit, sation of 
and of powder. Yea, though there be not a word spoken. Spirit, 
yet is the true spiritual worship performed, and the body 
of Christ edified ; yea, it may, and hath often fallen out 
among us, that divers meetings have past without one word ; 
and yet our souls have been greatly edified and refreshed, 
and our hearts wonderfully overcome with the secret sense 
of God's power and Spirit, which without words hath 
been ministered from one vessel to another. This is 
28* 2p 


indeed strange and incredible to the raere natural and car- 
nally-minded man, who will be apt to judge all time lost 
where there is not something spoken that is obvious to the 
outward senses ; and therefore I shall insist a little upon 
this subject, as one that can speak from a certain expe- 
rience, and not by mere hearsay, of this wonderful and 
glorious dispensation ; which hath so much the more of 
the wisdom and glory of God in it, as it is contrary to the 
nature of man's spirit, will, and wisdom. 
The silent § VII. As there can be nothing more opposite to the 
upon"God "'^^"^'''^l '^vill and wisdom of man than this silent waiting 
obtained, upon God, SO neither can it be obtained, nor rightly com- 
prehended by man, but as he layeth down his own wisdom 
and will, so as to be content to be thoroughly subject to 
God. And therefore it was not preached, nor can be so 
practised, but by such as find no outward ceremony, no 
observations, no words, yea, not the best and purest words, 
even the words of scripture, able to satisfy their weary and 
afflicted souls : because where all these may be, the life, 
power, and virtue, which make such things effectual, may 
be wanting. Such, I say, were necessitated to cease from 
all externals, and to be silent before the Lord; and being 
directed to that inward principle of life and light in thera- 
[ea. X.XX.20. selves, as the most excellent teacher, which " can never be 
removed into a corner," came thereby to be taught to wait 
upon God in the measure of life and grace received from 
him, and to cease from their own forward words and ac- 
tings, in the natural willing and comprehension, and feel 
after this inward seed of life ; that, as it moveth, they may 
move with it, and be actuated by its power, and influenced, 
whether to pray, preach or sing. And so from this prin- 
ciple of man's being silent, and not acting in the things of 
God of himself, until thus actuated by God's light and 
grace in the heart, did naturally spring that manner of sit- 
ting silent together, and waiting together upon the Lord. 
For many thus principled, meeting together in the pure 
fear of the Lord, did not apply themselves presently to 
speak, pray, or sing, &c., being afraid to be found acting 


forwardly in their own wills; but each made it their work 
to retire inwardly to the measure of grace in themselves, 
not being only silent as to words, but even abstaining from 
all their own thoughts, imaginations and desires ; so watch- 
ing in a holy dependence upon the Lord, and meeting to- 
gether not only outwardly in one place, but thus inwardly 
in one Spirit, and in one name of Jesus, which is his What it is 
power and virtue, they come thereby to enjoy and feel the the"iiame" 
arisings of this life, which, as it prevails in each particular, of Jesus, 
becomes as a flood of refreshment, and overspreads the 
whole meeting: for man, and man's part and wisdom, be- 
ing denied and chained down in every individual, and 
God exalted, and his grace in dominion in the heart, thus 
his name comes to be one in all, and his glory breaks forth, 
and covers all ; and there is such a holy awe and rever- 
ence upon every soul, that if the natural part should arise 
in any, or the wise part, or what is not one with the life, 
it would presently be chained down, and judged out. And 
when any are, through the breaking forth of this power, 
constrained to utter a sentence of exhortation or praise, or 
to breathe to the Lord in prayer, then all are sensible of 

it; for the same life in them answers to it, "as in water Prov.xxvn. 

. . . . 19 

face answereth to face." This is that divine and spiritual 

worship, which the world neither knoweth nor under- 

standeth, which the vulture's eye seeth not into. Yet 

many and great are the advantages, which my soul, with Advan- 

many others, hath tasted of hereby, and which would be lent nieet' 

found of all such as would seriously apply themselves '"ss- 

hereunto : for, when people are gathered thus together, 

not merely to hear men, nor depend upon them, but all Isa. x. 20, 

are inwardly taught to stay their minds upon the Lord, 

and wait for his appearance in their hearts ; thereby the 

forward working of the spirit of man is stayed and hindered 

from mixing itself with the worship of God ; and the form 

of this worship is so naked and void of all outward and 

worldly splendor, that all occasion for man's wisdom to be 

exercised in that superstition and idolatry hath no lodging 

here ; and so there being also an inward quietness and 


retiredness of mind, the witness of God ariseth in tlie lieart, 
and the light of Clirist shinetii, whereby the soul conieth 
to see its own condition. And there being many joined 
togetlier in this same work, there is an inward travail and 
wrestling ; and also, as the measure of grace is abode in, 
an overcoming of the })ower and spirit of darkness ; and 
thus we are often greatly strengthened and renewed in the 
spirits of our minds without a word, and we enjoy and 

Eph. IV. 23. possess the holy fellowship and communion of the body 
and blood of Christ, by which our inward man is nourished 
and fed ; which makes us not to dote upon outward water, 
and bread and wine, in our spiritual things. Now as many 
thus gathered together grow up in the strength, power, and 
virtue of truth, and as truth comes thus to have victory and 
dominion in their souls, then they receive an utterance, 

Speaking to and speak steadily to the edification of their brethren, and 
the pure life hath a free passage through them, and what is 
thus spoken edifieth the body indeed. Such is the evident 
certainty of that divine strength that is communicated by 
thus meeting together, and waiting in silence upon God, 
that sometimes when one hath come in that hath been un- 
watchful and wandering in his mind, or suddenly out of 
the hurry of outward business, and so not inwardly gathered 
with the rest, so soon as he retires himself inwardly, this 
power being in a good measure raised in the whole meet- 
ing, will suddenly lay hold upon his spirit, and wonder- 
fully help to raise up the good in him, and beget him into 
the sense of the same power, to the melting and warming 
of his heart ; even as the warmth would take hold upon a 
man that is cold coming in to a stove, or as a flame will 
lay hold upon some little combustible matter being near 
unto it. Yea, if it fall out that several met together be 
straying in their minds, though outwardly silent, and so 
wandering from the measure of grace in themselves, which 
through the working of the enemy, and negligence of 
some, may fall out, if either one come in, or may be in, 
who is watchful, and in whom the life is raised in a great 
measure, as that one keeps his place, he will feel a secret 


travail for the rest in a sympathy with the seed which is 
oppressed in the other, and kept from arising by their 
thoughts and wanderings ; and as such a faithful one waits A secret 
in the light, and keeps in this divine work, God often- ^r another 
times answers the secret travail and breathings of his own "' ^^^^^t 

9 meetings. 

seed through such a one, so that the rest will find them- 
selves secretly smitten without words, and that one will be 
as a midwife throua^h the secret travail of his soul to brinar 
forth the life in them, just as a little water thrown into a 
pump brings up the rest, whereby life will come to be 
raised in all, and the vain imaginations brought down ; 
and such a one is felt by the rest to minister life unto 
them without words. Yea, sometimes, when there is not 
a word in the meeting, but all are silently waiting, if one 
come in that is rude and wicked, and in whom the power 
of darkness prevaileth much, perhaps with an intention to 
mock or do mischief, if the whole meeting be gathered into The mock- 
the life, and it be raised in a good measure, it will strike ^ith terror 
terror into such a one, and he will feel himself unable to when no 

' _ word IS 

resist ; but by the secret strength and virtue thereof, the spoken, 
power of darkness in him will be chained down : and if 
the day of his visitation be not expired, it will reach to the 
measure of grace in him, and raise it up to the redeeming 
of his soul. And this we often bear witness of, so that we 
have had frequent occasion in this respect, since God hath 
gathered us to be a people, to renew this old saying of 
many, " Is Saul also among the prophets .'"' For not a few i Sam. x. 
have come to be convinced of the truth after this manner, " 
of which I myself, in part, am a true witness, who not by 
strength of arguments, or by a particular disquisition of 
each doctrine, and convincement of my understanding 
thereby, came to receive and bear witness of the truth, but 
by being secretly reached by this life ; for when I came The true 
into the silent assemblies of God's people, I felt a secret ment. 
power among them, which touched my heart, and as I 
gave way unto it, I found the evil weakening in me, and 
the good raised up, and so I became thus knit and united 
unto them, hungering more and more after the increase of 


this power and life, whereby I might feel myself perfectly 
redeemed. And indeed this is the surest way to become 
a Christian, to whom afterwards the knowledge and under- 
standing of principles will not be wanting, but will grow 
up so much as is needful, as the natural fruit of this good 
root, and such a knowledge will not be barren nor unfruit- 
ful. After this manner we desire therefore all that come 
among us to be proselyted, knowing that though thousands 
should be convinced in their understandings of all the 
truths we maintain, yet if they were not sensible of this in- 
ward life, and their souls not changed from unrighteous- 
ness to righteousness, they could add nothing to us. For 
1 this is that cement whereby we are joined " as to the Lord," 
righteous- SO to one another, and without this none can worship with 
ness doth yg Yea, if such should come among: us, and from that 

join us to ' , _ o ' 

the Lord, understanding and convincement they have of the truth, 
speak ever so true things, and utter them forth with ever 
so much excellency of speech, if this life were wanting, it 
would not edify us at all, but be as '< sounding brass, or a 
tinkling cymbal," 1 Cor. xiii. 1. 
Our work § VIII. Our work then and worship is, when we meet 
fn ouT"^^ together, for every one to watch and wait upon God in 
meetings, themselves, and to be gathered from all visibles thereunto. 
And as every one is thus stated, they come to find the good 
arise over the evil, and the pure over the impure, in which 
God reveals himself, and draweth near to every individual, 
and so he is in the midst in the general, whereby each not 
only partakes of the particular refreshment and strength 
which comes from the good in himself, but is a sharer in 
the whole body, as being a living member of the body, 
having a joint fellowship and communion with all. And 
as this worship is steadfastly preached and kept to, it be- 
comes easy, though it be very hard at first to the natural 
man, whose roving imaginations and running worldly 
desires are not so easily brought to silence. And there- 
fore the Lord often-times, when any turn towards him, 
and have true desires thus to wait upon him, and 
find great difficulty through the unstayedness of their 



minds, doth in condescension and compassion cause his 
power to break forth in a more strong and powerful man- 
ner. And when the mind sinks down, and waits for the 
appearance of life, and that the power of darkness in the 
soul wrestles and works against it, then the good seed, as it 
ariseth, will be found to work as physic in the soul, espe- 
cially if such a weak one be in the assembly of divers others 
in whom the life is arisen in greater dominion, and through 
the contrary workings of the power of darkness there will 
be found an inward striving in the soul as really in the Esau and 
mystery as ever Esau and Jacob strove in Rebecca's strove in 

womb. And from this inward travail, while the darkness Rebecca's 

seeks to obscure the light, and the light breaks through the 

darkness, which it always will do, if the soul gives not its 
strength to the darkness, there will be such a painful tra- 
vail found in the soul, that will even work upon the out- 
ward man, so that often-times, through the working there- 
of, the body will be greatly shaken, and many groans, and 
sighs, and tears, even as the pangs of a woman in travail, will 
lay hold upon it ; yea, and this not only as to one, but when 
the enemy, who, when the children of God assemble 
together, is not wanting to be present, to see if he can let 
their comfort, hath prevailed in any measure in a whole 
meeting, and strongly worketh against it by spreading and 
propagating his dark power, and by drawing out the minds 
of such as are met from the life in them, as they come to 
be sensible of this power of his that works against them, 
and to wrestle with it by the armour of light, sometimes 
the power of God will break forth into a whole meeting. The travail 
and there will be such an inward travail, while each is seek- with a vic- 
ing to overcome the evil in themselves, that by the strong 3^"°"^ 
contrary workings of these opposite powers, like the going 
of two contrary tities, every individual will be strongly 
exercised as in n day of battle, and thereby trembling and 
a motion of body will be upon most, if not upon all, 
which, as the power of truth prevails, will from pangs and 
groans end with a sweet sound of thanksgiving and praise. 
And from this the name of Quakers, i. e., Tremblers, was 


The niiine first reproachfully cast upon us ; which though it be none 
ers, whence ^^ ^^^ choosiug, yet in this respect we are not ashamed of 
ii aprung. jt^ 1^^^ have rather reason to rejoice therefore, even that we 
are sensible of this power that hath oftentimes laid hold 
of our adversaries, and made them yield unto us, and join 
with us, and confess to the truth, before they had any dis- 
tinct or discursive knowledge of our doctrines, so that 
sometimes many at one meeting have been thus convinced : 
and this power would sometimes also reach to and wonder- 
fully work even in little children, to the admiration and 
astonishment of many. 
\pi silence § IX, Many are the blessed experiences which I could 
bu" words ^"^^^^•^ of this silence and manner of worship ; yet I do not 
may follow, so much commend and speak of silence as if we had bound 
ourselves by any law to exclude praying or preaching, or 
tied ourselves thereunto ; not at all : for as our worship 
consisteth not in words, so neither in silence, as silence ; 
but in a holy dependence of the mind upon God : from which 
dependence silence necessarily follows in the first place, 
until words can be brought forth, which are from God's 
Spirit. And God is not wanting to move in his children 
to bring forth w'ords of exhortation or prayer, when it is 
needful ; so that of the many gatherings and meetings of 
such as are convinced of the truth, there is scarce any in 
whom God raiseth not up some or other to minister to his 
brethren ; and there are few meetings that are altogether 
silent. For when many are met together in this one life 
and name, it doth most naturally and frequently excite 
them to pray to and praise God, and stir up one another 
by mutual exhortation and instructions; yet we judge it 
needful there be in the first place some time of silence, 
during which every one may be gathered inw^ard to the 
word and gift of grace, from which he that ministereth may 
receive strength to bring forth what he ministereth ; and 
that they that hear may have a sense to discern betwixt the 
precious and the vile, and not to hurry into the exercise 
of these things so soon as the bell rings, as other Chris- 
tians do. Yea, and we doubt not, but assuredly know, 


that the meeting may be good and refreshful, though from 
ihe sitting down to the rising up thereof there hath not 
been a word as outwardly spoken, and yet life may have No aoso- 
been known to abound in each particular, and an inward '""^ P^*^^^ 

■T ' _ sity ior 

growing up therein and thereby, yea, so as words might words, 

have been spoken acceptably, and from the life : yet there irom the 

beinff no absolute necessity laid upon any so to do, all ^''''Jiit'nies. 

might have chosen rather quietly and silently to possess 

and enjoy the Lord in themselves, which is very sweet 

and comfortable to the soul that hath thus learned to be 

gathered out of all its own thoughts and workings, to feel 

the Lord to bring forth both the will and the deed, which 

many can declare by a blessed experience : though indeed 

it cannot but be hard for the natural man to receive or 

believe this doctrine, and therefore it must be rather by a 

sensible experience, and by coming to make proof of it, 

than by arguments, that such can be convinced of this 

thing, seeing it is not enough to believe it, if they come 

not also to enjoy and possess it ; yet in condescension to, 

and for the sake of, such as may be the more willing to 

apply themselves to the practice and experience hereof, if 

they found their understandings convinced of it, and that 

it is founded upon scripture and reason, I find a freedom 

of mind to add some few considerations of this kind, for 

the confirmation hereof, besides what is before mentioned 

of our experience. 

§ X. That to wait upon God, and to watch before him. To wait and 
is a duty incumbent upon all, I suppose none will deny ; "^^^^^ 9^F^' 
and that this also is a part of worship will not be called in the scrip- 
question, since there is scarce any other so frequently com- 
manded in the holy scriptures, as may appear from Psalm 
xxvii. 14, and xxxvii. 7, 34 ; Prov. xx. 22 ; Isai. xxx. 18 ; 
Hosea xii. 6 ; Zeph. iii. 8 ; Mat. xxiv. 42, and xxv. 13, 
and xxvi. 41 ; Mark xiii. 33, 35, 37 ; Luke xxi. 36 ; Acts 
i. 4, and xx. 31 ; 1 Cor, xvi. 13 ; Col. iv. 2 ; 1 Thess. v. 
6 ; 2 Tim. iv. 5 ; I Pet. iv. 7. Also this duty is often re- 
commended with very great and precious promises, as 
Psalm xxv. 3, and xxxvii. 9, and Ixix. 6 ; Isai. xlii. 23 ; 
29 2 s 


Lam. iii. 25, 26. They that wait upon the Lord shall 
renew their strength, &.c., Isa. xl. 31. Now how is this 
waiting upon God, or watching before him, but by this 
silence of which we have spoken ? Which as it is in it- 
self a great and principal duty, so it necessarily in order 
both of nature and time precedeth all other. But tiiat it 
may be the better and more perfectly understood, as it is 
not only an outward silence of the body, but an inward 
silence of the mind from all its own imaginations and self- 
cogitations, let it be considered according to truth, and to 
the principles and doctrines heretofore affirmed and proved, 
that man is to be considered in a twofold respect, to wit, 
in his natural, unregenerate, and fallen state, and in his 
spiritual and renewed condition ; from whence ariseth that 
distinction of the natural and spiritual man so much used 
by the apostle, and heretofore spoken of. Also these two 
births of the mind proceed from the two seeds in man re- 
spectively, to wit, the good seed and the evil ; and from 
the evil seed doth not only proceed all manner of gross and 
abominable wickedness and profanity, but also hypocrisy, 
Whence and those wickednesses which the scripture calls spiritual, 
nesses arise because it is the serpent working in and by the natural man 
that are j,^ thinos that are spiritual, which havino^ a show and api)ear- 

Bpintual. o ' ' ^ t I 

ance of good, are so much the more hurtful and dangerous, 
as it is Satan transformed and transforming himself into an 
angel of light ; and therefore doth the scripture so pressingly 
and frequently, as we have heretofore had occasion to oil- 
serve, shut out and exclude the natural man from med- 
dling w'iih the things of God, denying his endeavours 
therein, though acted and performed by the most eminent 
of his parts, as of wisdom and utterance. 

Also this spiritual wickedness is of two sorts, though 
both one in kind, as proceeding from one root, yet ditfer- 
ing in thfeir degrees, and in the subjects also sometimes. 
The one is, when as the natural man, meddling with and 
working in the things of religion, doth from his own con- 
ceptions and divinations affirm or propose wrong and 
erroneous notions and opinions of God and things spiritual, 


and invent superstitions, ceremonies, observations, and rites From 
in worship, from whence have sprung all the heresies and heresies di 
superstitions that are among Christians. The other is, when spring. 
as the natural man, from a mere conviction of his under- 
standing, doth in the forwardness of his own will, and by 
his own natural strength, without the influence and leading 
of God's Spirit, go about either in his understanding to 
imagine, conceive, or think of the things of God, or actually 
to perform them by preaching or praying. The first is a 
missing both in matter and form ; the second is a retaining TrueChris- 
of the form without the life and substance of Christianity ; ^^vhTrei'n it 
because Christian religion consisteth not in a mere belief consists 
of true doctrines, or a mere performance of acts good in 
themselves, or else the bare letter of the scripture, though 
spoken by a drunkard, or a devil, might be said to be spirit 
and life, which I judge none will be so absurd as to affirm ; 
and als*) it would follow, that where the form of godliness 
is, there the power is also, which is contrary to the express 
words of the apostle. For the form of godliness cannot be 
said to be, where either the notions and opinions believed 
are erroneous and ungodly, or the acts performed evil and 
wicked ; for then it would be the form of ungodliness, and 
not of godliness : but of this more hereafter, when we shall 
speak particularly of preaching and praying. Now though 
this last be not so bad as the former, yet it hath made way 
for it ; for men having first departed from the life and sub- 
stance of true religion and worship, to wit, from the inward 
power and virtue of the Spirit, so as therein to act, and 
thereby to have all their actions enlivened, have only re- 
tained the form and show, to wit, the true words and ap- 
pearance ; and so acting in their own natural and unrenewed 
wills in this form, the form could not but quickly decay, 
and be vitiated. For the working and active spirit of man 
could not contain itself within the simplicity and plainness 
of truth, but giving way to his own numerous inventions 
and imaginations, began to vary in the form, and adapt it 
to his own inventions, until by degrees the form of godli- 
ness for the most part came to be lost, as well as the power. 


Idolatry For this kind of idolatry, whereby man loveth, idohzeth, 
itsowi'n^jn- ^^^ embraceth his own conceptions, inventions, and pro- 
c^ivings. (jm.j qC j,jg Q^yjj ijrain, is so incident unto him, and seated 
in his fallen nature, that so long as his natural spirit is the 
first author and actor of him, and is that by which he only 
is guided and moved in his worship towards God, so as 
not first to wait for another guide to direct him, he can 
never perform the pure spiritual worship, nor bring forth 
anything but the fruit of the first, fallen, natural, and cor- 
rupt root. Wherefore the time appointed of God being 
come, wherein by Jesus Christ he hath been pleased to re- 
store the true spiritual worship, and the outward form of 
worship, which was appointed by God to the Jews, and 
whereof the manner and time of its performance was parti- 
cularly determined by God himself, being come to an end. 
No form of we find that Jesus Christ, the author of the Christian reli- 
the'^Spint'^' gion, prescribes no set form of worship to his childrec under 
prescribed the more pure administration of the new covenant,* save 
. that he only tells them, that the worship now to be per- 
formed is spiritual, and in the Spirit. And it is especially 
to be observed, that in the whole New Testament there is 
no order nor command given in this thing, but to follow 
the revelation of the Spirit, save only that general one of 

• If any object here, That the Lord's Prayer is a prescribed form of 
prayer, and therefore of worship given by Christ to his chiklreii: 

I answer. First, This cannot be objected by any sort of Christians 
that I Icnow, because tliere are none who use not otlier prayers, or that 
limit their worship to this. Secondly, This was commiinded to the 
disciples, while yet weak, before they had received the dispensation 
of the gospel ; not that they should only use it in praying, but that he 
might show them by one example how that their prayers ought to be 
short, and not like the long prayers of the Pharisees. And that this 
was the use of it, appears by all their prayers, which divers saints 
afterwards made use of, whereof the scripture makes mention ; for 
none made use of this, neither repeated it, but used other words, ac- 
cording as the thing required, and as the Spirit gave utterance. Thirdly, 
That this ought to be so understood, appears from Rom. viii. 26, of 
which afterwards mention shall be made at greater length, where the 
apostle saith, " We know not what we should pray for as we ought, but 
the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us," &c. But if this prayer had 
been such a prescribed form of prayer to the church, that had not been 
true, neither had they been ignorant what to pray for, nor shouUl tbey 
have needed the hftlp of the Spirit to teach them. 


meeting together ; a thing dearly owned and diligently 
practised by us, as shall hereafter more appear. True it is, 
mention is made of the duties of praying, preaching, and Pray, 

, , , 1 1 1 1 1 1 I . • preach, and 

smging; but what order or method should be kept m so sing in Spi- 
doing, or that presently they should be set about so soon "'• 
as the saints are gathered, there is not one word to be 
found : yea, these duties, as shall afterwards be made ap- 
pear, are always annexed to the assistance, leadings, and 
motions of God's Spirit. Since then man in his natural 
state is thus excluded from acting or moving in things 
spiritual, how or what way shall he exercise this first and 
previous duty of waiting upon God but by silence, and by To wait on 
bringing that natural part to silence ? Which is no other ^iiat it is 
ways but by abstaining from his own thoughts and imagi- performed, 
nations, and from all the self-workings and motions of his 
own mind, as well in things materially good as evil ; that 
he being silent, God may speak in him, and the good seed 
may arise. This, though hard to the natural man, is so 
answerable to reason, and even natural experience in other 
things, that it cannot be denied. He that cometh to learn A simile of 

. II- ^ master 

of a master, if he expect to hear his master and be mstruct- and his 
ed by him, must not continually be speaking of the matter ^^^°^''- 
to be taught, and never be quiet, otherwise how shall his 
master have time to instruct him ? Yea, though the scholar 
were never so earnest to learn the science, yet would the 
master have reason to reprove him, as untoward and indo- 
cile, if he would always be meddling of himself, and still 
speaking, and not wait in silence patiently to hear his mas- 
ter instructing and teaching him, who ought not to open 
his mouth until by his master he were commanded and 
allowed so to do. So also if one were about to attend a Of a prince 
great prince, he would be thought an impertinent and im- y^nt. 
prudent servant, who, while he ought patiently and readily 
to wait, that he might answer the king when he speaks, and 
have his eye upon him to observe the least motions and 
inclinations of his will, and to do accordingly, would be 
still deafening him with discourse, though it were in praises 
of him ; and running to and fro, without any particular and 


immediate order, to do things that perhaps might be good 
in themselves, or mii^-ht have been commanded at other 
times to others ; would the kings of the earth accept of 
such servants or service ? Since then we are commanded 
To wait in to wait upon God diligently, and in so doing it is promised 
H\ ente. ^j^^^ ^^^ Strength shall be renewed, this waiting cannot be 
performed but by a silence or cessation of the natural part 
on our side, since God manifests himself not to the out- 
ward man or senses, so much as to the inward, to wit, to 
the soul and spirit. If the soul be still thinking and work- 
ing in her own will, and busily exercised in her own irna- 
The tiiinli- ginations, though the matters as in themselves may be good 
Boulex-^ concerning God, yet thereby she incapacitates herself from 
eludes the discerning the still, small voice of the Spirit, and so hurts 
God. herself greatly, in that she neglects her chief business of 

waiting upon the Lord: nothing less than if I should busy 
myself, crying out and speaking of a business, while in the 
mean time I neglect to hear one who is quietly whispering 
into my ear, and informing me in those things which are 
most needful for me to hear and know concerning that 
business. And since it is the chief work of a Christian to 
know the natural will in its own proper motions crucified, 
that God may both move in the act and in the will, the 
Lord chiefly regards this profound subjection and self-de- 
nial. For some men please themselves as much, and gratify 
their own sensual wills and humours in high and curious 
Religious speculations of religion, affecting a name and reputation 
specula- ^j^^^ way, or because those thino;s by custom or otherways 

lions . »' ' o J J 

are become pleasant and habitual to them, though not a 
whit more regenerated or inwardly sanctified in their spirits. 
Sensual re- as others gratify their lusts in acts of sensuality, and there- 
creations. ^^^^ i^^^j^ .^j,^ gjjj^^ hurtful to men, and sinful in the sight 

of God, it being nothing but the mere fruit and effect of 
man's natural and unrenewed will and spirit. Yea, should 
one, as many no doubt do, from a sense of sin, and fear of 
punishment, seek to terrify themselves from sin, by multi- 
plying thoughts of death, hell, and judgment, and by pre- 
senting to their imaginations the happiness and joys of 


heaven, and also by multiplying prayers and other religious Thoughts 
performances, as these things could never deliver him from a^j iieii to 
one iniquity, without the secret and inward power of God's keep out sir 

. . . . ai"*? hg- 

Spirit and grace, so would they signify no more than the leaves, 
fio-leaves wherewith Adam thought to cover his naked- 
ness. And seeing it is only the product of man's own 
natural will, proceeding from a self-love, and seeking to 
save himself, and not arising purely from that divine seed 
of righteousness which is given of God to all for grace and 
salvation, it is rejected of God, and no ways acceptable 
unto him ; since the natural man, as natural, while he stands 
in that state, is, with all his arts, parts, and actings, repro- 
bated by him. This great duty then of waiting upon God, 
must needs be exercised in man's denying self, both in- Denial of 
wardly and outwardly, in a still and mere dependence upon '*"'^ ^ ^^ ■ 
God, in abstracting from all the workings, imaginations, 
and speculations of his own mind, that being emptied as it 
were of himself, and so thoroughly crucified to the natural 
products thereof, he may be fit to receive the Lord, who 
will have no co-partner nor co-rival of his glory and power. 
And man being thus stated, the little seed of righteousness 
which God hath planted in his soul, and Christ hath pur- 
chased for him, even the measure of grace and life, which 
is burdened and crucified by man's natural thoughts and 
imaginations, receives a place to arise, and becometh a 
holy birth and geniture in man ; and is that divine air in The holy 
and by which man's soul and spirit comes to be leavened ; 
and by waiting therein he comes to be accepted in the sight 
of God, to stand in his presence, hear his voice, and ob- 
serve the motions of his holy Spirit. And so man's place 
is to wait in this ; and as hereby there are any objects pre- 
sented to his mind concerning God, or things relating to 
religion, his soul may be exercised in them without hurt, 
and to the great profit both of himself and others ; because 
those things have their rise not from his own will, but from 
God's Spirit: and therefore as in the arisings and movings 
of this his mind is still to be exercised in thinking and 
meditating, so also in the more obvious acts of preaching 



No Qua- and praying. And so it may hence appear we are not 
agamsra against meditation, as soujc have sought falsely to infer 
meditating Wom our doctfine ; but we are against the thoughts and 

mind. ... . " . ., '^ . 

From na- imaginations of the natural man in his own will, from which 

thomrliis '^^^ errors and heresies concerning the Christian religion in 

errors ^^e whole world have proceeded. But if it please God at 

any time, when one or more are waiting upon him, not to 

present such objects as give them occasion to exercise their 

minds in thoughts and imaginations, but purely to keep 

them in this holy dependence, and as they persist therein, 

to cause his secret refreshment and the pure incomes of his 

holy life to flow in upon them, then they have gooii reason 

to be content, because by this, as we know by good and 

blessed experience, the soul is more strengthened, renew- 

The aoul ed, and confirmed in the love of God, and armed against 

bv"what ? ^^^^ power of sin, than any way else ; this being a foretaste 

The holy of that real and sensible enjoyment of God, which the saints 

hie ot God. . , ... i • i /-. i r- i /v i 

in heaven daily possess, which God frequently aliords to 

his children here for their comfort and encouragement, 

especially when they are assembled together to wait upon 


Whatever § XI. For there are two contrary powers or spirits, to 

acT whhout '^^'^^ ^hc power and spirit of this world, in which the prince 

the power of darkness bears rule, and over as many as are acted by 

01 GrOd IS . . •' , , / 

not accept- it, and work from it; and the power or Spirit of God, in 
which God worketh and beareth rule, and over as many 
as act in and from it. So whatever be the things that a 
man thinketh of, or acteth in, however spiritual or religious 
as to the notion or form of them, so long as he acteth and 
moveth in the natural and corrupt spirit and will, and not 
from, in, and by the power of God, he sinneth in all, and 

Prov. xxi.4. is not accepted of God. For hence both the " ploughing 
and praying of the wicked is sin ;" as also whatever a man 
acts in and from the Spirit and power of God, having his 
understanding and will influenced and moved by it, 
whether it be actions religious, civil, or even natural, he 
is accepted in so doing in the sight of God, and is 

Ja. i. 25. "blessed in them." From what is said, it doth appear 


how frivolous and impertinent their objection is, that say 
they wait upon God in praying and preaching, since wait- 
ing doth of itself imply a passive dependence, rather than 
an acting. And since it is, and shall yet be more shown, To pray 
that preaching and praying without the Spirit is an offend- wiihouTuui 
in": of God. not a waiting upon him, and that prayinrj and ,^P"" '^ *^^' 

b ^ ' .,, .. fence to 

preaching by the Spirit pre-supposes necessarily a silent God. 
waiting to feel the motions and influence of the Spirit to 
lead thereunto ; and lastly, that in several of these places 
where praying is commanded, as Mat. xxvi. 41 ; Mark 
xiii. 33 ; Luke xxi. 36 ; 1 Peter iv. 7, watching is spe- 
cially prefixed as a previous preparation thereunto ; we do 
well and certainly conclude, that since waiting and watch- 
ing are so particularly commanded and recommended, and 
cannot be truly performed but in this inward silence of the 
mind from men's own thoughts and imaginations, this 
silence is and must necessarily be a special and principal 
part of God's worship. 

§ XII. But secondly, The excellency of this silent wait- II. 
ing upon God doth appear, in that it is impossible for the waidng^the 
enemy, viz., the devil, to counterfeit it, so as for any soul ^^'^^i' <^^"- 

. . . . *^ not coun- 

to be deceived or deluded by him in the exercise thereof, terfeit. 
Now in all other matters he may mix himself with the na- 
tural mind of man, and so by transforming himself he may 
deceive the soul, by busying it about things perhaps inno- 
cent in themselves, while yet he keeps them from behold- 
ing the pure light of Christ, and so from knowing distinctly 
their duty, and doing of it. For that envious spirit of 
man's eternal happiness knoweth well how to accommodate 
himself, and fit his snares for all the several dispositions 
and inclinations of men ; if he find one not fit to be en- 
gaged with gross sins, or worldly lusts, but rather averse 
from them, and religiously inclined, he can fit himself to 
beguile such a one, by suffering his thoughts and imagina- 
tions to run upon spiritual matters, and so hurry him to 
work, act, and meditate in his ow^n will. For he well 
knoweth that so long as self bears rule, and the Spirit of 
God is not the principal and chief actor, man is not put 



Altar, pray- out of his reach; so therefore he can accompany the priest 
smdy.Van- ^^ ^^^^ altar, the preacher to the pulpit, the zealot to his 
not shut ihe pi-ayers, yea, the doctor and professor of divinity to his 

devil out. r J J J ^ i j 

Study, and there he can cheerfully suffer him to labour and 
work among his books, yea, and help him lo find out and 
invent subtile distinctions and quiddities, by which both 
his mind and others through him, may be kept from heed- 
ing God's Light in the conscience, and waiting upon him. 
There is not any exercise whatsoever, wherein he cannot 
enter and have a chief place, so as the soul many times 
cannot discern it, except in this alone: for he can only 
work in and by the natural man, and his faculties, by 
secretly acting upon his imaginations and desires, &c., and 
therefore, when he, to wit, the natural man, is silent, there 
he must also stand. And therefore when the soul comes 
to this silence, and as it were is brought to nothingness, as 
to her own workings, then the devil is shut out ; for the 
pure presence of God and shining of his Light he cannot 
abide, because so long as a man is thinking and meditating 
as of himself, he cannot be sure but the devil is influencing 
him therein ; but when he comes wholly to be silent, as 
the pure Light of God shines in upon him, then he is sure 
that the devil is shut out ; for beyond the imaginations he 
cannot go, which we often find by sensible experience. 
For he that of old is said to have come to the gathering 
together of the children of God, is not wanting to come to 
our assemblies. And indeed he can well enter and work 
in a meeting, that is silent only as to words, either by keep- 
ing the minds in various thoughts and imaginations, or by 
stupefying them, so as to overwhelm them with a spirit of 
heaviness and slothfulness : but when we retire out of all, 
and are turned in, both by being diligent and watchful 
upon the one hand, and also silent and retired out of all 
our thoughts upon the other, as we abide in this sure place, 
we feel ourselves out of his reach. Yea, oftentimes the 
power and glory of God will break forth and appear, just 
as the brigiit sun through many clouds and mists, to the 
dispelling of that power of darkness ; which will also be 


sensibly felt, seeking to cloud and darken the mind, and 
wholly to keep it from purely waiting upon God. 

§ XIII. Thirdly, the excellency of this worship doth m, 
appear, in that it can neither be stopped nor interrupted by ^^j ^"he 
the malice of men or devils, as all others can. Now inter- Quakers 

1 , . p , . , , , . not stopped 

ruptions and stoppmgs ot worship may be understood in a or inter- 
twofold respect, either as we are hindered from meetin,o-, rupiedby 

'^ , '3' men or 

as being outwardly by violence separated one from an- devils. 
other; or when permitted to meet together, as we are 
interrupted by the tumult, noise, and confusion which such 
as are malicious may use to molest or distract us. Now 
in both these respects, this worship doth greatly overpass 
all others : for how far soever people be separate or hin- 
dered from coming together, yet as every one is inwardly ; 
gathered to the measure of life in himself, there is a secret 
unity and fellowship enjoyed, which the devil and all his 
instruments can never break or hinder. But, secondly. It 
doth as well appear, as to those molestations which occur, 
when we are met together, what advantage this true and 
spiritual worship gives us beyond all others ; seeing in 
despite of a thousand interruptions and abuses, one of 
which were sufficient to have stopped all other sorts of Chris- 
tians, we have been able, through the nature of this wor- 
ship, to keep it uninterrupted as to God, and also at the 
same time to show forth an example of our Christian pa- 
tience towards all, even oftentimes to the reaching^ and 
convincing of our opposers. For there is no sort of wor- 
ship used by others which can subsist, though they be per- 
mitted to meet, unless they be either authorized and pro- 
tected by the magistrate, or defend themselves with the 
arm of flesh: but we at the same time exercise worship 
towards God, and also patiently bear the reproaches and 
ignominies which Christ prophesied should be so incident 
and frequent to Christians. For how can the Papists say 
their mass, if there be any there to disturb and interrupt The wor- 
them ? Do but take away the mass-book, the chalice, the IJ^'P.^^f ♦'le 
host, or the priest's garments, yea, do but spill the water, soon inter- 
or the wine, or blow out the candles, a thing quickly done. 


and tlie whole business is marred, and no sacrifice can be 

The Pro- offered. Take from the Lutherans or Episcopalians their 
testants the , . ^ _ ,■, , i • , 

like, and JLiturgy or Coniinon-Prayer-Boolc, and no service can be 

lists ^^' said. Remove from the Calvinists, Arminians, Socinians, 
Independents, or Anabajjtisis, the pulpit, the bible, and 
the hour-glass, or make but such a noise as the voice of" 
the preacher cannot be heard, or disturb him but so before 
he come, or strip him of his bible or his books, and he 
must be dumb : for they all think it an heresy to wait to 
speak as the Spirit of God giveth utterance ; and thus 
easily their whole worship may be marred. But when 
people meet together, and their worship consisteth not in 
such outward acts, and they depend not upon any one's 
speaking, but merely sit down to wait upon God, and to 
be gathered out of all visibles, and to feel the Lord in 
Spirit, none of these things can hinder them, of which we 
may say of a truth, we are sensible witnesses. For when 
the magistrates, stirred up by the malice and envy of our 
opposers, have used all means possible, and yet in vain, to 
deter us from meeting together, and that openly and pub- 
The suffer- Rely in our own hired houses for that purpose, both death, 
Quakersfor banishments, imprisonments, finings, beatings, whippings, 
their reh- g^^j other such devilish inventions, have proved ineffectual 
ings. to terrify us from our holy assemblies. And we having, I 

say, thus oftentimes purchased our liberty to meet, by deep 
sufferings, our opposers have then taken another way, by 
turning in upon us the worst and wickedest people, yea, 
the very ofT-scourings of men, who by all manner of inhu- 
man, beastly and brutish behaviour, have sought to pro- 
voke us, weary us, and molest us, but in vain. It would 
be almost incredible to declare, and indeed a shame, that 
among men pretending to be Christians, it should be men- 
tioned, what things of this kind men's eyes have seen, and 
I myself, with others, have shared of in suffering ! There 
they have often beaten us, and cast water and dirt upon 
us ; there tiiey have danced, leaped, sung, and spoken all 
manner of profane and ungodly words ; offered violence 
and shameful behaviour to grave women and virgins; 


jeered, mocked and scoffed, asking us, if the Spirit was 
not yet come ? And much more, which were tedious here 
to relate : and all this while we have been seriously and 
silently sitting together, and waiting upon the Lord. So 
that by these things our inward and spiritual fellowship 
\vith God, and one with another, in the pure life of righte- 
ousness, hath not been hindered. But on the contrary, the 
Lord knowing our sufferings and reproaches for his testi- 
mony's sake, hath caused his power and glory more to 
abound among us, and hath mightily refreshed us by the 
sense of his love, which hath filled our souls ; and so 
much the rather, as we found ourselves gathered into the 
"name of the Lord," which is the strong tower of the Prov. xviii. 
righteous ; whereby we felt ourselves sheltered from re- * 
ceiving any inward hurt through their malice : and also 
that he had delivered us from that vain name and profes- 
sion of Christianity, under which our opposers were not 
ashamed to bring forth those bitter and cursed fruits. Yea, 
sometimes in the midst of this tumult and opposition, God 
would powerfully move some or other of us by his Spirit, 
both to testify of that joy, which notwithstanding their 
malice we enjoyed, and powerfully to declare, in the 
evidence and demonstration of the Spirit, against their 
folly and wickedness ; so as the power of truth hath 
brought them to some measure of quietness and stillness, 
and stopped the impetuous streams of their fury and mad- 
ness : that even as of old Moses by his rod divided the The rod of 
waves of the Red Sea, that the Israelites might pass ; so vjded^the 
God hath thus by his Spirit made a way for us in the midst |f3.\ the 
of this raging wickedness, peaceably to enjoy and possess maketh 
him, and accomplish our worship to' him: so that some- ,^^^j,o.j^ 
times upon such occasions several of our opposers and ^'^'^ raging 


interrupters have hereby been convinced of the truth, and 
gathered from being persecutors to be sufferers with us. 
And let it not be forgotten, but let it be inscribed and 
abide for a constant remembrance of the thing, that in 
these beastly and brutish pranks, used to molest us in our 
spiritual meetings, none have been more busy than the 


tish priiiiks 
did nut iliut 
young try 
ot the cler- 
gy commit ? 

How the 
old cove- 
ship doth 
differ from 
the new. 

The new 
worship is 
John xviii. 

young students of the universities, who were learning phi- 
losophy and divinity, so called, and many of them prepar- 
ing themselves for the ministry. Should we commit to 
writing all the abominations committed in this respect by 
the young fry of the clergy, it would make no small 
volume ; as the churches of Christ, gathered into his pure 
worship in Oxford and Cambridge in England, and Edin- 
burgh and Aberdeen in Scotland, where the universities 
are, can well bear witness. 

§ XIV. Moreover, in this we know, that we are par- 
takers of the new covenant's dispensation, and disciples 
of Christ indeed, sharing with him in that spiritual wor- 
ship, which is performed in the Spirit and in truth ; because 
as he was, so are we in this world. For the old covenant- 
worship had an outward glory, temple and ceremonies, and 
was full of outward splendour and majesty, having an out- 
ward tabernacle and altar, beautified with gold, silver, and 
precious stones ; and their sacrifices were confined to a par- 
ticular place, even the outward Mount Sion ; and those 
that prayed, were to pray with their faces towards that out- 
ward temple ; and therefore all this was to be protected by 
an outward arm. Nor could the Jews peaceably have 
enjoyed it, but when they were secured from the violence 
of their outward enemies ; and therefore when at any time 
their enemies prevailed over them, their glory was darkened, 
and their sacrifices stopped, and the face of their worship 
marred: hence they complain, lament, and bewail the de- 
stroying of the temple, as a loss irreparable. But Jesus 
Christ, the author and institutor of the new covenant-wor- 
ship, testifies, that God is neither to be worshipped in this 
nor that place, but in the Spirit and in Truth ; and foras- 
much as his kingdom is not of this world, neither doth his 
worship consist in it, or need either the wisdom, glory, 
riches or splendour of this world to beautify or adorn it: 
nor yet the outward power or arm of (lesh to maintain, up- 
hold, or protect it ; but it is and may be performed by 
those that are spiritually minded, notwithstanding all the 
opposition, violence, and malice of men ; because it being 


purely spiritual, it is out of the reach of natural men to in- 
terrupt or obstruct it. Even as Jesus Christ, the author 
thereof, did enjoy and possess his spiritual kingdom, while 
oppressed, persecuted, and rejected of men ; and as, in 
despite of the malice and rage of the devil, «< he spoiled Col. ii. 15. 
principalities and powers, triumphing over them, and 
through death destroyed him that had the power of death, Heb. ii. 14. 
that is, the devil ;" so also all his followers both can and 
do worship him, not only without the arm of flesh to pro- 
tect them, but even when oppressed. For their worship 
being spiritual, is by the power of the Spirit defended and 
maintained ; but such worships as are carnal, and consist Carnalwor- 
in carnal and outward ceremonies and observations, need not^stand 
a carnal and outward arm to protect and defend them, else without the 

_ -t _ ' arm oi 

they cannot stand and subsist. And therefore it appears, flesh, 
that the several worships of our opposers, both Papists and 
Protestants, are of this kind, and not the true spiritual and 
new covenant worship of Christ ; because, as hath been 
observed, they cannot stand without the protection or 
countenance of the outward magistrate, neither can be per- 
formed, if there be the least opposition : for they are not 
in the patience of Jesus, to serve and worship him with 
sufferings, ignominies, calumnies, and reproaches. And 
from hence have sprung all those wars, fightings, and 
bloodshed among Christians, while each by the arm of 
flesh endeavoured to defend and protect their own way 
and worship ; and from this also sprung up that monstrous 
opinion of persecution ; of which we shall speak more at 
length hereafter. 

§ XV. But fourthly ; The nature of this worship, which IV. 

• . . . True woF" 

IS performed by the operation of the Spirit, the natural ship in 
man being silent, doth appear from these words of Christ, f ^'f-gV d 
John iv. 23, 24 : '< But the hour cometh, and now is, when by Christ. 
the true worshippers shall worship the Father in Spirit and 
in Truth: for the Father seeketh such to worship him. 
God is a Spirit, and they that worship him, must worship 
him in Spirit and in Truth." This testimony is the more 
specially to be observed, for that it is both the first, chiefest. 


and most ample testimony, which Christ gives uS of his 
Christian worsliip, as dillerent and contra-distinguished 
from that under the law. For first, he showeth that the 
season is now come, wherein the worship must be in Spirit 
and in Truth : for the Father seeketh such to worship him : 
so then it is no more a worship consisting in outward ob- 
servations, to be performed by man at set times or oppor- 
tunities, which he can do in his own will, and by his own 
natural strength : for else it would not differ in matter, but 
The reason only in some circumstances from that under the law. Next, 
gives" for a ^^ ^^^ ^ reason of this worship, we need not give any 
worship in other, and indeed none can give a better than that which 
Christ giveth, which I think should be sufficient to satisfy 
every Christian, to wit, " GOD IS A SPIRIT, and they 
that worship him, must worship him in Spirit and in 
Truth." As this ought to be received, because it is the 
words of Christ, so also it is founded upon so clear a de- 
monstration of reason, as sufficiently evidenceth its verity. 
For Christ excellently argues from the analogy that ought 
to be betwixt the object, and the worship directed there- 
unto : 
Arq. God is a Spirit ; 

Therefore he must be worshipped in Spirit. 
This is so certain, that it can suffer no contradiction ; 
yea, and this analogy is so necessary to be minded, that 
under the law, when God instituted and appointed that 
ceremonial worship to the Jews, because that worship was 
outward, that there might be an analogy, he saw it neces- 
sary to condescend to them as in a special manner, to 
dwell betwixt the cherubims within the tabernacle, and 
afterwards to make the temple of Jerusalem in a sort his 
habitation, and cause something of an outward glory and 
majesty to appear, by causing fire from heaven to consume 
The glory the sacrifices, and filling the temple with a cloud : through 
ward^tem- ^^^^^ by which mediums, visible to the outward eye, he 
P'^' manifested himself proportionably to that outward worship 

which he had commanded them to perform. So now 
under the new covenant, he seeing meet in his heavenly 


wisdom to lead his children in a path more heavenly and 
spiritual, and in a way more easy and familiar, and also 
purposing to disappoint carnal and outward observations, 
that his may have an eye more to an inward glory and 
kingdom than to an outward, he hath given us for an ex- 
ample hereof the appearance of his beloved Son, the Lord 
Jesus Christ, who (as Moses delivered the Israelites out As Moses 
of their outward bondage, and by outwardly destroying outward so 
their enemies) hath delivered and doth deliver us by suf- Chnst de- 

. 11- 1 r 1 ■ ■ 11 livers his 

lermg, and dymg by the hands of his enemies ; thereby from in- 
triumphing over the devil, and his and our inward ene- "1^^ ^ '^^®' 
mies, and delivering us therefrom. He hath also insti- 
tuted an inward and spiritual worship : so that God now 
tieth not his people to the temple of Jerusalem, nor yet 
unto outward ceremonies and observations ; but takeih the 
heart of every Christian for a temple to dwell in ; and there 
immediately appeareth, and giveth him directions how to 
serve him in any outward acts. Since, as Christ argueth, 
God is a Spirit, he will now^ be worshipped in the Spirit, 
where he reveals himself, and dwelleth with the contrite in 
heart. Now, since it is the heart of man that now is be- 
come the temple of God, in which he will be worshipped, 
and no more in particular outward temples, since, as 
blessed Stephen said, out of the prophet, to the professing 
Jews of old, "The most High dwelleth not in temples 
made with hands," as before the glory of the Lord de- 
scended to fill the outward temple, it behoved to be puri- 
fied and cleansed, and all polluted stuff removed out of it ; 
yea, and the place for the tabernacle was overlaid with 
gold, the most precious and cleanest of metals ; so also 
before God be worshipped in the inward temple of the 
heart, it must also be purged of its own filth, and all its 
own thoughts and imaginations, that so it may be fit to re- 
ceive the Spirit of God, and to be actuated by it. And 
doth not this directly lead us to that inward silence, of 
which we have spoken, and exactly pointed out? And 
further, This worship must be in truth ; intimating, that 
■his spiritual worship, thus acted, is only and properly 
30 * 2 u 


a true worship ; as being that which, for the reasons above 
observed, cannot be counterfeited by tlie enemy, nor yet 
performed by the hypocrite. 

§ XVI. And though this worship be indeed very dif- 
ferent from the divers established invented worshij)S among 
Christians, and therefore may seem strange to many, yet 
hath it been testified of, commended and practised, by the 
most pious of all sorts, in all ages, as by many evident tes- 
timonies might be proved. So that from the professing 
.and practising thereof the name of Mystics hath arisen, as 
A certain of a Certain sect, greatly commended by all, whose writ- 
tks^V '^^ '"B"^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^°^^ ^^ ^^^ explanation and of the commen- 
mong the dation of this sort of worship ; where they plentifully 
Papists, . . ^ • ' ,. , ■ , 

their in- as.sert this mward introversion and abstraction of the mind, 

dse. ^See" '^^ ^^^Y ^^^^ ^^5 ^^^"^ ^^^ images and thoughts, and the 
Sancta So- prayer of the will : yea, they look upon this as the height 
ed An. of Christian perfection ; so that some of them, though pro- 
Dom. 1657. f^^^pj Papists, do not doubt to affirm, " That such as have 
attained this method of worship, or are aiming at it, as in 
a book, called Sancta Sophia, put out by the English 
The Eng- Benedictines, printed at Doway, Anno, 1657, Tract I., sect. 
dictiTies' ii-? cap. 5, need not, nor ought to trouble or busy them- 
testimony selves with frequent and unnecessary confessions, with exer- 

tor the spi- _ t •' _ ' 

ritual wor- cising corporal labours and austerities, the using of vocal 
against Voluntary prayers, the hearing of a number of masses, or 
their gg|. devotions, or exercises to saints, or prayers for the 

masses and _ ' _ _ _ . 

eet devo- dead, or havinff solicitous and distractino; cares to gain in- 
dulgences, by going to such and such churches, or adjoin- 
ing one's self to confraternities, or entangling one's self 
with vows and promises ; because such kind of things 
hinder the soul from observing the operations of the Divine 
Spirit in it, and from having liberty to follow the Spirit 
whither it would draw her." And yet who knows not that 
in such kind of observations the very substance of the 
Popish religion consisteth? Yet nevertheless, it appears 
by this, and many other passages, which out of their Mystic 
writers might be mentioned, how they look upon this wor- 
ship as excelling all other ; and that such as arrived here- 


unto, had no absolute need of the others : yea, see the 
Life of Balthazar Alvares, in the same Sancta Sophia, 
Tract III., sect, i., cap. 7, such as tasted of this, quickly 
confessed, that the other forms and ceremonies of worship 
were useless as to them ; neither did they perform them as 
things necessary, but merely for order or example's sake. 
And therefore, though some of them were so over-clouded 
with the common darkness of their profession, yet could 
they affirm that this spiritual worship was still to be re- 
tained and sought for, even though it should become 
necessary to omit their outward ceremonies. Hence Ber- Bernard 

1 • 1 1 • 1 • T-i • 1 -iTT-n- preferring 

nard, as m many other places, so m his i^pistle to William, the Spirit 
abbot of the same order, saith, " Take heed to the rule of p-^ orders 
God ; the kingdom of God is within you :" and after- 
wards, saying, That their outward orders and rules should 
be observed, he adds: " But otherwise, when it shall hap- 
pen that one of these two must be omitted, in such a case 
these are much rather to be omitted than those former : for 
by how much the Spirit is more excellent and noble than 
the body, by so much are spiritual exercises more profit- 
able than corporal." Is not that then the best of wor- 
ships, which the best of men in all ages, and of all sects, 
have commended, and which is most suitable to the doc- 
trine of Christ? I say. Is not that worship to be followed 
and performed? And so much the rather, as God hath 
raised a people to testify for it, and preach it, to their great 
refreshment and strengthening, in the very face of the 
world, and notwithstanding much opposition ; who do not, Those 
as these Mystics, make of it a mystery, only to be attained confine that 
by a few men or women in a cloister ; or, as their mistake aYlois^ter** 
was, after wearying themselves with many outward cere- 
monies and observations, as if it were the consequence of 
such a labour ; but who in the free love of God, who re- 
spects not persons, and was near to hear and reveal him- 
self, as well to Cornelius, a centurion and a Roman, as 
to Simeon and Anna; and who discovered his glory to 
Mary, a poor handmaid, and to the poor shepherds, rather 
than to the high priests and devout proselytes among the 


Jews, in and according to his free love, finding that God 
is revealing and establishing this worship, and making 
many poor tradesmen, yea, young boys and girls, witnesses 
of it, do entreat and beseech all to lay aside their own 
will-worships, and voluntary acts, performed in their own 
wills, and by their own mere natural strength and power, 
without retiring out of their vain imaginations and thoughts, 
or feeling the i)ure Spirit of God to move and stir in them ; 
that they may come to practise this acceptable worship, 
which is in Spirit and in Truth. But against this worship 
they object. 
Obj. 1. § XVII. First, it seem to be an unprofitable exercise for 

a man to be doing or thinking nothing ; and that one might 
be much better employed, either in meditating upon some 
good subject, or otherwise praying to or praising God. 
Answ. I answer ; That is not unprofitable, which is of absolute 

necessity before any other duty can be acceptably performed, 
as we have shown this waiting to be. Moreover, those 
have but a carnal and gross apprehension of God, and of 
the things of his kingdom, who imagine that men please 
him by their own workings and actings : whereas, as 
hath been shown, the first step for a man to fear God, is 
Isa. i. 16, to cease from his own thoughts and imaginations, and 
We must suflfer God's Spirit to work in him. For we must "cease 
cease to do to do evil," ere we " learn to do well ;" and this meddling 

ill Gr6 \vc 

learn to do in things spiritual by man's own natural understanding, is 
■ one of the greatest and most dangerous evils that man is 

incident to ; being that w'hich occasioned our first parents' 
fall, to wit, a forwardness to desire to know things, and a 
meddling with them, both without and contrary to the 
Lord's command. 
Obj. 2. Secondly, Some object. If your worship merely consist 

in inwardly retiring to the Lord, and feeling of his Spirit, 
Sol times arise in you, and then to do outward acts as ye are led by 
fo"r^meeu^ it, what need ye have public meetings at set times and 
ings- places, since every one may enjoy this at home ? Or 

should not every one stay at home, until they be particu- 
larly moved to go to such a place at such a time ; since to 

OF WORSHIP. ^ 357 

meet at set times and places seems to be an outward ob- 
servation and ceremony, contrary to what ye at other times 
assert ? 

I answer, first ; To meet at set times and places is not Answ. 
any religious act, or part of worship in itself; but only an Public 

1 • c ■ ji meetings, 

outward conveniency, necessary tor our seemg one another, ,i^eir use 

so longf as we are clothed with this outward tabernacle : ""^ reason 

o . . . asserted, 

and therefore our meeting at set times and places is not a 

part of our worship, but a preparatory accommodation of 
our outward man, in order to a public visible worship ; 
since we set not about the visible acts of worship when we 
meet together, until we be led thereunto by the Spirit of 
God. Secondly, God hath seen meet, so long as his chil- 
dren are in this world, to make use of the outward senses, 
not only as a means to convey spiritual life, as by speaking, 
praying, praising, &c., which cannot be done to mutual 
edification, but when we hear and see one another ; but 
also to entertain an outward, visible testimony for his name 
in the world : he causeth the inward life (which is also 
many times not conveyed by the outward senses) the more 
to abound, when his children assemble themselves diligently 
together to wait upon him; so that "as iron sharpeneth Prov. xxvii 
iron," the seeing of the faces one of another, when both ^^" 
are inwardly gathered unto the life, giveth occasion for the 
life secretly to rise, and pass from vessel to vessel. And 
as many candles lighted, and put in one place, do greatly 
augment the light, and make it more to shine forth, so 
when many are gathered together into the same life, there 
is more of the glory of God, and his power appears, to the 
refreshment of each individual ; for that he partakes not 
only of the light and life raised in himself, but in all the 
rest. And therefore Christ hath particularly promised a 
blessing to such as assemble together in his name, seeing 
he will be " in the midst of them," Matth. xviii. 20. And 
the author to the Hebrews doth precisely prohibit the ne- 
glect of this duty, as being of very dangerous and dreadful 
consequence, in these words; Heb. x. 24, "And let us 
consider one another, to provoke unto love, and to good 



blii)^ ot 
ourselves is 
not, to be 

Obj. 3. 


In waiting 
for ihfi 
silence is 

works ; not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, 
as the manner of some is ; — For if we sin wilfully, after 
that we have received the knowledge of the truth, tnere 
remaineth no more sacrifice for sins." And therefore the 
Lord hath shown that he hath a particular respect to such 
as thus assemble themselves together, because that thereby 
a public testimony for him is upheld in the earth, and his 
name is thereby glorified ; and therefore such as are right 
in their spirits, are naturally drawn to keep the meetings 
of God's people, and never want a spiritual influence to 
lead them thereunto : and if any do it in a mere customary 
way, they will no doubt suflfer condemnation for it. Yet 
cannot the appointing of places and times be accounted a 
ceremony and observation, done in man's will, in the wor- 
ship of God, seeing none can say that it is an act of wor- 
ship, but only a mere presenting of our persons in order to 
it, as is abovesaid. Which that it was practised by the 
primitive church and saints, all our adversaries do acknow- 

Lastly, Some object, That this manner of worship in 
silence is not to be found in all the scripture : 

I answer; We make not silence to be the sole matter 
of our worship ; since, as I have said above, there are 
many meetings, which are seldom altogether silent ; some 
or other are still moved either to preach, pray, or praise : 
and so in this our meetings cannot be but like the meetings 
of the primitive churches recorded in scripture, since our 
adversaries confess that they did preach and pray by the 
Spirit. And then what absurdity is it to suppose, that at 
some times the Spirit did not move them to these outward 
acts, and that then they were silent.-* Since we may well 
conclude they did not speak until they were moved ; and 
so no doubt had sometimes silence. Acts ii. 1, before the 
Spirit came upon them, it is said, — "They were all with 
one accord in one place ;" and then it is said, The Spirit 
suddenly came upon them ; but no mention is made of 
any on/^ speaking at that time ; and I would willingly know 


'•vhat absurdity our adversaries can infer, should we con- 
dude they were a while silent ? 

But if it be urged, That a whole silent meeting cannot Inst. 
be found in scripture ; 

I answer; Supposing such a thing were not recorded, it Answ. 
will not therefore follow that it is not lawful ; since it na- 
turally follow-eth from other scripture precepts, as we have silent 
proved this doth. For seeing the scripture commands to "r^^p|."ygj 
meet together, and when met, the scripture prohibits prayers ^lo"" scrip- 

, . , 1 o • • 11 -r 1 tiire and 

or preachmgs, but as the Spn-it moveth thereunto ; it people reason, 
meet together, and the Spirit move not to such acts, it will 
necessarily follow that they must be silent. But further, 
there might have been many such things among the saints 
of old though not recorded in scripture ; and yet we have 
enough in scripture, signifying that such things were. For 
Job sat silent seven days with his friends together ; here 
was a long silent meeting : see also Ezra ix. 4, and Ezekiel 
xiv. 1, and xx. 1. Thus having shown the excellency of 
this worship, proving it from scripture and reason, and an- 
swered the objections which are commonly made against 
it, which, though it may suffice to the explanation and 
proof of our proposition, yet I shall add something more 
particularly of preaching, praying, and singing, and so pro- 
ceed to the following proposition. 

§ XVIII. Preaching, as it is used both among Papists 
and Protestants, is for one man to take some place or verse ,,,, ^• 

' ^ What 

of scripture, and thereon speak for an hour or two,, what he preaching 
hath studied and premeditated in his closet, and gathered Protesianta 
together from his own inventions, or from the writings and ^^?^ ^^' 

o _ . . pists. 

observations of others ; and then having got it by heart, as A studied 
a school-boy doth his lesson, he brings it forth, and repeats houj. or 
it before the people : and how much the more fertile and ^^'^• 
strong a man's invention is, and the more industrious and 
laborious he is in collecting such observations, and can 
utter them with the excellency of speech and human elo- 
quence, so much the more is he accounted an able and 
excellent preacher. 


Tiiio To this we oppose, that when the saints are met tuge 

ii'v iheSpi- ther, and every one gathered to the gift and grace of God 
■■"• in themselves, he that ministereth, being actuated thereunto 

by the arising of the grace in himself, ought to speak forth 
what the Spirit of God furnisheth him with ; not minding 
the eloquence and wisdom of words, but the demonstration 
of tlie Spirit and of power: and that either in the interpret- 
ing some part of scripture, in case the Spirit, which is the 
good remembrancer, lead him so to do, or otherwise words 
of exhortation, advice, reproof, and instruction, or the sense 
of some spiritual experiences : all which will still be agree- 
able to the scripture, though perhaps not relative to, nor 
founded upon any particular chapter or verse, as a text. 
Now let us examine and consider which of these two sorts 
of preaching is most agreeable to the precepts and practice 
of Christ and his apostles, and the primitive church, recorded 
in scripture ? For, first, as to their preaching upon a text, if 
it w^ere not merely customary or premeditated, but done by 
the immediate motion of the Spirit, we should not blame 
it ; but to do it as they do, there is neither precept nor 
practice, that ever I could observe, in the New Testament, 
as a part of the instituted worship thereof. 
Object. But they allege. That Christ took the book of Isaiah, and 

read out of it, and spake therefrom ; and that Peter preach- 
ed from a sentence of the propliet Joel. 
Answ. I answer. That Christ and Peter did it not but as im- 

and Peter^s mediately actuated and moved thereunto by the Spirit of 
Kpeaking God, and that without premeditation, which I suppose our 

was not by ' . ^ . , . , .,,. , 

prernedita- adversaries will not deny ; m which case we wilhngly ap- 
prove of it. But what is this to their customary conned 
way, without either waiting for or expecting the inovings 
or leadings of the Spirit? Moreover, that neither Christ 
nor Peter did it as a settled custom or form, to be con- 
stantly practised by all the ministers of the church, appears, 
in that most of all the sermons recorded of Christ and his 
apostles in scripture were without this, as appears from 
Christ's sermon upon the mount, Mat. v. 1, &c. ; Mark iv. 
1, &c., and Paul's preaching to the Athenians, and to the 



Jews, &c. As then it appears that this method of preach- 
ing is not grounded upon any scripture precept, so the 
nature of it is contrary to the preaching of Christ under 
the new covenant, as expressed and recommended in scrip- 
ture ; for Christ, in sending forth his disciples, expressly 
mentioneth, that they are not to speak of or from them- 
selves, or to forecast beforehand, but that which the Spi- 
rit in the same hour shall teach them, as is particularly 
mentioned in the three evangelists. Mat. x. 20 ; Mark xiii. 
11 ; Luke xii. 12. Now if Christ gave this order to his 
disciples before he departed from them, as that which they 
were to practise during his abode outwardly with them, 
much more were they to do it after his departure, since 
then they were more especially to receive the Spirit, "to 
lead them in all things," and to " bring all things to their 
remembrance," John xiv. 26, And if they were to do so 
when they appeared before the magistrates and princes of 
the earth, much more in the worship of God, when they 
stand specially before him ; seeing, as is above shown, his 
worship is to be performed in Spirit ; and therefore after 
their receiving of the Holy Ghost it is said. Acts ii. 4, 
" They spake as the Spirit gave them utterance," not what 
they had studied and gathered from books in their closets 
in a premeditated way, 

Franciscus Lambertus, before cited, speaketh well and Franciscus 
showeth their hypocrisy, Tract, v,, of Prophecy, chap, 3, tus™ tes'ti- 
saying, " Where are they now that glory in their inven- "^o'?y , 

• 1 n ■ ■ , r ■ • I nil ■ agamst the 

tions, who say, a fine mvention ! a fine mvention ! This priests' stu- 
they call invention, which themselves have made up ; but tions'and"' 
what have the faithful to do with such kind of inventions? figments. 
It is not figments, nor yet inventions, that we will have, 
but things that are solid, invincible, eternal, and heavenly; 
not which men have invented, but which God hath re- 
vealed : for if we believe the scriptures, our invention pro- 
fiteth nothing, but to provoke God to our ruin." And 
afterwards, <' Beware," saith he, " that thou determine not 
precisely to speak what before thou hast meditated, what- 
soever it be ; for though it be lawful to determine the text 
31 2v 


which thou art to expound, yet not at all the interpreta- 
tion ; lest if thou so dost, thou take from the Holy Spirit 
that which is his, to wit, to direct thy speech, that thou 
mayest prophesy in the name of the Lord, void of all learn- 
ing, meditation, and experience, and as if thou hadst 
studied nothing at all, committing thy heart, thy tongue, 
and thyself wholly unto his Spirit, and trusting nothing to 
thy former .studying or meditation ; but saying with thy- 
self, in great confidence of the divine promise, ' The Lord 
will give a word with much power unto those that preach 
the gospel.' But above all things be careful thou follow 
not the manner of hypocrites, who have written almost 
word for word what they are to say, as if they were to 
repeat some verses upon a theatre, having learned all their 
preaching as they. do that act tragedies. And afterwards, 
when they are in the place of ])rophesying, pray the Lord 
to direct their tongue ; but in the mean time, shutting up 
the way of the Holy Spirit, they determine to say nothing 
but what they have written. unhappy kind of prophets, 
yea and truly cursed, which depend not upon God's Spirit, 
but upon their own writings or meditation ! Why prayest 
thou to the Lord, thou false prophet, to give thee his holy 
Spirit, by which thou mayest speak things profitable, and 
yet thou repellest the Spirit .'' Why preferrest thou thy me- 
ditation or study to the Spirit of God .'' Otherwise why 
cominittest thou not thyself to the Spirit.'" 
2. The § XIX. Secondly, This manner of preaching as used 

man's wis- ^J them, considering that they also affirm that it may be 
dom brings and often is performed by men who are wicked, or void 

beget not „ 

faith. of true grace, cannot only not edify the church, beget or 

nourish true faith, but is destructive to it, being directly 
contrary to the 'nature of the Christian and apostolic 
ministry mentioned in the scriptures : for the apostle 
preached the fjospel " not in the wisdom of words, lest the 
cross of Christ should be of none effect," 1 Cor. i. 17. 
But this preaching not being done by the actings and 
movings of God's Spirit, but by man's invention and elo- 
quence, in his own will, and through his natural and 


acquired parts and learning, is in the wisdom of words, 
and therefore the cross of Christ is thereby made of none 
effect. The apostle's speech and preaching was not "with 
enticing words of man's wisdom, but in demonstration of 
the Spirit and of power," that the faith of their hearers 
" should not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power 
of God," 1 Cor. ii. 3, 4, 5. But this preaching having 
nothing of the Spirit and power in it, both the preachers 
and hearers confessing they wait for no such thing, nor yet 
are sometimes sensible of it, must needs stand in the en- 
ticing words of man's wisdom, since it is by the mere wis- 
dom of man it is sought after, and the mere strength of 
man's eloquence and enticing words it is uttered ; and 
therefore no wonder if the faith of such as hear and depend 
upon such preachers and preachings stand in the wisdom 
of men, and not in the power of God. The apostles de- 
clared. That they " spake not in the words which man's 
wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth," 
1 Cor. ii. 13. But these preachers confess that they are 
strangers to the Holy Ghost, his motions and operations, 
neither do they wait to feel them, and therefore they speak 
in the words which their own natural wisdom and learning 
teach them, mixing them in, and adding them to, such 
words as they steal out of the scripture and other books, 
and therefore speak not what the Holy Ghost teacheth. 

Thirdly, This is contrary to the method and order of the 3. True 
primitive church mentioned by the apostle, 1 Cor. xiv. 30, metliodwaa 
&c., where in preaching every one is to wait for his revela- to speak by 
tion, and to give place one unto another, according as 
things are revealed ; but here there is no waiting for a 
revelation, but the preacher must speak, and not that which 
is revealed unto him, but what he hath prepared and pre- 
meditated before hand. 

Lastly, By this kind of preaching the Spirit of God, 4. The Spi- 
which should be the chief instructer and teacher of God's ou/by 
people, and whose influence is that only which makes all priests from 
preaching effectual and beneficial for the edifying of souls, teacher. 
is shut out, and man's natural wisdom, learning, and parts 



set up and exalted ; wliich no doubt is a great and chief 
reason why the preacliiti-^ among the generality of Chris- 
tians is so unfruitful and unsuccessful. Yea, according to 
this doctrine, the devil may preach, and ought to be heard 
also, seeing he both knoweth the truth, and hath as much 
eloquence as any. But what avails excellency of speech, 
if the demonstration and power of the Spirit be wanting, 
which toucheth ,the conscience ? We see that when the 
devil confessed to the truth, yet Christ would have none 
of his testimony. And as these pregnant testimonies of 
the scripture do prove this part of preaching to be contrary 
to the doctrine of Christ, so do they also prove that of ours 
before affirmed to be comforrnable thereunto. 

Object § -^^- ^^^ i^ ^"^y object after this manner. Have not 

many been benefited, yea, and both converted and edified 
by the ministry of such as have premeditated their preach- 
ing ? Yea, and hath not the Spirit often concurred by its 
divine influence with preachings thus premeditated, so as 
they have been powerfully borne in upon the souls of the 
hearers to their advantage .'' 

I answer. Though that be granted, which I shall not 
deny, it will not infer that the thing was good in itself, 
more than because Paul was met with by Christ to the con- 
verting of his soul riding to Damascus to persecute the 

is theretbre saints, that he did well in so doing. Neither particular 

persecuting . . 

good? actions, nor y^et whole congregations, as we above ob- 
served, are to be measured by the acts of God's conde- 
scension in times of ignorance. But besides, it hath often- 
times fallen out, that God, having a regard to the sim- 
plicity and integrity either of the preacher or hearers, hath 
fallen in upon the heart of a preacher by his power and 
holy infliuence, and thereby hath led him to speak things 
that were not in his premeditated discourse, and which 
perhaps he never thought on before ; and those passing 
ejaculations and unpremeditated but living exhortations, 
have proved more beneficial and refreshing both to preacher 
and hearers than all their premeditated sermons. But all 
that will not allow them to continue in these things which 


Paul perse- 
cuting was 


m themselves are not approved, but contrary to the prac- 
tice of the apostles, when God is raising up a people to 
serve him, according to the primitive purity and spiritual- 
ity ; yea, such acts of God's condescension, in times of 
darkness and ignorance, should engage all more and more 
to follow him, according as he reveals his most perfect and 
spiritual way, 

§ XXI. Having hitherto spoken of preaching, now it is ii. 
fit to speak of praying, concerning which the like contro- Of prayer, 
versy ariseth. Our adversaries, whose religion is all for outward is 
the most part outside, and such whose acts are the mere disun- 

. ... guishfid 

product of man's natural will and abilities, as they can irom the 
preach, so can they pray when they please, and therefore 
have their set particular prayers. I m.eddle not with the 
controversies among themselves concerning this, some of 
them being for set prayers, as a liturgy, others for such as 
are conceived extempore : it suffices me that all of them 
agree in this, That the motions and influence of the Spirit 
of God are not necessary to be previous thereunto • -^nd 
therefore they have set times in their public worship, :^s Thepries^is 
before and after preaching, and in their private devotion, preach and 
as morning and evening, and before and after meat, and ['jjg^g'^i®"^ 
other such occasions, at which they precisely set about the 
performing of their prayers, by speaking words to God, 
whether they feel any motion or influence of the Spirit or 
not; so that some of the chiefest have confessed that they 
have thus prayed without the motions or assistance of 
the Spirit, acknowledging that they sinned in so doing ; 
yet they said they looked upon it as their duty to do so, 
though to pray without the Spirit be sin. We freely con- 
fess that prayer is both very profitable, and a necessary 
duty commanded, and fit to be practised frequently by all 
Christians ; but as we can do nothing without Christ, so 
neither can we pray without the concurrence and assistance 
of his Spirit. But that the state of the controversy may 
be the better understood, let it be considered, first, that 

prayer is two-fold, inward and outward. Inward prayer ^^^t m- 
' '' . ' . r J ward prayer 

is that secret turning of the mind towards God, whereby, ;s, 



being secretly touched and awakened by the light of Christ 
in the conscience, and so bowed down under the sense of 
its iniquities, unworthiness, and misery, it looks up to God, 
and joining with the secret shinings of the seed of God, it 
breathes towards him, and is constantly breathing forth 
some secret desires and aspirations towards him. It is in 
this sense that we are so frequently in scripture com- 
manded to pray continually, Luke xviii. 1 ; 1 Thess. 
V. 17; Eph. vi. 18; Luke xxi. 36, which cannot be un- 
derstood of outward prayer, because it were impossible that 
men should be always upon their knees, expressing words 
of prayer ; and this would hinder them from the exercise 
What out- of those duties no less positively commanded. Outward 
war prayer pj.^^ygj. jg^ when as the Spirit ^eing thus in the exercise of 
inward retirement, and feeling the breathing of the Spirit 
of God to arise powerfully in the soul, receives strength 
and liberty by a superadded motion and influence of the 
spirit to bring forth eiiner audible sighs, groans or words, 
and that either in public assemblies, or in private, or at 
meat, &.c. 

As then inward prayer is necessary at all times, so, so 
long as the day of every man's visitation lasteth, he never 
wants some influence less or more, for the practice of it ; 
because he no sooner retires his mind, and considers him- 
self in God's presence, but he finds himself in the practice 
of it. 

The outward exercise of prayer, as needing a greater 
and superadded influence and motion of the Spirit, as it 
superadded cannot be Continually practised, so neither can it be so 

Influence. jr. 

readily, so as to be effectually performed, until his mind 
be some time acquainted with the inward ; therefore such 
as are diligent and watchful in their minds, and much 
retired in the exercise of this inward prayer, are more 
capable to be frequent in the use of the outward, because 
that this holy influence doth more constantly attend them, 
and they being better acquainted with, and accustomed to, 
the motions of God's Spirit, can easily perceive and dis- 
cern them. And indeed, as such who are most diligent 


nave a near access to God, and he taketh most delight to 
draw them by his Spirit to approach and call upon him, so 
when many are gathered together in this watchful mind, 
God doth frequently pour forth the Spirit of prayer among 
them and stir them thereunto, to the edifying and building 
up of one another in love. But because this outward 
prayer depends upon the inward, as that which must follow We cannot 
it, and cannot be acceptably performed but as attended to speak 
with a superadded influence and motion of the Spirit, ^^^ P^^y- 
therefore cannot we prefix set times to pray outwardly, so as 
to lay a necessity to speak words at such and such times, 
whether we feel this heavenly influence and assistance or 
no ; for that we judge were a tempting of God, and a 
coming before him without due preparation. We think it 
fit for us to present ourselves before him by this inward 
retirement of the mind, and so to proceed further, as his 
Spirit shall help us and draw us thereunto ; and we find that 
the Lord accepts of this, yea, and seeth meet sometimes to 
exercise us in this silent place for the trial of our patience, 
without allowing us to speak further, that he may teach us 
not to rely upon outward performances, or satisfy our- 
selves, as too many do, with the saying of our prayers ; 
and that our dependence upon him may be the more firm 
and constant, to wait for the holding out of his sceptre, 
and for his allowance to draw near unto him, with greater 
freedom and enlargement of Spirit upon our hearts towards 
him. Yet nevertheless we do not deny but sometimes 
God, upon particular occasions, very suddenly, yea, upon 
the very first turning in of the mind, may give powder and 
liberty to bring forth words or acts of outward prayer, so 
as the soul can scarce discern any previous motion, but the 
influence and bringing forth thereof may be as it were 
simul ^ semel : nevertheless that saying of Bernard is true, 
that all prayer is lukewarm, which hath not an inspiration 
preceding it. Though we affirm that none ought to go 
about prayer without this motion, yet we do not deny but 
such sin as neglect prayer ; but their sin is in that they f^" neglecf- 
come not to that place where they may feel that which ing prayer. 


would lead them thereunto. And therefore we question 

not but many, through neglect of this inward watchfulness 

and retiredness of mind, miss many precious opportunities 

to pray, and thereby are guilty in the sight of God ; yet 

would they sin if they should set about the act until they 

A. forward first felt the influence. For as he grossly offends his 

less servant master that lieth in his bed and sleeps, and neglects to do 

answersnot his master's business; yet if such a one should suddenly 

his duty. . . . . '' 

get up, without puttmg on his clothes, or taking along with 
him those necessary tools and instruments, without which 
he could not possibly work, and should forwardly fall a 
doing to no purpose, he would be so far thereby from 
repairing his former fault, that he would justly incur a 
new censure : and as one that is careless and otherways 
busied may miss to hear one speaking unto him, or even 
not hear the bell of a clock, though striking hard by him, 
so may many, through negligence, miss to hear God often- 
times calling upon them, and giving them access to pray 
unto him ; yet will not that allow them, without his liberty, 
in their own wills to fall to work. 

And lastly. Though this be the only true and proper 
method of prayer, as that which is alone acceptable to God, 
In times of yet shall we not deny but he oftentimes answered the pray- 
Goddir ^''^ ^"'^ concurred with the desires of some, especially in 
often hear times of darkness, who have greatly erred herein ; so that 
ers. some that have sat down in formal prayer, though far 

wrong in the matter as well as manner, without the assist- 
ance or influence of God's Spirit, yet have found him to 
take occasion there-through to break in upon their souls, 
and wonderfully tender and refresh them ; yet as in preach- 
ing and elsewhere hath afore been observed, that will not 
prove any such practices, or be a just let to hinder any 
from coming to practise that pure, spiritual, and acceptable 
prayer, which God is again restoring and leading his people 
into, out of all superstitions and mere empty formalities. 
The state of the controversy, and our sense thereof, being 
thus clearly stated, will both obviate many objections, and 
make the answer to others more brief and easy. I shall 


first prove this spiritual prayer by some short considera- First, spirit- 
tions from scripture, and then answer the objections of our proved^ 
opposers, which will also serve to refute their method and I™"" ^''"P" 
manner thereof. 

§ XXII. And first, That there is a necessity of this in- i. 
ward retirement of the mind as previous to prayer, that mugtbJfeit 
the Spirit may be felt to draw thereunto, appears, for that to move the 
in most of those places where prayer is commanded, watch- prayer, 
ing is prefixed thereunto, as necessary to go before, as 
Matt. xxiv. 42 ; Mark xiii. 33, and xiv. 38 ; Luke xxi. 
36, from which it is evident that this watching was to go - 
before prayer. Now to what end is thij watching, or what 
is it, but a waiting to feel God's Spirit to draw unto prayer, 
that so it may be done acceptably ? For since we are to 
pray always in the Spirit, and cannot pray of ourselves Eph. vi. 18. 
without it acceptably, this watching must be for this end 
recommended to us, as preceding prayer, that we may 
watch and wait for the seasonable time to pray, which is 
when the Spirit moves thereunto. 

Secondly, This necessity of the Spirit's moving and con- II. 
currence appears abundantly from that of the apostle Paul, ^ot how to 
Rom. viii. 26, 27 : '< Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our ^^^^0^-.*^ 
infirmities : for we know not what we should pray for as helps. 
we ought; but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us 
with groaninofs which cannot be uttered. And he that 
searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, 
because he maketh intercession for the saints according to 
the will of God." Which first holds forth the incapacity 
of men as of themselves to pray or call upon God in their 
own wills, even such as have received the faith of Christ, 
and are in measure sanctified by it, as was the church of 
Rome, to whom the apostle then wrote. Secondly, It 
holds forth that which can only help and assist men to pray, 
to wit, the Spirit, as that without which they cannot do it 
acceptably to God, nor beneficially to their own souls. 
Thirdly, The manner and way of the Spirit's intercession, 
with sighs and groans which are unutterable. And fourthly, 
That God receiveth graciously the prayers of such as are 



presented and offered unto himself by the Spirit, knowing 
it to be according to his will. Now it cannot be conceived 
but this order of prayer thus asserted by the apostle is most 
consistent with those other testimonies of scripture, com- 
mending and recommending to us the use of prayer. From 
which I thus argue, 
Arg. If any man know not how to pray, neither can do it 

without the help of the Spirit, then it is to no purpose for 
him, but altogether unprofitable, to pray without it. 
But the first is true, therefore also the last. 

III. Thirdly, This necessity of the Spirit to true prayer ap- 
waysmthe V^^^^ ^'0'^ Eph. vi. 18, and Jude 20, where the apostle 
Spirit, and commands "to pray always in the Spirit, and watching 
thereunto, thereunto ;" which is as much as if he had said, that we 

were never to pray without the Spirit, or watching there- 
unto. And Jude showeth that such prayers as are in the 
Holy Ghost only, tend to the building up of ourselves in 
our most holy faith, 

IV. Fourthly, The apostle Paul saith expressly, 1 Cor. xii. 
Jircau"' '^ '• " That no man can say that Jesus is the Lord but by 
Christ Lord the Holy Ghost :" if then Jesus cannot be thus rightly 

but by the i i i i tt i /^i r ^ i i o . 

Holy named but by the Holy Ghost, lar less can he be accept- 

Ghost. ^j^i^, called upon. Hence the same apostle declares, 1 Cor. 
xiv. 15, that he " will pray with the Spirit," &c. A clear 
evidence that it was none of his method to pray with- 
out it. 
V. But fifthly, All prayer without the Spirit is abomination, 

not hear the such as are the prayers of the wicked, Prov. xxviii. 9. 

prayers of And the confidence that tlie saints have that God will hear 

the wicked. . . „ , , , . ,. i • -n n 

them, IS, it they " ask any thing according to his will," 

1 John V. 14. So if the prayer be not according to his 
will, there is no ground of confidence that he will hear. 
Now our adversaries will acknowledge that prayers without 
the Spirit are not according to the will of God, and there- 
fore such as pray without it have no ground to expect an 
answer: for indeed to bid a man pray without the Spirit is 
all one as to bid one see without eyes, work without hands, 
or go without feet. And to desire a man to fall to prayer 


ere the Spirit in some measure less or more move him 
thereunto, is to desire a man to see before he opens his 
eyes, or to walk before he rises up, or to work with his 
hands before he moves them. 

§ XXIII. But lastly, From this false opinion of praying vi. 
without the Spirit, and not judging it necessary to be j^^^ -^ gj|j' 
waited for, as that which may be felt to move us thereunto, "ot offered 
hath proceeded all the superstition and idolatry that is Spirit. 
among those called Christians, and those many abomi- 
nations wherewith the Lord is provoked, and his Spirit 
grieved ; so that many deceive themselves now, as the Jews 
did of old, thinking it sufficient if they pay their daily 
sacrifices, and offer their customary oblations ; from thence 
thinking all is well, and creating a false peace to them- 
selves, as the whore in the Proverbs, because they have 
offered up their sacrifices of morning and evening prayers. 
And therefore it is manifest that their constant use of these 
things doth not a whit influence their lives and conversa- 
tions, but they remain for the most part as bad as ever. 
Yea, it is frequent both among Papists and Protestants, for 
them to leap as it were out of their vain, light, and pro- 
fane conversations at their set hours and seasons, and fall 
to their customary devotion ; and then, when it is scarce 
finished, and the words to God scarce out, the former pro- 
fane talk comes after it ; so that the same wicked profane 
spirit of this world actuates them in both. If there be any 
such thing as vain oblations, or prayers that are abomi- 
nation, which God heareth not, (as is certain there are, and 
the scripture testifies, Isa. Ixvi. 3; Jer. xiv. 12,) certainly 
such prayers as are acted in man's will, and by his own 
strength, without God's Spirit, must be of that number. 

§ XXIV. Let this suffice for proof. I shall now proceed 
to answer their objections, when I have said something 
concerning joining in prayer with others. Those that pray Concerning 
together with one accord use not only to concur in their p°aver with 
spirits, but also in the gesture of their body, which we also 'Others. 
willingly approve of. It becometh those who approach 


before God to pray, that they do it with bowed knees, and 

with their heads uncovered, which is our practice. 
Obj. 1. But here ariseth a controversy, Whether it be lawful to 

join with others by those external signs of reverence, albeit 
not in iieart, who pray formally, not waiting for the motion 
of the Spirit, nor judging it necessary. 
Answ. We answer, Not at all ; and for our testimony in this 

The reason thing \ve have suffered not a little. For when it hath fallen 
cannot join out, that either accidentally, or to witness against their 
in prayer, ^vo^sllip, we have been present during the same, and have 
not found it lawful for us to bow with them thereunto, they 
have often persecuted us, not only with reproaches, but 
also with strokes and cruel beatings. For this cause they 
used to accuse us of pride, profanity, and madness, as if 
we had no respect or reverence to the worship of God, and 
as if we judged none could pray, or were heard of God, 
but ourselves. Unto all which, and many more reproaches 
of this kind, we answer brielly and modestly. That it sufficeth 
us that we are found so doing, neither through pride, nor 
madness, nor profanity, but merely lest we should hurt our 
consciences ; the reason of which is plain and evident : for 
since our principle and doctrine oblige us to believe that 
the prayers of those who themselves confess they are not 
actuated by the Spirit, are abominations, how can we with 
a safe conscience join with them ? 
Obj. 2. If they urge. That this is the height of uncharitableness 

and arrogancy, as if we judged ourselves always to pray 
by the Spirit's motion, but they never ; as if we were never 
deceived by praying without the motions of the Spirit, and 
that they were never actuated by it, seeing albeit they judge 
not the motion of the Spirit always necessary, they confess 
nevertheless, that it is very profitable and comfortable, and 
they feel it often influencing them ; which that it sometimes 
falls out we cannot deny ; 
4«sw. To all which I answer distinctly. If it were their known 

and avowed doctrine not to pray without the motion of the 
Spirit, and that, seriously holding thereunto, they did not 
bind themselves to pray at certain prescribed times pre- 


cisely, at which times they determine to pray, though with- 
out the Spirit, then indeed we might be accused of un- 
chantableness and pride, if we never joined with them ; 
and if they so taught and practised, I doubt not but it shall we 
woukl be lawful for us so to do, unless there should appear j^ypo^ites 
some manifest and evident hypocrisy and delusion. But when pray- 
seeing they confess that they pray without the Spirit, and 
seeing God hath persuaded us that such prayers are abomi- 
nable, how can we with a safe conscience join with an 
abomination? That God sometimes condescends to them, 
we do not deny ; although now, when the spiritual worship 
is openly proclaimed, and ail are invited unto it, the case 
IS otherwise than in those old times of apostasy and dark- 
ness; and therefore, albeit any should begin to pray in our 
presence, not expecting the motion of the Spirit ; yet if it 
manifestly appear that God in condescension did concur 
with such a one, then according to God's will we should 
not refuse to join also ; but this is rare, lest thence they 
should be confirmed in their false principle. And although 
this seems hard in our profession, nevertheless it is so con- 
firmed by the authority both of scripture and right reason, 
that many convinced thereof have embraced this part be- 
fore other truths, which were easier, and, as they seemed 
to some, clearer. Among whom is memorable of late years 
Alexander Skein, a magistrate of the city of Aberdeen, a 
man very modest, and very averse from giving offence to 
others, who nevertheless being overcome by the power of 
truth in this matter, behoved for this cause to separate 
himself from the public assemblies and prayers, and join 
himself unto us ; who also gave the reason of his change, 
and likewise succinctly, but yet substantially, comprehend- 
ed this controversy concerning worship in some short ques- 
tions, which he offered to the public preachers of the city, 

and which I think meet to insert in this place. ., 

. borne (]ue3- 

1, Whether or not should any act of God's worship be tionsof A. 

gone about without the motions, leadings, and actings of pote'dto'the 

the Holy Spirit ? preachers 

'' "^ . . m Aber- 

2. If the motions of the Spirit be necessary to every par- deen. 



ticular duty, whether should he be waited upon, that all 
our acts and words may be according as he gives utteranc*^ 
and assistance ? 

3. Whether every one that bears the name of a Chris- 
tian, or professes to be a Protestant, hath such an uninter- 
rupted measure thereof, that he may, without waiting, go 
immediately about the duty ? 

4. If there be an indisposition and unfitness at some times 
for such exercises, at least as to the spiritual and lively 
performance thereof, whether ought they to be performed 
in that case, and at that time ? 

5. If any duty be gone about, under pretence that it is 
in obedience to the external command, without the spiritual 
life and motion necessary, whether such a duty thus per- 
formed can in faith be expected to be accepted of God, 

Lev. xvi. 1. and not rather reckoned as a bringing of strange fire before 
the Lord, seeing it is performed at best by the strength of 
natural and acquired parts, and not by the strength and 
assistance of the Holy Ghost, which was typified by the 
fire that came down from heaven, which alone behoved to 
consume the sacrifice and no other ? 

6. Whether duties gone about in the mere strength of 
natural and acquired parts, whether in public or private, 
be not as really, upon the matter, an image of man's in- 
vention as the po{)ish worship, though not so gross in the 
outward appearance ? And therefore whether it be not as 
real superstition to countenance any worship of that nature, 
as it is to countenance popish worship, though there be a 
difference in the degree ? 

7. Whether it be a ground of offence or just scandal to 
countenance the worship of those whose professed principle 
it is neither to speak for edification, nor to pray, but as the 
Holy Ghost shall be pleased to assist them in some measure 
less or more ; without which they rather choose to be silent, 
than to speak without this influence? 

Unto these they answered but very coldly and faintly, 
whose answers likewise long ago he refuted. 


Seeing then God hath called us to his spiritual worship, We must 
and to testify against the. human and voluntary worships ^°tnessing 
of the apostasy, if we did not this way stand immovable to for God. 
the truth revealed, but should join with them, both our 
testimony for God would be weakened and lost, and it 
would be impossible steadily to propagate this worship in 
the world, whose progress we dare neither retard nor hinder 
by any act of ours ; though therefore we shall lose not only 
worldly honour, but even our lives. And truly many Pro- 
testants, through their unsteadiness in this thing, for politic 
ends complying with the Popish abominations, have greatly 
scandalized their profession, and hurt the reformation ; as 
appeared in the example of the Elector of Saxony ; who, Elector of 
in the convention at Augsburg, in the year 1530, being g;!'j;'j[|j!f[ ^ 
commanded by the Emperor Charles the Fifth to be present given to 

7 Protest- 

at the mass, that he might carry the sword before him, ac- ants. 
cording to his place ; which when he justly scrupled to 
perform, his preachers taking more care for their prince's 
honour than for his conscience, persuaded him that it was 
lawful to do it against his conscience. Which was both a 
very bad example, and great scandal to the reformation, 
and displeased many ; as the author of the History of the Secondly, 
Council of Trent, in his first book, well observes. But acrains/spt 
now' I hasten to the objections of our adversaries against '"""3' P^^^y' 

•' ° er answer- 

this method of praying. ed. 

§ XXV. First; They object, That if such' particular in- Obj. i. 
fluences were needful to outward acts of worship, then 
they should also be needful to inward acts, as to wait, de- 
sire, and love God. But this is absurd ; therefore also 
that from whence it follows. 

I answer ; That which was said in the state of the con- Answ. 
troversy cleareth this ; because, as to those general duties, 
there never wants an influence, so long as the day of a 
man's visitation lasteth ; during which time God is always 
near to him, and wrestling with him by his Spirit, to turn 
him to himself; so that if he do but stand still, and cease 
from his evil thoughts, the Lord is near to help him, &c. 


But as to the outward acts of prayer, they need a more 
special motion and influence, as hath been proved. 

Obj. 2. Secondly ; They object, That it might be also alleged, 

that men ought not to do moral duties, as children to 
honour their parents, men to do right to their neighbours, 
except the Spirit move them to it. 

Answ. I answer ; There is a great difference betwixt these ge- 

neral duties betwixt man and man, and the particular ex- 
press acts of worship towards God : the one is merely 
spiritual, and commanded by God to be performed by his 
Spirit ; the other answer their end, as to them whom they 
are immediately directed to and concern, though done 
from a mere natural principle of self-love ; even as beasts 
have natural affections one to another, and therefore may 
be thus performed. Though I shall not deny, but that 
they are not works accepted of God, or beneficial to the 
soul, but as they are done in the fear of God, and in his 
blessing, in which his children do all things, and therefore 
are accepted and blessed in whatsoever they do. 

Obj. 3. Thirdly ; They object. That if a wicked man ought not 

to pray without a motion of the Spirit, because his prayer 
would be sinful ; neither ought he to plough by the same 

Prov.xxi.4 reason, because the ploughing of the wicked, as well as 
his praying, is sin. 

Answ. This objection is of the same nature with the former, 

and therefore may be answered the same way ; seeing 

How acts of there is a great difference betwixt natural acts, such as 

fe^rfrom'" eating, drinking, sleeping, and seeking sustenance for the 

•he Spirit's. i)Q(jy^ which things man hath common with beasts, and 
spiritual acts. And it doth not follow, because man ought 
not to go about spiritual acts without the Spirit, that there- 
fore he may not go about natural acts without it. The 
analogy holds better thus, and that for the proof of our 
affirmation, That as man for the going about natural acts 
needs his natural spirit ; so to perform spiritual acts he 
needs the Spirit of God. That the natural acts of the 
wicked and unregenerate are sinful, is not denied ; though 


not as in themselves, but in so far as man in that state is 
in all things reprobated in the sight of God. 

Fourthly ; They object, That wicked men may, accord- Obj. 4. 
ing to this doctrine, forbear to pray for years together, 
alleging, they want a motion to it. 

I answer ; The false pretences of wicked men do nothing Answ. 
invalidate the truth of this doctrine ; for at that rate there 
is no doctrine of Christ, which men might not set aside. 
That they ought not to pray without the Spirit, is granted ; 
but then they ought to come to that place of watching. That wick- 
where they may be capable to feel the Spirit's motion, neglect the 
They sin indeed in not praying; but the cause of this sin [^°'g"^-?^ 
is their not watching: so their neglect proceeds not from to pray, 
this doctrine, but from their disobedience to it ; seeing if 
they did pray without this, it would be a double sin, and 
no fulfilling of the command to pray: nor yet would their 
prayer, without this Spirit, be useful unto them. And this 
our adversaries are forced lo acknowledge in another case : 
for they say, It is a duty incumbent on Christians to fre- 
quent the sacrament of the Lord's supper, as they call it ; 
yet they say. No man ought to take it unworthily : yea, 
they plead, that such as find themselves unprepared, must 
abstain ; and therefore do usually excommunicate them 
from the table. Now, though according to them it be ne- 
cessary to partake of this sacrament ; yet it is also necessary 
that those that do it, do first examine themselves, lest they 
eat and drink their own condemnation ; and though they 
reckon it sinful for them to forbear, yet they account it 
more sinful for them to do it without this examination. 

Fifthly; They object Acts viii. 22, where Peter com- Obj. 5. 
manded Simon Magus, that wicked sorcerer, to pray ; 
from thence inferring. That wicked men may and ought 
to pray. 

I answer ; That in the citing of this place, as I have Answ. 
often observed, they omit the first and chiefest part of the 
verse, which is thus. Acts viii. vers. 22, " Repent there- j-er may 
fore of this thy wickedness, and pray God, if perhaps the pray- b}^' 
thought of thine heart may be forgiven thee :" so here he repentance. 
32* 2x 


bids him first " Repent." Now the least measure ot" true 
repentance cannot be without somewhat of that inward 
retirement of the mind which we speak of: and indeed 
where true repentance goeth first, we do not doubt but the 
Spirit of God will be near to concur with, and influence 
such to pray to and call upon God. 

And lastly ; They object. That many prayers begun 
without the Spirit have proved effectual ; and that the 
prayers of wicked men have been heard, and found ac- 
ceptable, as Ahab's. 

This objection was before solved. For the acts of God's 
compassion and indulgence at some times, and to some 
persons, upon singular extraordinary occasions, are not to 
be a rule of our actions. For if we should make that the 
measure of our obedience, great inconveniences would 
follow ; as is evident, and will be acknowledged by all. 
Next, We do not deny, but wicked men are sensible of 
the motions and operations of God's Spirit oftentimes, be- 
fore their day be expired ; from which they may at times 
pray acceptably ; not as remaining altogether wicked, but 
as entering into piety, from whence they afterwards fall 

§ XXVI. As to the singing of psalms, there will not be 
need of any long discourse ; for that the case is just the 
same as in the two former of preaching and prayer. We 
confess this to be a part of God's worship, and very sweet 
and refreshing, when it proceeds from a true sense of 
God's love in the heart, and arises from the divine in- 
fluence of the Spirit, which leads souls to breathe forth 
A sweet either a sweet harmony, or words suitable to the present 
oiind*"'°"^ condition ; whether they be words formerly used by the 
saints, and recorded in scripture, such as the Psalms of 
David, or other words ; as were the hymns and songs of 
But formal Zacharias, Simeon, and the blessed Virgin Mary. But as 
^'"""cf nd^ for the formal customary way of singing, it hath no foun- 
inscripture. dation in scripture, nor any ground in true Christianity : 
yea, besides all the abuses incident to prayer and preach- 
ing, it hath this more peculiar, that oftentimes great and 


horrid lies are said in the sig-ht of God : for all manner of Profane 

o ... 

wicked profane people take upon them to personate the i)"vid^s*' 
experiences and conditions of blessed David ; which are conditions 
not only false, as to them, but also as to some of more 
sobriety, who utter them forth : as where they will sing 
sometimes. Psalm xxii. 14, — " My heart is like wax, it is 
melted in the midst of my bowels :" and verse 15, " My 
strength is dried up like a potsherd, and my tongue cleaveth 
to my jaws ; and thou hast brought me into the dust of 
death :" and Psalm vi. 6, " I am weary with my groaning, 
all the night make I my bed to swim : I water my couch 
with my tears :" and many more, which those that speak 
know to be false, as to them. And sometimes will con- 
fess just after, in their prayers, that they are guilty of the 
vices opposite to those virtues, which but just before they 
have asserted themselves endued with. Who can suppose 
that God accepts of such juggling? And indeed such 
singing doth more please the carnal ears of men, than the 
pure ears of the Lord, who abhors all lying and hypocrisy. 

That singing then that pleaseth him must proceed from 
that which is PURE in the heart, even from the Word of 
Life therein, in and by which, richly dwelling in us, spirit- 
ual songs and hymns are returned to the Lord, according 
to that of the apostle, Col. iii. 16. 

But as to their artificial music, either by organs, or other Artificial 
instruments, or voice, we have neither example nor pre- '""^'^• 
cept for it in the New Testament. 

§ XXVIL But lastly ; The great advantage of this true 
worship of God, which we profess and practice, is, that it 
consisteth not in man's wisdom, arts or industry ; neither No splen- 
needeth the glory, pomp, riches, nor splendour of this w°oHd°at- '^ 
world to beautify it, as beinsr of a spiritual and heavenly tends this 

•' ' .° ^ . *' inward 

nature ; and therefore too simple and contemptible to the worship, 
natural mind and will of man, that hath no delight to 
abide in it, because he finds no room there for his imagi- 
nations and inventions, and hath not the opportunity to 
gratify his outward and carnal senses : so that this form 
being observed, is not likely to be long kept pure without 


the power ; for it is of itself so naked without it, that it 
hatli nothing in it to invite and tempt men to dote upon it, 
The carnal furtlier than it is accompanied with the power. Whereas 
pleases'self. ^^^^ worship of our adversaries, being performed in their 
own, wills, is self-pleasing, as in which they can largely 
exercise their natural parts and invention: and so, as to 
most oi'them, having somewhat of an outward and v,orldly 
splendour, delectable to the carnal and worldly senses, 
they can pleasantly continue it, and satisfy themselves, 
though without the Spirit and [)ower ; which they make no 
ways essential to the performance of their worship, and 
therefore neither wait fur, nor expect it. 

§ XXVIII. So that to conclude, The worship, preach- 
ing, praying and singing, which we plead for, is such as 
proceedeth from the Spirit of God, and is always accom- 
panied with its influence, being begun by its motion, and 
carried on by the power and strength thereof; and so is a 
worship purely spiritual : such as the scripture holds forth, 
John iv. 23, 24 ; 1 Cor. xiv. 15 ; Eph. vi. 18, &c. 

But the worship, preaching, praying and singing, which 
our adversaries plead for, and which we oppose, is a 
worship which is both begun, carried on, and concluded 
in man's own natural will and strength, without the motion 
or influence of God's Spirit, which they judge they need 
not wait for ; and therefore may be truly performed, both 
as to the matter and manner, by the wickedest of men. 
Such was the worship and vain oblations which God 
always rejected, as appears from Isa. Ixvi. 3 ; Jer. xiv. 12, 
&c. ; Isa. i. 13 ; Prov. xv. 29; John ix. 31. 

I Concerning Baptism. I 

Eph. iv. 5. As there is one Lord, and one faith, so there is one bap- 
21 '^'" '"■ tism ; which is not the putting away the filth of the flesh, 
Rom. vi. 4. but the answer of a good conscience before God, by the 


resurrection of Jesus Christ. And this baptism is a Gal. Hi. 27. 
pure and spiritual thing, to wit, the baptism of the Spirit joh',"ii^30. 
and fire, by which we are buried with him, that being 1 Cor. i. 
washed and purged from our sins, we may walk in new- 
ness of life : of which the baptism of John was a figure, 
which was commanded for a time, and not to continue 
for ever. As to the baptism of infants, it is a mere 
human tradition, for which neither precept nor practice 
is to be found in all the scripture. 

§ I. I DID sufficiently demonstrate, in the explanation 
and proof of the former proposition, how greatly the pro- 
fessors of Christianity, as well Protestants as Papists, were 
degenerated in the matter of worship, and how much 
strangers to, and averse from that true and acceptable wor- 
ship that is performed in the Spirit of Truth, because of 
man's natural propensity in his fallen state to exalt his own 
inventions, and to intermix his own work and products in 
the service of God : and from this root sprung all the idle From 

1 ■ -J 1 . • J .•-• • .• whence ido- 

worships, idolatries, and numerous superstitious inventions latries and 
amona: the heathen. For when God, in condescension to ^^ea'^ep su- 

"^ . ^ . _ perstitions 

his chosen people the Jews, did prescribe to them by his did spring, 
servant Moses many ceremonies and observations, as types 
and shadows of the substance, which in due time was to 
be revealed ; which consisted for the most part in washings, 
outward purifications and cleansings, which were to con- 
tinue until the time of reformation, until the spiritual wor- 
ship should be set up ; and that God, by the more plentiful 
pouring forth of his Spirit, and guiding of that anointing, 
should lead his children into all truth, and teach them to 
worship him in a way more spiritual and acceptable to 
him, though less agreeable to the carnal and outward 
senses ; yet notwithstanding God's condescension to the 
Jews in such things, we see that that part in man, which 
delights to follow its own inventions, could not be re- 
strained, nor yet satisfied with all these observations, but 
that oftentimes they would be either declining to the other 
superstitions of the Gentiles, or adding some new obser- 



The Phari 
Bees the 
among the 

things in 
dom are 
from the 
Jews and 

Of sacra- 
ments so 
many con- 

vations and ceremonies of their own ; to which they were 
so devoted, that they were still apt to prefer them before 
the commands of God, and that under the notion of zeal 
and piety. This we see abundantly in the example of the 
- Pharisees, the chiefest sect among the Jews, whom Christ 
so frequently reproves for making void the command- 
ments of God by their traditions. Mat. xv. 6, 9, &c. 
This complaint may at this day be no less justly made as 
to many bearing the name of Christians, who have intro- 
duced many things of this kind, partly borrowed from the 
Jews, which they more tenaciously stick to, and more ear- 
nestly contend for, than for the weightier points of Chris- 
tianity ; because that self, yet alive, and ruling in them, 
loves their own inventions better than God's commands. 
But if they can by any means stretch any scripture prac- 
tice, or conditional precept or permission, fitted to the 
weakness or capacity of some, or appropriate to some par- 
ticular dispensation, to give some colour for any of these 
their inventions ; they do then so tenaciously stick to them, 
and so obstinately and obstreperously plead for them, that 
they will not patiently hear the most solid Christian reasons 
against them. Which zeal, if they would but seriously 
examine it, they would find to be but the prejudice of edu- 
cation, and the love of self, more than that of God, or his 
pure worship. This is verified concerning those things 
which are called sacraments, about which they are very 
ignorant in religious controversies, who understand not 
how much debate, contention, jangling, and quarrelling 
there has been among those called Christians : so that I 
may safely say the controversy about them, to wit, about 
their number, nature, virtue, efficacy, administration, and 
other things, hath been more than about any other doctrine 
of Christ, whether as betwixt Papists and Protestants, or 
among: Protestants betwixt themselves. And how sfreat 
prejudice these controversies have brought to Christians is 
very obvious ; whereas the things contended for among 
them are for the most part but empty shadows, and mere 


outside things : as I hope hereafter to make appear to the 
patient and unprejudicate reader. 

§ II. That which comes first under observation, is the '.'he name 
name sacrament^ which it is strange that Christians should °,euroiot 
sti(;k to and contend so much for, since it is not to be '"^^"^"'l '" 

, , ^ scrjpture) 

found in all the scripture ; but was borrowed from the is borrowed 
military oaths among the heathen, from whom the Chris- he^hen. 
tians, when they began to apostatize, did borrow many 
superstitious terms and observations, that they might 
thereby ingratiate themselves, and the more easily gain the 
heathen to their religion ; which practice, though perhaps 
intended by them for good, yet, as being the fruit of human 
policy, and not according to God's wisdom, has had very 
pernicious consequences. I see not how any, whether 
Papists or Protestants, especially the latter, can in reason 
quarrel with us for denying this term, which it seems the 
Spirit of God saw not meet to inspire the penmen of the 
scriptures to leave unto us. 

But if it be said, That it is not the name, but the thing Obj. i. 
they contend for ; 

I answer ; Let the name then, as not being scriptural, be Answ. 
laid aside, and we shall see at first entrance how much 
benefit will redound by laying aside this traditional term, 
and betaking us to plainness of scripture language. For 
presently the great contest about the number of them will 
vanish ; seeing there is no term used in scripture that can 
be made use of, whether we call them institutions, ordi- 
nances, precepts, commandments, appointments, or laws, 
&c., that would afford ground for such a debate; since 
neither will Papists affirm, that there are only seven, or 
Protestants only two, of any of these afore mentioned. 

If it be said. That this controversy arises from the defi- Obj. 2. 
nition of the thing, as well as from the name ; 

It will be found otherwise : for whatever way we take Answ. 
their definition of a sacrament, whether as an outward tion^o/sa"^ 
visible sign, whereby inward grace is conferred, or only crament 

' •/ aoTPPs to 

signified, this definition will agree to many things, which many other 
neither Papists nor Protestants will acknowledge to be ' '"^^* 


sacraments, if they be expressed under the name of seal- 
ing ordinances, as by some they are, I could never see, 
either by reason or scripture, how this title could be ap- 
propriate to them more than to any other Christian, re- 
VVhat seal- ligious performance : for that must needs properly be a 
iia^icJduth i^t^aling ordinance, which makes tlie persons receiving it 
mean. infallibly certain of the promise or thing sealed to them. 

Obj. 3. If it be said, It is so to them that are faithful ; 

Answ. I answer ; So is praying and preaching, and doing of 

every good work. Seeing the partaking or performing of 
the one gives not to any a more certain title to heaven, 
yea, in some respect, not so much, there is no reason to 
call them so, more than the other. 

Besides, we find not any thing called the seal and pledge 

of our inheritance, but the Spirit of God. It is by that 

we are said to be sealed, Eph. i. 14, and iv. 30, which is 

also termed the " earnest of our inheritance," 2 Cor. i. 22, 

and not by outward water, or eating and drinking ; which 

as the wickedest of men may partake of, so many that do. 

That out- do, notwithstanding it, go to perdition. For it is not out- 

^g doTh^ ward washing with water that maketh the heart clean, by 

not cleanse which men are fitted for heaven : and as that which goeth 

the Ii6a.rt 

into the mouth doth not defile a man, because it is put 
forth again, and so goeth to the dunghill ; neither doth any 
thing which man eateth purify him, or fit him for heaven. 
What is said here in general may serve for an introduction, 
not only to this proposition, but also to the other concern- 
ing the supper. Of these sacraments (so called) baptism 
is always first numbered, which is the subject of the pre- 
sent proposition ; in whose explanation I shall first demon- 
strate and prove our judgment, and then answer the objec- 
tions, and refute the sentiments of our opposers. As to 

Part I. the first part, these things following, which are briefly com- 
prehended in the proposition, come to be proposed and 

Prop. I. § HI. First : There is but one baptism, as well as but 

one Lord, one faith, &c. 

Prof. II. Secondly, That this one baptism, which is the baptism 


of Christ, is not a washing with, or dipping in water, bui 
a being baptized by the Spirit. 

Thirdly, That the baptism of John was but a figure of Prop. Ill 
this ; and therefore, as the figure, to give place to the sub- 
stance ; which though it be to continue, yet the other 

As for the first, viz.. That there is but one baptism. Prop. I. 
there needs no o'ther proof than the words of the text, jjg"^^ ^^' 
Eph. iv. 5 : " One Lord, one faith, one baptism :" where Proved, 
the apostle positively and plainly affirms, that as there is 
but one body, one Spirit, one faith, one God, &c., so 
there is but " one baptism." 

As to what is commonly alleged by way of explanation Obj. l. 
upon the text, That the baptism of water and of the Spirit 
make up this one baptism, by virtue of the sacramental 
union ; 

I answer ; This exposition hath taken place, not because Answ. 
grounded upon the testimony of the scripture, but because 
it wrests the scripture to make it suit to their principle of 
water baptism ; and so there needs no other reply, but to 
deny it, as being repugnant to the plain words of the text ; 
which saith not, that there are two baptisms, to wit, one of Whether 
water, the other of the Spirit, which do make up one bap- li^^^^ata 
tism ; but plainly, that there is one baptism, as there is one up the one. 
faith, and one God. Now as there go not two faiths, nor 
two Gods, nor two Spirits, nor two bodies, whereof the one 
is outward and elementary, and the other spiritual and 
pure, to the making up the one faith, the one God, the one 
body, and the one Spirit ; so neither ought there to go two 
baptisms to make up the one baptism. 

But secondly, if it be said. The baptism is but one, Obj. 2. 
whereof water is the one part, to wit, the sign ; and the 
Spirit, the thing signified, the other ; 

I answer ; This yet more confirmeth our doctrine : for if Answ. 
water be only the sign, it is not the matter of the one bap- the^type, * 
tism (as shall further hereafter by its definition in scripture ^^e sub- 

st3.ncG must 

appear), and we are to take the one baptism for the matter remain. 
of it, not for the sign, or figure and type that went before. 
33 2y 


Even as where Christ is called the one offering in scripture, 

though he was typified by many sacrifices and offerings 

under tiie law, we understand only by the one ofltjring, his 

offering himself upon the cross ; whereof though those 

many offerings were signs and types, yet we say not that 

they go together with that offering of Christ, to make up 

the one offering : so neither, though water baptism was a 

sign of Christ's baptism, will it follow, that it goeth now 

to make up the baptism of Christ. If any should be so 

absurd as to affirm. That this one baptism here was the 

baptism of water, and not of the Spirit; that were foolishly 

to contradict the positive testimony of the scripture, which 

saith the contrary ; as by what followeth will more amply 


Prop. II. Secondly, That this one baptism, which is the baptism 

of Christ, is not a washing with water, appears, first, from 

Proof I. the testimony of John, the proper and peculiar administra- 

The differ- tor of water baptism. Mat. iii. 11, " I indeed baj)tize you 

ence he- ^^,-^^1 water unto repentance ; but he that cometh after me 

tween t ' 

John's bap- is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear; 

Christ's, lie shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire." 
Here John mentions two manners of baptizing, and two 
different baprisms ; the one with water, and the other with 
the Spirit; the one whereof he was the minister of; the 
other whereof Christ was the minister of: and such as were 
baptized with the first, were not therefore baptized with the 
second : I indeed baptize you, but he shall baptize you. 
Though in the present time they were baptized with the 
baptism of w-ater ; yet they were not as yet, but were to 
be, baptized with the baptism of Christ. From all which 
I thus argue : j^ 

Aro. 1. If those that were baptized with the baptism of water, 

were not therefore baptized with the baptism of Christ ; 
then the baptism of w^ater is not the baptism of Christ : 
But the first is true ; 
Therefore also the last. 
And again, 

Aio. 2. If he, that truly and really administered the baptism of 



water, did notwithstanding declare, that he neither could, 
nor did, baptize with the baptism of Christ; then the bap- 
tism of water is not the baptism of Christ : 

But the first is true ; 

Therefore, &c. 
. And indeed to understand it otherwise, would make 
John's words void of good sense : for if their baptisms had 
been all one, why should he have so precisely contra-dis- 
tinguished them ? Why should he have said, that those 
whom he had already baptized, should yet be baptized 
with another baptism ? 

If it be urged. That baptism with water was the one Ouject. 
part, and that with the Spirit the other part, or effect only 
of the former ; 

I answer ; This exposition contradicts the plain words Answ. 
of the text. For he saith not, I baptize you with water, One bap- 
and he that cometh after me shall produce the effects of *'^'" '® "" 
this my baptism in you by the Spirit, &c., or he shall ac- eft'ect of 
complish this baptism in you ; but. He shall baptize you. 
So then, if we understand the words truly and properly, 
when he saith, I baptize you, as consenting that thereby is 
really signified that he did baptize with the baptism of 
water ; we must needs, unless we offer violence to the text, 
understand the other part of the sentence the same way ; 
viz., where he adds presently, " But he shall baptize you," 
&c., that he understood it of their being truly to be bap- 
tized with another baptism, than what he did baptize with: 
else it had been nonsense for him thus to have contra-dis- 
tinguished them. 

Secondly, This is further confirmed by the saying of Proof II. 
Christ himself. Acts i. 4, 5, " But wait for the promise of 
the Father, which, saith he, ye have heard of me : for John Who were 
truly baptized with water, but ye shall be baptized with the Jq^',]^''*^ ^^ 
Holy Ghost not many days hence." There can scarce two still to wait 
places of scripture run more parallel than this doth with the baptism 
former, a little before mentioned ; and therefore concludeth gp-*^/^^^ 
the same way as did the other. For Christ here grants 
fully that John completed his baptism, as to the matter and 


substance of it: "John," saith he, "truly baptized with 
water ;" which is as much as if he had said, John did truly 
and fully administer the baptism of water; "But ye shall 
be baptized with," &c. This showeth that they were to be 
baptized with some other baptism than the baptism of water ; 
and that although they were formerly baptized with the 
baptism of water, yet not with that of Christ, which they 
were to be baptized with. 
Proof III. Thirdly, Peter observes the same distinction. Acts xi 
16, " Then remembered I the word of the Lord, how that 
The bap- he Said, John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be 
the Holy baptized with the Holy Ghost." The apostle makes this 
d^t" wU^'^ application upon the Holy Ghost's falling upon them ; 
water dif- whence he infers, that they were then baptized with the 
baptism of the Spirit. As to what is urged from his calling 
afterwards for water, it shall be spoken to hereafter. From 
all which three sentences, relative one to another, first of 
John, secondly of Christ, and thirdly of Peter, it doth evi- 
dently follow, that such as were truly and really baptized 
with the ba[)tism of water, were notwithstanding not bap- 
tized with the baptism of the Spirit, which is that of Christ; 
and such as truly and really did administer the baptism of 
water, did, in so doing, not administer the baptism of 
Christ. So that if there be now but one baptism, as we 
have already proved, we may safely conclude that it is that 
of the Spirit, and not of water; else it would follow, that 
the one baptism, which now continues, were the baptism 
of water, i. e., John's baptism, and not the baptism of the 
Spirit, i. e., Christ's; which were most absurd. 
Object. If it be said further, That though the baptism of John, 

before Christ's was administered, was different from it, as 
being the figure only ; yet now, that both it as the figure, 
and that of the Spirit as the substance, is necessary to make 
up the one baptism ; 

I answer ; This urgeth nothing, unless it be granted also 
that both of them belong to the essence of baptism ; so that 
baptism is not to be accounted as truly administered, where 
both are not ; which none of our adversaries will acknow 


/edge : but on the contrary, account not only all those 
truly baptized with the baptism of Christ, who are baptized Water bap- 
with water, though they be uncertain whether they be bap- the true 
tized with the Spirit, or not ; but they even account such q^j.'j'^^j'^ °^ 
truly baptized with the baptism of Christ, because sprinkled, 
or baptized with water, though it be manifest and most 
certain that they are not baptized with the Spirit, as being 
enemies thereunto in their hearts by wicked works. So 
here, by their own confession, baptism with w^ater is with- 
out the Spirit. Wherefore we may far safer conclude, that 
the baptism of the Spirit, which is that of Christ, is and 
may be without that of water ; as appears in that of Acts 
xi. 15, where Peter testifies of these men, that they were 
baptized with the Spirit, though then not baptized with 
water. And indeed the controversy in this, as in most 
other things, stands betwixt us and our opposers, in that 
they oftentimes prefer the form and shadow to the power 
and substance ; by denominating persons as inheritors and 
possessors, of the thing, from their having the form and 
shadow, though really wanting the power and substance ; 
and not admitting those to be so denominated, who have 
the power and substance, if they want the form and shadow. 
This appears evidently, in that they account those truly 
baptized with the one baptism of Christ, who are not bap- 
tized with the Spirit, which in scripture is particularly called 
the baptism of Christ, if they be only baptized with water, 
which themselves yet confess to be but the shadow or figure. 
And moreover, in that they account not those who are surely The bap 
baptized with the baptism of the Spirit baptized, neither Spi'rit°need. 
will they have them so denominated, unless they be also ^fh no 

•' sprinkling 

sprinkled with, or dipped in water : but we, on the con- or dipping 
trary, do always prefer the power to the form, the substance '" ^^'*^*^'' 
to the shadow ; and where the substance and power is, we 
doubt not to denominate the person accordingly, though 
the form be wanting. And therefore we always seek first, 
and plead for the substance and power, as knowing that to 
be indispensably necessary, though the form sometimes may 
be dispensed with, and the figure or type may cease, when 


the substance and anti-type come to be enjoyed, as it dotli 
in this case, which shall hereafter be made appear. 
Proof IV. § IV. Fourthly, That the one baptism of Christ is not a 
* Or. as it washing with water, appears from 1 Pet. iii. 21: "The 
u!i'i"lated ^^^^ figure* whereunto, even baptism, doth also now save 
' Whose us /not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the 

model bap. ^ - ^ ° -^ . , ^ ,x , , 

tisiii docs answer oi a good conscience towards Lrod) by the resur- 

oi!!' "^r^ rection of Jesus Christ." .So plain a definition of baptism 

The phiin- is not in all the bible ; and therefore, seeing it is so plain, 

ffoiiot'tlie ^^ '^'^y ^^'^^^ ^^ preferred to all the coined definitions of the 

bapiism of scliool-men. The apostle tells us first negatively what it is 

Christ mail . ^,. ^ . „ , „°, . *', 

the bible, not, viz., " Not a putting away of the filth of the flesh: 
then surely it is not a washing with water, since that is so. 
Secondly, he tells us affirmatively what it is, viz., "The 
answer of a good conscience towards God, by the resur- 
rection of Jesus Christ ;" where he aflfirmatively defines it 
to be the " answer (or confession, as the Syriac version 
hath it) of a good conscience." Now this answer cannot 
be but where the Spirit of God hath purified the soul, and 
the fire of his judgment hath burned up the unrighteous 
nature ; and those in whom this work is wrought may be 
truly said to be baptized with the baptism of Christ, i. e. 
of the Spirit and of fire. Whatever way then we take this 
definition of the apostle of Christ's baptism, it confirmeth 
our sentence : for if we take the first or negative part, viz., 
That it is not a putting away of the filth of the flesh, then 
Water it will follow that water baptism is not it, because that is a 
shiit'oiit putting away the filth of the flesh. If we take the second 
from bap- g,-,jj affirmative definition, to wit. That it is the answer or 

tjsin 01 . „ , . 

Christ. confession of a good conscience, &c., then water baptism 
is not it ; since, as our adversaries will not deny, water 
baptism doth not always imply it, neither is it any neces- 
sary consequence thereof. Moreover, the apostle in this 
place doth seem especially to guard against those that 
might esteem water baptism the true baptism of Christ ; 
because, lest by the comparison intiuced by him in the 
preceding verse, betwixt the souls that were saved in 
Noah's ark, and us that are now saved by baptism ; lest, I 


say, any should have thence hastily concluded, that be- 
cause the former were saved by water, this place must 
needs be taken to speak of water baptism, to prevent such 
a mistake, he plainly affirms, that it is not that, but another 
thing. He saith not that it is the water, or the putting away 
of the fihh of the flesh, as accompanied with the answer of 
a good conscience, whereof the one, viz., water, is the 
sacramental element, administered by the minister ; and the 
other, the grace or thing signified conferred by Christ ; but 
plainly. That it is not the putting away, &c., than which 
there can be nothing more manifest to men unprejudicate 
and judicious. Moreover, Peter calls this here which saves 
dvliVu-ffov, the anti-type or the ' thing figured ;' whereas it is 
usually translated, ' as if the like figure did now save us ;' 
thereby insinuating that as they were saved by water in the 
ark, so are we now by water baptism. But this interpreta- 
tion crosseth his sense, he presently after declaring the 
contrary, as hath above been observed ; and likewise it 
would contradict the opinion of all our opposers. For 
Protestants deny it to be absolutely necessary to salvation ; The Pro- 
and though Papists say, none are saved without it, yet in ny^i',f"waf " 
this thev admit an exception, as of martyrs, &c., and they ter baptism 
will not say that all that have it are saved by water bap- necessity to 
tism ; which they ought to say, if they will understand by v-uion •"'^ " 
baptism, by which the apostle saith we are saved, water altiiough 

, • Vi • 111-1 ■ 11 t'^*= Papists 

baptism, hox seemg we are saved by this baptism, as all say none 
those that were in the ark were saved by water, it would saved^with 
then follow, that all those that have this baptism are saved out it, yet 

1 •, XT .1 • 1 1 1 <■ 1 -r -, g''^"'^ ex- 

by it. JNow this consequence would be lalse, it it were ceptions. 
understood of water baptism ; because many, by the con- 
fession of all, are baptized with water that are not saved ; 
but this consequence holds most true, if it be understood 
as we do, of the baptism of the Spirit ; since none can 
have this answer of a good conscience, and, abiding in it, 
not be saved by it. 

Fifthly, That the one baptism of Christ is not a washing Proof V. 
with w'ater, as it hath been proved by the definition of the 
one baptism, so it is also manifest from the necessary fruits 


The effects and effects of it, which are three times particuUirly ex- 
rhebapdsm pfcssed by the apostle Paul ; as first, Rom. vi. 3, 4, where 
of Clirisi. h(. saith, " That so many of them as were baptized into 
Jesus Christ, were baptized into his death, buried with 
him by bii[)lism into death, tliat tiiey should walk in new- 
ness of life." Secondly, to the Galatians, iii. 27, he saith 
positively, " For as many of you as have been baptized 
into Christ, have put on Cin-ist." And thirdly, to the 
Colossians, ii. 12, he saitii. That they were " buried with 
him in baptism," and risen " with him through the faith 
of the operation of God." It is to be observed here, that 
the apostle speaks generally, without any exclusive term, 
but comprehensive of all. He saith not. Some of you that 
were baptized into Christ, have put on Christ, but "as 
many of you ;" which is as much as if he had said. Every 
one of you that hath been baptized into Christ, hath put 
on Christ. Whereby it is evident that this is not meant of 
Which ef- water baptism, but of the baptism of the Spirit ; because 
bapfism^"^ else it would follow, that whosoever had been baptized 
wants. with water baptism had put on Christ, and were risen with 
him, which all acknowledge to be most absurd. Now 
supposing all the visible members of the churches of Rome, 
Galatia, and Colosse had been outwardly baptized with 
water, (I do not say they were, but our adversaries will not 
only readily grant it, but also contend for it,) suppose, I 
say, the case so, they will not say they had all put on 
Christ, since divers expressions in these epistles to them 
show the contrary. So that the apostle cannot mean bap- 
tism with water; and yet that he meaneth the baptism of 
Christ, i. e., of the Spirit, cannot be denied ; or tiiat the 
baptism wherewith these were baptized, of wlmm the 
apostle here testifies that they had put on Christ, was the 
one baptism, I think none will call in question. Now 
admit, as our adversaries contend, that many in these 
churches w'ho had been baptized with water had not put 
on Christ, it will follow, that notwithstanding that water 
baptism, they were not baptized into Christ, or with the 
baptism of Christ, seeing as many of them as were bap- 


lized into Christ had put on Christ, &c. From all which 
I thus argue : 

If the baptism with water were the one baptism, i. e., Ar&. ]. 
the baptism of Christ, as many as were baptized with wa- 
ter would have put on Christ : 
. But the last is false, 

Therefore also the first. 
And again : 

Since as many as are baptized into Christ, i. e., with the Arg. 2. 
one baptism, which is the baptism of Christ, have put on 
Christ, then water baptism is not the one baptism, viz., the 
baptism of Christ. 

But the first is true. 

Therefore also the last. 

§ V. Thirdly, Since John's baptism was a figure, and Pro. III. 
seeing the figure gives way to the substance, although the 
thing figured remain, to wit, the one baptism of Christ, yet 
the other ceaseth, which was the baptism of John. 

That John's baptism was a figure of Christ's baptism, I I. 
judge will not readily be denied; but in case it should, tism"wasa 
it can easily be proved from the nature of it. John's bap- pS^re of 
tism was a being baptized with water, but Christ's is a 
baptizing with the Spirit ; therefore John's baptism must 
have been a figure of Christ's. But further, that water 
baptism was John's baptism, will not be denied : that 
water baptism is not Christ's baptism, is already proved. 
From which doth arise the confirmation of our proposition 
thus : 

There is no baptism to continue now, but the one bap- 
tism of Christ. 

Therefore water baptism is not to continue now, because 
t is not the one baptism of Christ. 

That John's baptism is ceased, many of our adversaries II. 
confess ; but if any should allege it is otherwise, it may be tis^is ^^ 
easily proved by the express words of John, not only as ^^eased our 
bemg msmuated there, where he contra-distinguisheth his confess, 
baptism from that of Christ, but particularly where he 
saith, John iii. 30, " He [Christ] must increase, but I 



[John] must decrease." From whence it clearly follows, 
that the increasing or taking place of Christ's baptism is 
the decreasing or abolishing of John's baptism; so that if 
water baptism was a particular part of John's ministry, and 
is no part of Christ's baptism, as we have already proved, 
it will necessarily follow that it is not to continue. 
Arq. Secondly, If water baptism had been to continue a per- 

petual ordinance of Christ in his church, he would either 
have practised it himself, or commanded his apostles so 
to do. 

But that he practised it not, the scripture plainly affirms, 
John iv. 2. And that he commanded his disciples to bap- 
tize with water, I could never yet read. As for what is 
alleged, that, Mat. xxviii. 19, &c., where he bids them 
baptize, is to be understood of water baptism, that is but 
to beg the question, and the grounds for that shall be here- 
after examined. 

Therefore, to baptize wuth water is no perpetual ordinance 
of Christ to his church. 

This hath had the more weight with me, because I find 
not any standing ordinance or appointment of Christ ne- 
cessary to Christians, for which we have not either Christ's 
own practice or command, as to obey all the command 
ments which comprehend both our duty towards God and 
man, &c., and where the gospel requires more than the 
law, which is abundantly signified in the 5th and 6th 
chapters of Matthew, and elsewhere. Besides, as to the 
duties of worship, he exhorts us to meet, promising his 
presence; commands to pray, preach, watch, &c., and 
gives precepts concerning som'e temporary things, as the 
washing of one another's feet, the breaking of bread, here- 
after to be discussed ; only for this one thing of baptizing 
with water, though so earnestly contended for, we find not 
any precept of Christ. 
III. § VI. But to make water baptism a necessary institution 

The gospel /• ,i ,-,1 • ,• i- ■ 1 ■ i • 1 • • 1 1 

puis an end f^» the Christian rehgion, which is pure and spiritual, and 

loi-arnal ^^^ camal and ceremonial, is to derorate from the new 

covenant dispensation, and set up the legal rites and cere- 


monies, of which this of baptism, or washing with water, 
was one, as appears from Heb. ix. 10, where the apostle 
speaking thereof saith, that " it stood only in meats and 
drinks, and divers washings, and carnal ordinances, im- 
posed until the time of reformation." If then the time of 
reformation, or the dispensation of the gospel, which puts 
an end to the shadows, be come, then such baptisms and 
carnal ordinances are no more to be imposed. For how 
baptism with water comes now to be a spiritual ordinance, 
more than before in the time of the law, doth not appear, 
seeing it is but water still, and a washing of the outward 
man, and a putting away of the filth of the flesh still : and 
as before, those that were so washed, were not thereby 
made perfect, as pertaining to the conscience, neither are 
they at this day, as our adversaries must needs acknow- 
ledge, and experience abundantly showeth. So that the 
matter of it, which is a washing with water, and the effect 
of it, which is only an outward cleansing, being still the 
same, how comes water baptism to be less a carnal ordi- 
nance now than before .'' 

If it be said. That God confers inward grace upon some Obj. l. 
that are now baptized ; 

So no doubt he did also upon some that used those bap- Answ. 
tisms among the Jews. 

Or if it be said, Because it is commanded by Christ Obj. 2. 
now, under the new covenant ; 

I answer, First, That is to beg the question ; of which Answ. 

But Secondly, We find that where the matter of ordi- 
nances is the same, and the end the same, they are never 
accounted more or less spiritual, because of their different 
times. Now was not God the author of the purifications 
and baptisms under the law .'' Was not water the matter 
of them, which is so now.-^ Was not the end of them to 
signify an inward purifying by an outward washing ? And 
is not that alleged to be the end still ? And are the 
necessary effects or consequences of it any better now than 
before, since men are now by the virtue of water baptism, 


Men are no as a necessary consequence of it, no more than before 
thaifbcfirre Hiade inwardly clean ? And if some by God's grace that 
by water are baptized with water are inwardly purified, so were 

baptism in- ' i , , i i • • 

wardiy some also under the law ; so that this is not any necessary 
c eaii.^c . consequt-nce or effect, neither of this nor that baptism. It 
is then plainly repugnant to right reason, as well as to the 
scripture testimony, to affirm that to be a spiritual ordi- 
nance now, which was a carnal ordinance before, if it be 
still the same, both as to its author, matter, and end, how- 
ever made to vary in some small circumstances. The 
spirituality of the new covenant, and of its worship estab- 
lished by Christ, consisted not in such superficial altera- 
tions of circumstances, but after another manner. There- 
fore let our adversaries show us, if they can, without 
begging the question, and building upon some one or 
other of their own principles denied by us, where ever 
Christ appointed or ordained any institution or observation 
under the new covenant, as belonging to the nature of it, 
or such a necessary part of its worship as is perpetually to 
continue ; which being one in substance and etfects, (I 
speak of necessary, not accidental effects,) yet, because of 
some small difference in form or circumstance, was before 
carnal, notwithstanding it was commanded by God under 
the law, but now is become spiritual, because commanded 
by Christ under the gospel ? And if they cannot do this, 
then if water baptism was once a carnal ordinance, as the 
apostle positively affirms it to have been, it remains a car- 
nal ordinan&e still ; and if a carnal ordinance, then no 
necessary part of the gospel or new covenant dispensation ; 
and if no necessary part of it, then not needful to continue, 
nor to be practised by such as live and walk under this 
dispensation. But in this, as in most other things, ac- 
cording as we have often observed, our adversaries judaize, 
and renouncing the glorious and spiritual privileges of the 
new covenant, are sticking in and cleaving to the rudi- 
ments of the old, both in doctrine and worship, as being 
more suited and agreeable to their carnal apprehensions 
and natural senses. But we, on the contrary, travail above 


all to lay hold upon and cleave unto the Light of the glo- 
rious gospel revealed unto us. And the harmony of the 
truth we profess in this may appear, by briefly observing The law* 
how in all things we follow the spiritual gospel of Christ, ed tVoni^^e 
as contra-distinguished from the carnality of the legal dis- gospel, 
pensation; while our adversaries, through rejecting this 
gospel, are still labouring under the burden of the law, 
which neither they nor their fathers were able to bear. 

For the law and rule of the old covenant and Jews was The out- 
outward, written in tables of stone and parchment ; so tism, wor- 
also is that of our adversaries. But the law of the new j^gf^iy^li. 

covenant is inward and perpetual, written in the heart ; so ed from the 

is ours. 

The worship of the Jews was outward and carnal, 
limited to set times, places, and persons, and performed 
according to set prescribed forms and observations ; so is 
that of our adversaries. But the worship of the new cove- 
nant is neither limited to time, place, nor person, but is 
performed in the Spirit and in truth ; and it is not acted 
according to set forms and prescriptions, but as the Spirit 
of God immediately actuates, moves, and leads, whether 
it be to preach, pray, or sing ; and such is also our 

So likewise the baptism among the Jews under the law 
was an outward washing with outward water, only to 
typify an inward purification of the soul, which did not 
necessarily follow upon those that were thus baptized ; but 
the baptism of Christ under the gospel is the baptism of 
the Spirit and of fire ; not the putting away of the filth of 
the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience towards 
God ; and such is the baptism that we labour to be bap- 
tized withal, and contend for. 

§ VII. But again, If water baptism had been an ordi- Aro. 
nance of the gospel, then the apostle Paul would have 
been sent to administer it ; but he declares positively, 1 
Cor. i. 17 : << That Christ sent him not to baptize, but to 
preach the gospel." The reason of that consequence is 
undeniable, because the apostle Paul's commission was as 


IV. large as that of any of them ; and consequently he being in 
ter^bapt'ism Special manner the apostle of Christ to the Gentiles, if 
isnobadge xvatep baptism, as our adversaries contend, be to be 

of Chris:- 1 ' /-.■-111 

tiaiis, like accounted the badge of Christianity, he had more need 
sion^ofThe ^^^^^ ''"}' ^^ ^he rest to be sent to baptize with water, that 
Jews. he miglit mark the Gentiles converted by him with that 

Christian sign. But indeed the reason holds better thus, 
that since Paul was the apostle of the Gentiles, and that in 
his ministry he doth through all, as by his epistles appears, 
labour to wean them from the former Jewish ceremonies 
and observations, though in so doing he was sometimes 
undeservedly judged by others of his brethren, who were 
unwilling to lay aside those ceremonies, therefore his com- 
mission, though as full as to the preaching of the gospel 
and new covenant dispensation as that of the other apos- 
tles, did not require of him that he should lead those con- 
verts into such Jewish observations and baptisms : how- 
ever that practice was indulged in and practised by the 
other apostles among their Jewish proselytes, for which 
1 Cor. i. 14. cause he thanks God that he had baptized so few: intimat- 
Paul was ing that what he did therein he did not by virtue of his 
baptize^ '° apostolic Commission, but rather in condescension to 
their weakness, even as at another time he circumcised 
Obj. 1. Our adversaries, to evade the truth of this testimony, 

usually allege. That by this is only to be understood that 
he was not sent principally to baptize, not that he was not 
sent at all. 
Answ. But this exposition, since it contradicts the positive 

words of the text, and has no better foundation than the 
affirmation of its assertors, is justly rejected as spurious, 
until they bring some better proof for it. He saith not, I 
was not sent principally to baptize, but, " I was not sent to 
3oNFiR. As for what they urge, by way of confirmation, from 

other places of scripture, where 7iot is to be so taken, as 

Mai. i.x. 13. , ^ . . , / .„', , ^ T „ 

Hos. vi. G. where it is said, "1 will have mercy, and not sacnnce," 


which is to be understood that God requires principally 
mercy, not excluding sacrifice : 

I say this place is abundantly explained by the follow- Refut. 
ing words, <' And the knowledge of God more than burnt- 
oflerings ;" by which it clearly appears that burnt-ofTerings, 
which are one with sacrifices, are not excluded ; but there 
is no such word added in that of Paul, and therefore the 
parity is not demonstrated to be alike, and consequently 
the instance not sufficient, unless they can prove that it 
ought so to be admitted here ; else we might interpret by 
the same rule all other places of scripture the same way, 
as where the apostle saith, 1 Cor. ii. 5 : " That your faith 
might not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power 
of God," it might be understood, it shall not stand prin- 
cipally so. How might the gospel, by this liberty of inter- 
pretation be perverted ? 

If it be said. That the abuse of this baptism among the Obj. 2. 
Corinthians, in dividing themselves according to the per- 
sons by whom they were baptized, made the apostle speak 
so • but that the abuse of a thing doth not abolish it ; 

I answer. It is true, it doth not, provided the thing be Answ. 
lawful and necessary ; and that no doubt the abuse above- 
said gave the apostle occasion so to write. But let it from 
this be considered how the apostle excludes baptizing, not 
preaching, though the abuse (mark) proceeded from that, 
no less than from the other. For these Corinthians did 
denominate themselves from those different persons by 
whose preaching, as well as from those by whom they 
were baptized, they were converted, as by the 4th, 5th, 
6th, 7th, and 8th verses of chap. iii. may appear : and yet That 
to remove that abuse the apostle doth not say he was not is a stanJ- 
sent to preach, nor vet doth he rejoice that he had only ^"s °'"'^^' , 

r J J J J nance, and 

preached to a few ; because preaching, being a standing not to be 
ordinance in the church, is not, because of any abuse that 
the devil may tempt any to make of it, to be forborne by 
such as are called to perform it by the Spirit of God : 
wherefore the apostle accordingly, chap. iii. 8, 9, informs 
them, as to that, how to remove that abuse. But as to 


water baptism, for that it was no standing ordinance of 
Christ, but only practised as in condescension to the Jews, 
and by some apostles to some Gentiles also, therefore, so 
soon as the apostle perceived the abuse of it, he let the 
Corinthians understand how little stress was to be laid upon 
it, by showing them that he was glad that he had adminis- 
tered this ceremony to so few of them ; and by telling them 
plainly that it was no part of his commission, neither that 
which he was sent to administer. 
Query. Some ask us, How we know that baptizing here is 

meant of water, and not of the Spirit ; which if it be, 
then it will exclude baptism of the Spirit, as well as of 
Ajysw. I answer. Such as ask the question, I suppose, speak it 

That which not as doubting that this was said of water baptism, which 

converts to jg n^ore than manifest. For since the apostle Paul's mes- 
t/hnstistne ' 

baptism of sage was, to turn people from darkness to light, and con- 
vert them to God ; and that as many as are thus turned 
and converted, so as to have the answer of a good con- 
science towards God, and to have put on Christ, and be 
risen with him in newness of life, are baptized with the 
baptism of the Spirit. But who will say that only those 
few mentioned there to be baptized by Paul were come to 
this ? Or that to turn or bring them to this condition was 
not, even admitting our adversaries' interpretation, as prin- 
cipal a part of Paul's ministry as any other .'' Since then 
our adversaries do take this place for water baptism, as 
indeed it is, we may lawfully, taking it so also, urge it 
upon them. Why the word baptism and baptizing is used 
by the apostle, where that of water and not of the Spirit 

Part II. is only understood, shall hereafter be spoken to. I come 
now to consider the reasons alleged by such as plead for 
water baptism, which are also the objections used against 
the discontinuance of it. 

Obj. 1. § VIII. First, Some object. That Christ, who had the 

Johniii. 34. Spirit above measure, was notwithstanding baptized with 
water. As Nic. Arnoldus against this Thesis, Sect. xlvi. 
of his Theological Exercitation. 


I answer, So was he also circumcised : it will not follow Answ. 
from thence that circumcision is to continue : for it be- 
hoved Christ to fulfil all righteousness, not only the minis- WhyChrist 
try of John, but the law also ; therefore did he observe the ji^^ed by' 
Jewish feasts and rites, and keep the passover. It will not "^°'^"- 
thence follow that Christians ought to do so now ; and 
therefore Christ, Matt. iii. 15, gives John this reason of his 
being baptized, desiring him to " sufl^er it to be so now ;" 
whereby he sufficiently intimates that he intended not 
thereby to perpetuate it as an ordinance to his disciples. 

Secondly, They object. Matt, xxviii. 19 : " Go ye there- Obj. 2. 
fore and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of 
the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 

This is the great objection, and upon which they build Answ. 
the whole superstructure ; whereunto the first general and 
sound answer is, by granting the whole ; but putting them 
to prove that water is here meant, since the text is silent What bap- 
of it. And though in reason it be sufficient upon our part Hl^^ mean' 
that we concede the whole expressed in the place, but i" Matt. 


deny that it is by water, which is an addition to the text, 
yet I shall premise some reasons why we do so, and then 
consider the reasons alleged by those that will have water 
to be here understood. 

The first is a maxim yielded to by all, That we ought Arg. i. 
not to go from the literal signification of the text, except 
some urgent necessity force us thereunto. 

But no urgent necessity in this place forceth us there- 
unto : 

Therefore we ought not to go from it. 

Secondly, That baptism which Christ commanded his Arg. a, 
apostles was the one baptism, id est, his own baptism ; 

But the one baptism, which is Christ's baptism, is not 
with water, as we have already proved : 

Therefore the baptism commanded by Christ to his apos- 
tles was not water baptism. 

Thirdly, That baptism which Christ commanded his Arg. 9. 
apostles was such, that as many as were therewith baptized 
did put on Christ ; 

34* 3a 


But this is not true of water baptism : 
Therefore, &c, 
Arg. 4. Fourthly, The baptism commanded by Christ to his 

apostles was not John's baptism ; 

But baptism witlfAvater was John's baptism : 
Therefore, &c. 
All£. I. But first, Tliey allege, That Christ's baptism, though a 

baptism with water, did diifer from John's, because John 
only baptized with water unto repentance, but Christ com- 
mands his disciples to baptize in the name of the Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost; reckoning that in this form there 
lieth a great difference betwixt the baptism of John and 
that of Christ. 

I answer, In that John's baptism was unto repentance, 
the difference lieth not there, because so is Christ's also ; 
yea, our adversaries will not deny but that adult persons 
that are to be baptized ought, ere they are admitted to 
water baptism, to repent, and confess their sins ; and that 
infants also, with a respect to and consideration of their 
baptism, ought to repent and confess ; so that the dif- 
ference lieth not here, since this of repentance and confes- 
sion agrees as well to Christ's as to John's baptism. But 
in this our adversaries are divided : for Calvin will have 
Christ's and John's to be all one, Inst. lib. iv., cap. 15, 
sect. 7, S, yet they do differ, and the difference is, in that 
the one is by water, the other not, &c. 

Secondly, As to what Christ saith, in commanding them 
to " baptize in the name of the Father, Son, and Spirit," 
I confess that states the difference, and it is great ; but that 
lies not only in admitting water baptism in this different 
form, by a bare expressing of these words : for as the text 
says no such thing, neither do I see how it can be infer- 
Of the red from it. For the Greek is hg to ovofjia, that is, into the 
JL^d h name ; now the name of the Lord is often taken in scrip- 
taken in ture for something else than a bare sound of words, or 
Bcripture. ,- , • r i • • i 

literal expression, even tor his virtue and power, as may 

appear from Psal. liv. 1 ; Cant. i. 3 ; Prov. xviii. 10, and 
in many more. Now that the apostles were by their minis- 


try to baptize the nations into this name, virtue and power, The bap- 
and that they did so, is evident by these testimonies of th"namc, 
Paul above mentioned, where he saith, " That as many of ^^'^'^^ '' i^. 
them as were baptized into Christ, have put on Christ ;" 
this must have been a baptizing into the name, i. e., power 
and virtue, and not a mere formal expression of words a i- 
joined with water baptism ; because, as hath been above 
observed, it doth not follow as a natural or necessary con- 
sequence of it. I would have those who desire to have 
their faith built upon no other foundation than the testimony 
of God's Spirit and scriptures of truth, thoroughly to con- 
sider whether there can be anything further alleged for this 
interpretation than what the prejudice of education and in- 
fluence of tradition hath imposed. Perhaps it may stum- 
ble the unwary and inconsiderate reader, as if the very 
character of Christianity were abolished, to tell him plainly 
that this scripture is not to be understood of baptizing with 
water, and that this form of " baptizing in the name of the 
Father, Son, and Spirit," hath no warrant from Matt, 
xxviii., &c. 

For which, besides the reason taken from the significa- Whether 
tion of " the name" as being the virtue and power above prescribe 

expressed, let it be considered, that if it had been a form a form of 

'^ . ' . . ' baptism m 

prescribed by Christ to his apostles, then surely they would Matt. 

have made use of that form in the administering of water 

baptism to such as they baptized with water ; but though 

particular mention be made in divers places of the Acts 

who were baptized, and how ; and though it be particularly 

expressed that they baptized such and such, as Acts ii. 41, 

and viii. 12, 13, 38, and ix. 18, and x. 48, and xvi. 15, 

and xviii. 8, yet there is not a word of this form. And in 

two places. Acts viii. 16, and xix. 5, it is said of some 

that they were «< baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus ;" 

by which it yet more appears, that either the author of this 

history hath been very defective, who having so often 

occasion to mention this, yet omitteth so substantial a part 

of baptism (which were to accuse the Holy Ghost, by 

whose guidance Luke wrote it), or else that the apostles 


did no ways understand that Christ by his commission, 
Matt, xxviii,, did enjoin them such a form of water bap- 
tism, seeing they did not use it. And therefore it is safer 
to conclude, that what they did in administering water 
baptism, they did not by virtue of that commission, else 
they would have so used it: for our adversaries I suppose 
would judge it a great heresy to administer water baptism 
without that, or only in the name of Jesus, without men- 
tion of Father or Spirit, as it is expressly said they did, in 
the two places above cited. 

Alle. II. Secondly, They say. If this were not understood of 
water baptism, it would be a tautology, and all one with 

Answ. I say. Nay : Baptizing with the Spirit is somewhat fur- 

ther than teaching, or informing the understanding ; for it 

How teach- imports a reaching to, and melting the heart, whereby it is 


baptizino- turned, as well as the understanding informed. Besides 


we find often in the scripture, that teaching and instructing 
are put together, without any absurdity, or needless tauto- 
logy ; and yet these two have a greater affinity than teach- 
ing and baptizing with the Spirit. 
Alle. III. Thirdly, They say. Baptism in this place must be under- 
stood with water, because it is the action of the apostles ; 
and so cannot be the baptism of the Spirit, which is the 
work of Christ, and his grace ; not of man, &c. 
Answ. I answer ; Baptism with the Spirit, though not wrought 

tismwMfli ""vithout Christ and his grace, is instrumentaliy done by 

the Spirit in^,j fitted of God for that purpose : and therefore no ab- 

ascribed to . . ... 

godly men surdity follows, that baptism with the Spirit should be 

expressed as the action of the apostles. For though it be 

Christ by his grace that gives spiritual gifts, yet the apostle, 

Rom. i. 11, speaks of his imparting to them spiritual gifts; 

and he tells the Corinthians, that he had " begotten them 

through the gospel," 1 Cor. iv. 15. And yet to beget 

people to the faith, is the work of Christ and his grace, not 

of men. To convert the heart, is properly the work of 

Christ ; and yet the scripture oftentimes ascribes it to men, 

as being the instruments : and since Paul's commission 

as instru 


was, To turn people from darkness to light, though that be 
not done without Christ co-operating by his grace, so may 
also baptizing with the Spirit be expressed, as performable 
by man as the instrument, though the work of Christ's 
grace be needful to concur thereunto. So that it is no 
absurdity to say, that the apostles did administer the bap- 
tism of the Spirit. 

Lastly, They say, That since Christ saith here, that he Alle. IV. 
will be with his disciples to the end of the world, therefore 
water baptism must continue so long. 

If he had been speaking here of water baptism, then that Answ, 
might have been urged ; but seeing that is denied, and 
proved to be false, nothing from thence can be gathered : 
he speaking of the baptism of the Spirit, which we freely 
confess doth remain to the end of the world; yea, so long 
as Christ's presence abideth with his children. 

§ IX. Thirdly, They object the constant practice of the Obj. 3. 
apostles in the primitive church, who, they say, did always 
administer water baptism to such as they converted to the 
faith of Christ ; and hence also they further urge that of 
Mat. xxviii. to have been meant of water ; or else the 
apostles did not understand it, because in baptizing they 
used water ; or that in so doing they walked without a 

I answer ; That it was the constant practice of the apos- Aksw. 
ties, is denied ; for we have shown, in the example of Paul, 
that it was not so ; since it were most absurd to judge that 
he converted only those few, even of the church of Corinth, 
whom he saith he baptized ; nor were it less absurd to think 
that that was a constant apostolic practice, which he, who 
was not inferior to the chiefest of the apostles, and who 
declares he laboured as much as they all, rejoiceth he was 
so little in. But further ; the conclusion inferred from the How the 
apostles' practice of baptizing with water, to evince that baptized. 
they understood Mat. xxviii. of water baptism, doth not 
hold : for though they baptized with water, it will not fol- 
low that either they did it by virtue of that commission, or 
that they mistook that place ; nor can there be any medium 


brou£:^ht, (hat will infer such a conclusion. As to the other 
insinuated absurciity, That ihey did it without a commis- 
sion ; it is none at all : for they might have done it by a 
permission, as being in use before Christ's death ; and be- 
cause the people, nursed up witli outward ceremonies, 
could not be weaned wholly from them. And thus they 
used other things, as circumcision and legal purifications, 
which yet they had no commission from Christ to do : to 
which wo shall speak more at length in the following pro- 
position concerning the supper. 
Oi. . ^ But if from the sameness of the word, because Christ 

bids them baptize, and they afterwards in the use of water 
are said to baptize, it be judged probable that they did un- 
derstand that commission, Mat. xxviii., to authorize them 
to baptize with water, and accordingly practised it ; 
Ansv. Although it should be granted, that for a season they did 

so far mistake it, as to judge that water belonged to that 
baptism, which however I find no necessity of granting, yet 
I see not any great absurdity would thence follow. For it 
is plain they did mistake that commission, as to a main part 
of it, for a season; as where he bids them " Go, teach all 
nations;" since some time after they judged it unlawful to 
The apo-i- teach the Gentiles ; yea, Peter himself scrupled it, until by 
scruple 'he a vision constrained thereunto ; for which, after he had done 
thr'Ven- ^^' ^^ ^^^^ ^°'' ^ season, until they were better informed, 
tiles. judged by the rest of his brethren. Now, if the education 

of the apostles as Jews, and their propensity to adhere and 
stick to the Jewish religion, did so far influence them, that 
even after Christ's resurrection, and the pouring forth of 
the Spirit, they could not receive nor admit of the teaching 
of the Gentiles, though Christ, in his commission to them, 
commanded them to preach to them ; what further absurdity 
were it to suppose, that, through the like mistake, the 
chiefest of them having been the disciples of John, and his 
baptism being so much prized there among the Jews, they 
also took Christ's baptism, intended by him of the Spirit, 
to be that of water, which was John's, and accordingly 
practised it for a season ? It sufllices us, that if they were 


SO mistaken, though I say not that they were so, they did 
not always remain under that mistake : else Peter would 
not have said of the baptism which now saves, " that it is 
not a putting away of the filth of the flesh," which certainly 
water baptism is. 

But further. They urge much Peter's baptizing Cornelius ; 
in which they press two things. First, That water baptism 
is used, even to those that had received the Spirit. Se- 
condly, That it is said positively, " he commanded them 
to be baptized," Acts x. 47, 48. 

But neither of these doth necessarily infer water baptism 
to belong to the new covenant dispensation, nor yet to be 
a perpetual standing ordinance in the church. For first, whether 
all that this will amount to, was, that Peter at that time ^^ 'l^/^'in 
baptised these men ; but that he did it by virtue of that some with 

HT ••• • ^ji 1A1 water 

commission. Mat. xxviu., remains yet to be proved. And makes it a 
how doth the baptizing with water, after the receivinsj of ^'^""^^ng 

A o ' s ordinance 

the Holy Ghost, prove the case, more than the use of cir- to the 
cumcision, and other legal rites, acknowledged to have 
been performed by him afterwards? Also, it is no wonder 
if Peter, who thought it so strange, notwithstanding all that 
had been professed before, and spoken by Christ, that the 
Gentiles should be made partakers of the gospel, and with 
great difficulty, not without an extraordinary impulse there- 
unto, was brought to come to them, and eat with them, 
was apt to put this ceremony upon them ; which being, as 
it were, the particular dispensation of John, the forerunner 
of Christ, seemed to have greater affinity with the gospel, 
than the other Jewish ceremonies then used by the church ; 
but that will no ways infer our adversaries' conclusion. 
Secondly, As to these words, "And he commanded them 
to be baptized ;" it declareth matter of fact, not of right, 
and amounteth to no more, than that Peter did at that time, 
pro hie §' 7iunc, command those persons to be baptized with 
water, which is not denied : but it saith nothing that Peter 
commanded water baptism to be a standing and perpetual 
ordinance to the church ; neither can any man of sound 
reason say, if he heed what he says, that a command in 


matter of fact to particular persons, doth infer the thing 
commanded to be of general obligation to all, if it be not 
otlitTwise bottomed upon some positive precept. Why doth 
Peter's commanding Cornelius and his household to be 
baptized at that time infer water baptism to continue, more 
than iiis constraining, which is more than commanding, 
the Gentiles in general to be circumcised, and observe the 
law ? We find at that time, when Peter baptized Cornelius, 
it was not yet determined whether the Gentiles should not 
be circumcised ; but on the contrary, it was the most ge- 
neral sense of the church that they should : and therefore 
no wonder if they thought it needful at that time that they 
should be baptized ; which had more affinity with the gos- 
pel, and was a burthen less grievous. 

Obj. 4. § X. Fourthly ; They object from the signification of 

the word baptize^ which is as much as to dip and wash 
with water ; alleging thence, that the very word imports a 
being baptized with water. 

Answ. This objection is very weak. For since baptizing with 

water was a rite among the Jews, as Paulus Riccius 
show^eth, even before the coming of John ; and that the 
ceremony received that name from the nature of the prac- 
tice, as used both by the Jews and by John ; yet we find 
that Christ and his apostles frequently make use of these 
terms to a more spiritual signification. Circumcision was 
only used and understood among the Jews to be that of 
the flesh ; but the apostle tells us of the circumcision of 
the heart and spirit made without hands. So that though 
baptism was used among the Jews only to signify a wash- 
ing with water, yet both John, Christ, and his apostles, 
speak of a being "baptized with the Spirit, and with fire ;" 
which they make the peculiar baptism of Christ, as contra- 
distinguished from that of water, which was John's, as is 
above shown. So that though baptism among the Jews 
was only understood of water, yet among Christians it is 
very well understood of the Spirit without water : as we 
see Christ and his apostles spiritually to understand things, 
under the terras of what had been shadows before. Thus 


Christ, speaking of his body, though the Jews mistook him, 

said, " Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise 

it up ;" and many more that might be instanced. But if 

the etymology of the word should be tenaciously adhered 

to, it would militate against most of our adversaries, as 

well as against us ; for the Greek Bawl/^u signifies i7nmergo, -Barry^o), 

that is, to plunge and dip in; and that was the proper use ^i^l""g%%o 

of water baptism amono^ the Jews, and also by John, and p!u"]ge and 

. . . . . "^ dip in. 

the primitive Christians, who used it ; whereas our adver- 
saries, for the most part, only sprinkle a little water upon 
the forehead, which doth not at all answer to the word 
baptisrn. Yea, those of old among Christians that used Those mat 
water baptism, thought this dipping or plunging so need- water bap- 
ful, that they thus dipped children: and forasmuch as it V?'" ^'^''^j 

' , •' . . dipped and 

was judged that it might prove hurtful to some weak con- plunged, 
stitutions, sprinkling, to prevent that hurt, was introduced ; that were 
yet then it was likewise appointed, that such as were only ?"'y sprm- 

*' _ rr J ^ J [i^ied, were 

sprinkled, and not dipped, should not be admitted to have not admit- 
any office in the church, as not being sufficiently baptized. office°in"he 
So that if our adversaries will stick to the word, they must church, and 


alter their method of sprinkling. 

Fifthly, They object John iii. 5, " Except a man be born Obj. 5. 
of water, and of the Spirit," &c., hence inferring the ne- 
cessity of water baptism, as well as of the Spirit. 

But if this prove any thing, it will prove water baptism Answ. 
to be of absolute necessity ; and therefore Protestants 
rightly affirm, when this is urged upon them by Papists, The water 
to evince the absolute necessity of water baptism, that eraterfs"' 
watei- is not here understood of outward water ; but mysti- mystical 
cally, of an inward cleansing and washing. Even as where 
Christ speaks of being baptized with fire, it is not to be un- 
derstood of outward material fire, but only of purifying, by a 
metonymy ; because to purify is a proper effect of fire, as to 
wash and make clean is of water ; therefore the scripture al- 
ludes to water, where it can as little be so understood, as where 
we are said to be saved by the washing of regeneration, Tit. 
iii. 5. Yea, Peter saith expressly, in the place often cited, as *^",^''-^,f''' 

. 1- ■ book ot his 

^'Calvm well observes, "That the baptism which saves, is lnstit.,c.i5, 
35 3 b 





and medii 

Obj. 6. 


sion a seal 
of the first 

Waicr l)ap- 
lism falsely 
railed a 
liadgn of 

not the putting away of the filth of the flesh." So that 
since water cannot be understood of outward water, this 
can serve nothing to prove water baptism. 

If it be said, that water imports here necessitatem pm- 
cepti, though not medii ; 

I answer ; That is first to take it for granted that out- 
ward water is here understood ; the contrary whereof we 
have ah-eady proved. Next, water and the Spint are 
placed here together, " Except a man be born of water 
and the Spirit,^^ where the necessity of the one is urged as 
much as of the other. Now if the Spirit be absolutely ne- 
cessary, so will also water ; and then we must either say, 
that to be born of the Spirit is not absolutely necessary, 
which all acknowledge to be false ; or else, that water is 
absolutely necessary; which, as Protestants, we affirm, and 
have proved, is false : else, we must confess, that water is 
not here understood of outward water. For to say that 
when water and the Spirit are placed here just together, 
and in the same manner, though there be not any differ 
ence or ground for it visible in the text, or deducible from 
it. That the necessity of water is here pracepii, but not 
medii, but the necessity of the Spirit is both medii and pra- 
cepti, is indeed confidently to affirm, but not to prove. 

Sixthly and lastly ; They object. That the baptism of 
water is a visible sigfn or bads^e to distinguish Christians 
from Infidels, even as circumcision did the Jews. 

I answer; This saith nothing at all, unless it be ])roved 
to be a necessary precept, or part of the new covenant dis- 
pensation ; it not being lawful for us to impose outward 
ceremonies and rights, and say, they will distinguish us 
from infidels. Circumcision was positively commanded, 
and said to be a seal of the first covenant ; but as we 
have already proved that there is no such command for 
baptism, so there is not any word in all the New Testa- 
ment, calling it a badge of Christianity, or seal of the new 
covenant : and therefore to conclude it is so, because cir- 
cumcision was so, unless some better proof be alleged for 
it, is miserably to beg the question. The professing of 


faith in Christ, and a holy life answering thereunto, is a far Which is 
better badge of Christianity than any outward washing ; of chH^-^ 
which yet answers not to that of circumcision, since that tiamty. 
affixed a character in the flesh, which this doth not': so 
that a Christian is not known to be a Christian by his be- 
ing baptized, especially when he was a child, unless he 
tell them so much : and may not the professing of faith in What the 
Christ signify that as well ? I know there are divers of of water 
those called the Fathers, that speak much of water bap- '',^j''^i"\! 
tism, calling it Characterem Christianitatis : but so did sign of the 
they also of the sign of the cross, and other such things, 
justly rejected by Protestants. For the mystery of iniquity, Heathenish 
which began to work in the apostles' days, soon spoiled hnroducea* 
the simplicity and purity of the Christian worship : inso- '"fo.^^® 

, , 1 T • , • -11 Christian 

much that not only many Jewish rites were retained, but worship, 
many heathenish customs and ceremonies introduced into 
the Christian worship ; as particularly that word sacrament. 
So that it is a great folly, especially for Protestants, to 
plead any thing of this from tradition or antiquity ; for we 
find that neither Papists nor Protestants use those rites 
exactly as the ancients did ; who in such things, not walk- 
ing by the most certain rule of God's Spirit, but doting too 
much upon externals, were very uncertain. For most of 
them all, in the primitive times, did wholly plunge and 
dip those they baptized, which neither Papists, nor most 
Protestants, do : yea, several of the Fathers accused some 
as heretics in their days, for holding some principles com- 
mon with Protestants concerning it ; as particularly Au- 
gustine doth the Pelagians, for saying that infants dying 
unbaptized may be saved. And the Manichees were con- 
demned, for denying that grace is universally given by 
baptism ; and Julian the Pelagian by Augustine, for deny- Exorcism 
ing exorcism and insufflation in the use of baptism: all °^on.''""' 
which things Protestants deny also. So that Protestants 
do but foolishly to upbraid us, as if we could not show 
any among the ancients that denied water baptism ; see- 
ing they cannot show any, whom they acknowledge not to 
have been heretical in several things, that used it ; nor yet. 


The sign of who using It, did not also use the sign of the cross, and 

other things with it, which they deny. There were some 

Many in nevertlieless in the darkest times of Popery, svho testified 

tesi^fied" against water baptism. For one Alanus, pag. 103, 104, 

against wa- ^07, speaks of some in his time that were burnt for the 
ter bap- . . 

ism. denying of it : for they said, That baptism had no efficacy, 

either in children or adult persons ; and therefore men 
were not obliged to take baptism : particularly ten ca- 
nonics, so called, were burnt for that crime, by the order 
of king Robert of France. And P. Pithseus mentions it in 
his fragments of the history of Guienne, which is also con- 
firmed by one Johannes Floracensis, a monk, who was 
famous at that time, in his epistle to Oliva, abbot of the 
Ausonian church: "I will," saith he, "give you to under- 
Ten canon- stand concerning the heresy that was in the city of Orleans 
at Orleans, ^n Childermas-day ; for it was true, if ye have heard any 
and why? thing, that king Robert caused to be burnt alive near four- 
teen of that city, of the chief of their clergy, and the more 
noble of their laics, who were hateful to God, and abomin- 
able to heaven and earth ; for they did stiffly deny the 
grace of holy baptism, and also the consecration of the 
Lord's body and blood." The time of this deed is noted 
in these words by Papir. Masson, in his Annals of France, 
lib. iii. ; in Hugh and Robert, Actum Aurelice publice anno 
Incarnacionis Domini 1022; Regni Roberti Regis 28; In- 
dictione 5, quando Stephanus Haresiarcha Sf Complices ejus 
damnati sunt &f exusti Aureli(B. 

Now for their calling them Heretics and Manichees, we 
have nothing but the testimony of their accusers, which 
will no more invalidate their testimony for this truth against 
the use of water baptism, or give more ground to charge 
us, as being one with the Manichees, than because some, 
called by them Manichees, do agree with Protestants in 
some things, that therefore Protestants are Manichees or 
Heretics, w-hich Protestants can no ways shun. For the 
question is, Whether, in what they did, they walked ac- 
cording to the truth testified of by the Spirit in the holy 
scriptures? So that the controversy is brought back again 


to the scriptures, according to which, I suppose, I have 
already discussed it. 

As for the latter part of the thesis, denying the use of The bap- 
infant baptism, it necessarily follows from what is above fjj^„g ^ 
said. For if water baptism be ceased, then surely baptiz- human tra 
ing of infants is not warrantable. But those that take 
upon them to oppose us in this matter, will have more to 
do as to this latter part : for after they have done what 
they can to prove water baptism, it remains for them to 
prove that infants ought to be baptized. For he that 
proves water baptism ceased, proves that infant baptism is 
vain : but he that should prove that water baptism con- 
tinues, has not thence proved that infant baptism is neces- 
sary ; that needs something further. And therefore it was 
a pitiful subterfuge of Nic. Arnoldus against this, to say, 
That the denying of infant baptism belonged to the gan- 
grene of the Anabaptists, without adding any further 


Concerning the Communion, or Participation of the Body 
and Blood of Christ. 

The communion of the body and blood of Christ is inward i Cor. i. 

and spiritual, which is the participation of his flesh and joimvi. 39 

blood, by which the inward man is daily nourished in 33, 35. 

' -^ . . ^ 1 Cor. V. 8. 

the hearts of those in whom Christ dwells. Of which 

things the breaking of bread by Christ with his disciples 
was a figure, which even they who had received the sub- 
stance used in the church for a time, for the sake of the 
weak; even as abstaining from things strangled, and from Acts xv. 20. 
blood, the washing one another's feet, and the anointing 14. 
of the sick with oil: all which are commanded with no James v. 
less authority and solemnity than the former ; yet seeing 
they are but shadows of better things, they cease in 
such as have obtained the substance. 



The body 
and blood 
of Christ is 



What the 
seed is, 
and also 
now, life 
and salva- 
tion was 
and is com- 

§ I. The communion of the body and blood of Christ 
is a mystery hid from all natural men, in their first fallen 
and degenerate state, which they cannot understand, reach 
to, nor comprehend, as they there abide ; neither, as they 
there are, can they be partakers of it, nor yet are they able 
to discern the Lord's body. And forasmuch as the Chris- 
tian world, so called, for the most part hath been still 
labouring, working, conceiving and imagining, in their 
own natural and unrenewed understandings, about the 
things of God and religion ; therefore hath this mystery 
been much hid and sealed up from them, while they have 
been contending, quarrelling and fighting one with another 
about the mere shadow, outside and form, but strangers to 
the substance, life and virtue. 

§ II. The body then of Christ, which believers partake 
of, is spiritual, and not carnal; and his blood, which they 
drink of, is pure and heavenly, and not human or element- 
ary, as Augustine also affirms of the body of Christ, which 
is eaten, in his Tractat., Psal. xcviii., "Except a man eat 
my flesh, he hath not in him life eternal:" and he saith, 
" The words which I speak unto you are Spirit and life ; 
understand spiritually what I have spoken. Ye shall not 
eat of this body which ye see, and drink this blood which 
they shall spill, which crucify me — I am the living bread, 
who have descended from heaven. He calls himself the 
bread^ who descended from heaven, exhorting that we 
might believe in him," &c. 

If it be asked then, What that body, what that flesh and 
blood is ? 

I answer ; It is that heavenly seed, that divine, spiritual, 
celestial substance, of which we spake before in the fifth 
and sixth propositions. This is that spiritual body of 
Christ, whereby and through which he communicateth life 
to men, and salvation to as many as believe in him, and re- 
ceive him ; and whereby also man comes to have fellow- 
ship and communion with God. This is proved from the 
6th of John, from verse 32, to the end, where Christ speaks 
more at large of this matter, than in any other place : and 


indeed this evangelist and beloved disciple, who lay in the 
bosom of our Lord, gives us a more full account of the 
spiritual sayings and doctrine of Christ than any other : and 
'tis observable, that though he speaks nothing of the cere- 
mony used by Christ of breaking bread with his disciples, 
neither in his evangelical account of Christ's life and suf- 
ferings, nor in his epistles ; yet he is more large in this 
account of the participation of the body, flesh and blood 
of Christ, than any of them all. For Christ, in this chap- 
ter, perceiving that the Jews did follow him for love of the 
loaves, desires them, verse 27, to '< labour not for the meat 
which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth for 
ever :" but forasmuch as they, being carnal in their appre- 
hensions, and not understanding the spiritual language and 
doctrine of Christ, did judge the manna, which Moses 
gave their fathers, to be the most excellent bread, as 
coming from heaven ; Christ, to rectify that mistake, and 
better inform them, affirmeth. First, That it is not Moses, 
but his Father, that giveth the true bread from heaven, 
vers. 32 and 48. Secondly, This bread he calls himself, 
rers. 35, "I am the bread of life:" and vers. 51, "I am 
the living bread, w^hich came down from heaven." Thirdly, 
He declares that this bread is his flesh, vers. 51, "The The origin, 
bread that I will give, is my flesh;" and vers. 55, " For effects of 
my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed." 'lie body, 

•' . . nesli and 

Fourthly, The necessity of partaking thereof, vers. 53, blood of 
"Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink 
his blood, ye have no life in you." And lastly. The blessed 
fruits and necessary effects of this communion of the body 
and blood of Christ, vers. 33, '< This bread giveth life to 
the world." Vers. 50, He that eateth thereof, dieth 
not. Vers. 58, "He that eateth of this bread shall live 
for ever." Vers. 54, Whoso eateth this flesh, and drink- 
eth this blood, shall live for ever. Vers. 56, And he 
dwelleth in Christ, and Christ in him. Vers. 57, And 
shall live by Christ. From this large description of the 
origin, nature, and effects of this body, flesh and blood of 
Christ, it is apparent that it is spiritual, and to be under- 



stood of a spiritual body, and not of that body, or temple 
of Jesus Christ, which was born of the Virgin Mary, and 
in which he walked, lived, and suffered in the huid of 
Judea ; because it is said, that it came down from heaven, 
yea, that it is he that came down from heaven. Now all 
Christians at present generally acknowledge, that the out- 
ward body of Christ came not down from heaven ; neither 
was it that part of Christ which came down from heaven. 
And to put the matter out of doubt, when the carnal Jews 
would have been so understanding it, he tells them plainly, 
ver. 63, " It is the Spirit that quickeneth, but the flesh 
.Solid rea- profiteth nothing." This is also founded upon most sound 
is"hyspTrU. ^^^ ^°^'^ reason ; because it is the soul, not the body, that 
ual body is to be nourished by this flesh and blood. Now outward 
speaiss of. flesh cannot nourish nor feed the soul ; there is no propor- 
tion nor analogy betwixt them; neither is the communion 
of the saints with God by a conjunction and mutual par- 
1 Cor. vi. ticipation of flesh, but of the Spirit: "He that is joined 
to the Lord is one Spirit," not one flesh. For the flesh (I 
mean outward flesh, even such as was that wherein Christ 
lived and walked when upon earth ; and not flesh, when 
transformed by a metaphor, to be understood spiritually) 
can only partake of flesh, as spirit of spirit: as the body 
cannot feed upon spirit, neither can the spirit feed upon 
flesh. And that the flesh here spoken of is spiritually to 
be understood, appears further, inasmuch as that which 
feedeth upon it shall never die ; but the bodies of all men 
once die ; yea, it was necessary that the body of Christ him- 
self should die. That this body, and spiritual flesh and 
blood of Christ, is to be understood of that divine and hea- 
venly seed, before spoken of by us, appears both by the 
nature and fruits of it. First, it is said, it is that which 
Cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world : 
now this answers to that light and seed, which is testified 
This spirit- of, John i., to be the light of the world, and the life 
'^!!li ''^'^!i • of men. For that spiritual light and seed, as it receives 

and seed is id' 

as ijread lo place in men's hearts, and room to spring up there, is as 

the hungry f , , , ' ^ . . i , • 

8oul. bread to the hungry and tamtmg soul, that is, as it were, 


buried and dead in the lusts of the world ; which receives 
life again, and revives, as it tasteth and parlaketh of this 
heavenly bread : and they that partake of it are said to 
come to Christ; neither can any have it, but by coming to 
him, and believing in the appearance of his light in their 
hearts ; by receiving which, and believing in it, the parti- 
cipation of this body and bread is known. And that Christ 
understands the same thing here by his body, flesh and 
blood, which is understood, John i., by the " light enlight- 
ening every man," and the life, &c., appears; for the light 
and life, spoken of John i., is said to be Christ ; "He is 
the true light:" and the bread and flesh, &c., spoken of in 
John vi,, is called Christ; " I am the bread of life," saith 
he. Again, They that received that light and life, John i. 
12, obtained power to become the sons of God, by believ- 
ing in his name : so also here, John vi. 35, he that 
Cometh unto this bread of life shall not hunger ; and he that 
believes in him, who is this bread, shall never thirst. So 
then, as there was the outward visible body and temple of Christ's 

T /^i • 1 • 1 1 ■ • • r 1 IT- ■ n T outward 

Jesus Christ, which took its origin irom the Virgin JVJary ; and spirit- 
there is also the spiritual body of Christ, by and through Jj-gij^. 
which He that was the " Word in the beginning with God," guished. 
and was and is GOD, did reveal himself to the sons of men 
in all ages, and whereby men in all ages come to be made 
partakers of eternal life, and to have communion and 
fellowship with God and Christ, Of which body of Christ, 
and flesh and blood, if both Adam, and Seth, and Enoch, The patri- 
and Noah, and Abraham, and Moses, and David, and all eat oHhe 
the prophets and holy men of God, had not eaten, they body of 
had not had life in them ; nor could their inward man have 
been nourished. Now as the outward body and temple 
was called Christ, so was also his spiritual body, no less 
properly, and that long before that outward body was in 
being. Hence the apostle saith, 1 Cor. x. 3, 4, that the 
" Fathers did all eat the same spiritual meat, and did all 
drink the same spiritual drink : for they drank of that spiritual 
rock that followed them, and that rock was Christ." This 
cannot be understood otherwise than of this spiritual body 



of Christ ; which spiritual body of Christ, though it was 
the saving food of the rigliteous both before the law and 
under the law ; yet under the law it was veiled and sha- 
dowed, and covered under divers types, ceremonies, and 
observations ; yea, and not only so, but it was veiled and 
hid, in some respect, under the outward temple and body 
of Christ, or during the continuance of it ; so that the Jews 
could not understand Christ's preaching about it while on 
earth ; and not the Jews only, but many of his disciples, 

John vi. 60, judging it a hard saying, murmured at it ; and many 
from that time went back from him, and walked no more 
with him. I doubt not but that there are many also at 
this day, professing to be the disciples of Christ, that do 
as little understand this matter as those did, and are as apt 
to be offended, and stumble at it, while they are gazing 
and following after the outward body, and look not to that 
by which the saints are daily fed and nourished. For 
as Jesus Christ, in obedience to the will of the Father, 
did by the eternal Spirit offer up that body for a propitia- 

The divine tion for the remission of sins, and finished his testimony 

light ot 111- c ^ r ■ 

Christ doth upon earth thereby, in a most periect example oi patience, 
hint's par- resignation and holiness, that all might be made partakers 
takers of of the fruit of that sacrifice ; so hath he likewise poured 
forth into the hearts of all men a measure of that divine 
light and seed wherewith he is clothed ; that thereby, reach- 
ing unto the consciences of all, he may raise them up out 
of death and darkness by his life and light, and thereby 
may be made partakers of his body, and therethrough 
come to have fellowship with the Father and with the Son, 
Quest. § III. If it be asked, How and after what manner man 

comes to partake of it, and to be fed by it .'' 
Answ. I answer in the plain and express words of Christ, " I 

John vi. 35, am the bread of life," saith he; "he that cometh to me 

&.nQ 55 

shall never hunger ; he that believeth in me shall never 
thirst." And again, "For my flesh is meat Indeed, and 
my blood is drink indeed." So whosoever thou art that 
askest this question, or readest these lines, whether thou 
accountest thyself a believer, or really feelest, by a certain 


and sad experience, that thou art yet in the unbelief, and 
findest that the outward body and flesh of Christ is so far 
from thee, that thou canst not reach it, nor feed upon it ; 
yea, though thou hast often swallowed down and taken in 
that which the Papists have persuaded thee to be the real 
flesh and blood of Christ, and hast believed it to be so, 
though all thy senses told thee the contrary ; or, being a 
Lutheran, hast taken that bread, in and with and under The Lu- 
which the Lutherans have assured thee that the flesh and ''"^rans 

and Calvin- 

blood of Christ is ; or, being a Calvinist, hast partaken of ists' opin- 
that which the Calvinists say, though a figure only of the flesh and 
body, gives them who take it a real participation of the qi""'^,'^'- 
body, flesh, and blood of Christ, though they never knew the supper, 
how nor what way ; I say, if for all this thou findest thy 
soul yet barren, yea, hungry, and ready to starve, for want 
of something thou longest .for ; know that that light that 
discovers thy iniquity to thee, that shows thee thy barren- 
ness, thy nakedness, thy emptiness, is that body which thou 
must partake of, and feed upon : but that till by forsaking 
iniquity thou turnest to it, comest unto it, receivest it, 
though thou mayest hunger after it, thou canst not be satis- 
fied with it; for it hath no communion with darkness, 2 Cor. vi.u. 
nor canst thou drink of the cup of the Lord, and the cup 
of devils: and be partaker of the Lord's table, and the 
table of devils," 1 Cor. x. 21. But as thou sufferest that 
small seed of righteousness to arise in thee, and to be 
formed into a birth ; that new substantial birth, that is How the in- 
brought forth in the soul, naturally feeds upon and is i^^nourish- 
nourished by this spiritual body ; yea, as this outward birth ^^• 
lives not but as it draws in breath by the outward element- 
ary air, so this new birth lives not in the soul, but as it 
draws in and breathes by that spiritual air or vehicle. And 
as the outward birth cannot subsist without some outward 
body to feed upon, some outward flesh, and some outward 
drink, so neither can this inward birth, unless it be fed by 
this inward flesh and blood of Christ, which answers to it 
after the same manner, by way of analogy. And this is 
most agreeable to the doctrine of Christ concerning this 



matter. For as without outward food the natural body 
John vi. 53. hath not life, so also saith Christ, " Except ye eat the flesh 
of the Son of man, and drinW his blood, ye have no life in 
you." And as the outward body, eating outward food, 
Johnvi. 57. lives thereby, so Christ saith, that he that eateth him shall 
live by him. So it is this inward participation of this in- 
ward man, of this inward and spiritual body, by wiiich man 
is united to God, and has fellowship and communion with 
him. " He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood," 
Johnvi. 56. saith Christ, " dwelleth in me, and I in him." This cannot 
be understood of outward eating of outward bread ; and 
as by this the soul must have fellowship with God, so also, 
so far as all the saints are partakers of this one body and 
one blood, they come also to have a joint communion. 
Hence the apostle, 1 Cor. x. 17, in this respect saith, that 
they " being many, are one bread, and one body ;" and to 
the wise among the Corinthians he saith, " The bread which 
we break is it not the communion of the body of Christ.^" 
This is the true and spiritual supper of the Lord, which 
men come to partake of, by hearing the voice of Christ, 
and opening the door of their hearts, and so letting him in 
in the manner abovesaid, according to the plain words of 
the scripture. Rev. iii. 20, " Behold I stand at the door 
and knock ; if any man hear my voice, and open the door, 
I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with 
me." So that the supper of the Lord, and the supping with 
the Lord, and partaking of his flesh and blood, is no ways 
limited to the ceremony of breaking bread and drinking 
wine at particular times, but is truly and really enjoyed, as 
often as the soul retires into the light of the Lord, and feels 
and partakes of that heavenly life by which the inward man 
is nourished ; which may be and is often witnessed by the 
faithful at all times, though more particularly when they are 
assembled together to wait upon the Lord. 

§ IV. But what confusion the professors of Christianity 
have run into concerning this matter, is more than obvious ; 
who, as in most other things they have done, for want of 
a true spiritual understanding, have sought to tie this sup- 

Verse 16. 

The true 
supper of 
the Lord. 


per of the Lord to that ceremony used by Christ before his Man i? not 

death, of breaking bread and drinking wine with his disci- ceremony^ 

pies. And though they for the most part agree generally ?' breaking 
f , 1111- '^'■^^'i ^"<1 

in this, yet how do they contend and debate one against drinking 

another! How strangely are they pinched, pained, 'Hid Qi\"^g^^jjj 

straitened to make the spiritual mystery agree to that cere- use with his 

, . , . . disciples ; 

mony! And what monstrous and wild opinions and con- this only 
ceptions have they invented, to inclose or affix the body ^^J'^^^^ 
of Christ to their bread and wine ? From which opinion 
not only the greatest, and fiercest, and most hurtful con- 
tests, both among the professors of Christianity in general, 
and among Protestants in particular, have arisen; but also 
such absurdities, irrational and blasphemous consequences 
have ensued, as make the Christian religion odious and What 
hateful to Jews, Turks, and heathen. The professors of christian 
Christianity do chiefly divide in this matter into three r''^/T, 
opinions. Jews, 

The first is of those that say. The substance of the bread heathen. 

is transubstantiated into the very substance of that same '^'^'^,P/:, 

•' . pists faith 

body, flesh, and blood of Christ, which was born of the of Christ's 
Virgin Mary, and crucified by the Jews ; so that after the 
words of consecration, as they call them, it is no more 
bread, but the body of Christ. 

The second is of such who say. The substance of the The Lu- 
bread remains, but that also that body is in, and with, and faith, 
under the bread ; so that both the substance of bread, and 
of the body, flesh, and blood of Christ, is there also. 

The third is of those, that, denying both these do affirm, The Cal- 
That the body of Christ is not there corporally or substan- fmth. 
tially, but yet that it is really and sacramentally received 
by the faithful in the use of bread and wine ; but how or 
what way it is there, they know not, nor can they tell ; only 
we must believe it is there, yet so that it is only properly 
in heaven. 

It is not my design to enter into a refutation of these 

several opinions ; for each of their authors and assertors 

have sufficiently refuted one another, and are all of them 

no less strong both from scripture and reason in refuting 



each their contrary parties' opinion, than they are weak in 
establishing their own. For I often have seriously observed, 
in reading their respective writings, and so it may be have 
others, that all of them do notably, in so far as they refute 
the contrary opinions ; but that they are mightily pained, 
when they come to confirm and plead for their own. Hence 
I necessarily must conclude, that none of them had attained 
to the truth and substance of this mystery. Let us see if 
* Inst. lib. Calvin,* after he had refuted the two former opinions, be 
IV. cap. 7. j^Qj,g successful in what he affirms and asserts for the truth 
of his opinion, who, after he hath much laboured in over- 
turning and refuting the two former opinions, plainly con- 
fesseth, that he knows not what to affirm instead of them. 
For after he has spoken much, and at last concluded 
J.Calvin's "that the body of Christ is there, and that the saints must 
Christ's needs partake thereof," at last he lands in these words, 
flesh and g^^j.^ 3-2 a But if it be asked me how it is ? I shall not be 

blood un- ' 

certain. ashamed to confess, that it is a secret too high for me to 

comprehend in my spirit, or explain in words." H